Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

( www. niscair.res.in )

 

ISSN: 0379-5136  

CODEN :I JMNBF

VOLUME 32

VOLUME 32

JUNE  2003

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Impact of eddies on spatial distributions of groundfishes along waters off the northern Kuril Islands, and southeastern Kamchatka (north Pacific Ocean)

95-113

A.M. Orlov

 

 

 

Sea level changes in the central part of the Red Sea

114-122

S. A. R. Sultan & N. M. Elghribi

 

 

 

Currents in the Cochin estuarine system [southwest coast of India] during March 2000

123-132

K. Srinivas, C. Revichandran, P. A. Maheswaran, T. T. Mohamed Asharaf & Nuncio Murukesh

 

 

 

Spatio-temporal variations of optically active substances in the coastal waters off Orissa from Rushikulya to Dhamra (east coast of India)

133-140

R. K. Mishra, B. P. Shaw, S. K. Das, K.Srinivas Rao, S. B. Choudhury & K.H. Rao

 

 

 

Distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to physico- chemical properties in the Koycegiz-Dalyan estuarine channel system ( Mediterranean Sea, Turkey)

141-146

Nilgun Kazanci, Didem Oguzkurt, Sonmez Girgin & Muzaffer Dugel

 

 

 

Population dynamics of lizard fish Saurida tumbil (Teleostomi/Synodontidae) from Mumbai, west coast of India

147-150

A. K. Jaiswar, S. K. Chakraborty, R. Raja Prasad, R. Palaniswamy & Suneel Bommireddy

 

 

 

Effect of dietary protein level on its in vitro and in vivo digestibility in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustaceae: Penaeidae)

151-155

J. Syama Dalal, S. Ahamad Ali, K. Ambasankar & Promod Singh

 

 

 

Effect of wood apple Aegle marmelos, Correa (Dicotyledons, Sapindales, Rutaceae) extract as an antibacterial agent on pathogens infecting prawn (Panaeus indicus) larviculture

156-161

T. Citarasu, R. Rajajeyasekar, K. Venkatramalingam, P. S. Dhandapani & M. Peter Marian

 

 

 

Short Communications 

 

Biofouling deterrent activity of the natural product from ascidian, Distaplia nathensis [Chordata]

162-164

A. Murugan & M. Santhana Ramasamy

 

 

 

Intense blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum (Cyanophyta) in the open waters along east coast of India

165-167

R. Jyothibabu, N. V. Madhu, Nuncio Murukesh, P. C. Haridas, K. K. C. Nair & P. Venugopal

 

 

 

Conservation of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Reptilia/Chelonia) along the Nagapattinam coast, southeast coast of India

168-171

S. Bhupathy & R. Karunakaran

 

 

 

Heavy minerals in beach sands of Gopalpur and Paradeep along Orissa coastline, east coast of India

172-174

P. Behera

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 95-113

 

Impact of eddies on spatial distributions of groundfishes along waters off the northern Kuril Islands, and southeastern  
 Kamchatka (north Pacific Ocean)

A. M. Orlov

Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO), 17, V. Krasnosel’skaya,

Moscow, 107140, Russia

[ E-mail: orlov@vniro.ru ]

Received 11 March 2002, revised 3 March 2003

Distributional peculiarities of groundfishes, inhabiting the Pacific waters off the northern Kuril Islands and southeastern Kamchatka, where three quasi-stationary eddies occur, are considered in this paper. The possible influence of eddies on occurrence of groundfishes are discussed. Existing eddies off underwater plateau and small banks in the southern part of the study area provides specific environment (bottom relief, temperature, and currents) for fish inhabitation essentially differed from that of adjacent waters. Composition of ichthyofauna, off plateau area, is very specific. There are several species widely distributed in the North Pacific that were caught only within plateau area. Some species widely distributed within the Pacific waters off the Kuril Island and eastern Kamchatka are abundant only in the area off plateau and banks. Feeding aggregations of plankton-feeders Atka mackerel and Pacific Ocean perch (these species are targets of specialized fishery) occur here throughout the year, probably related to fine foraging conditions in the enlarged plankton biomass in the area. Pelagic larvae and juveniles of some fishes, permanently dwelling the area, probably grow there until settlement. The study area serves as nursery ground for some fishes, which spawn outside the area. Currents transport pelagic larvae and juveniles of these species from main spawning grounds (eastern Kamchatka and Paramushir Island coasts) to the south. The larvae fall into eddies, inhabit these waters until settlement, feed on plateau slopes and later with increase in size start reverse migrations. Thus, eddies affect occurrence and distributional patterns of various groundfish species, having different types of life cycle.

[ Key words : Distribution, eddy, groundfishes, underwater plateau, northern Kuril Islands, occurrence, southeastern Kamchatka ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 114-122

Sea level changes in the central part of the Red Sea

S. A. R. Sultan & N. M. Elghribi

Department of Marine Science, Faculty of Science, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar

[ E-mail : nadzak78@hotmail.com ]

Received 26 April 2001, revised 3 February 2003

Daily means of sea level and atmospheric forcing over a period of three years (1991-1993) at Jeddah are examined by spectral and regression methods. The analysis reveals the presence of a large annual and a semi-annual component in the time series. Average amplitudes of the two signals in the sea level changes are 19 and 8 cm, respectively, and account for 58 % of the total variance. The two signals are induced by the combined effect of wind stress and evaporation rate. Wind stress plays a major role in inducing the annual cycle. Sea level is inversely related to the evaporation rate only during the transition periods. Isostatic response of sea level is limited, 4 % of the total variance, and is frequency dependent with observed period of 9 days. Analysis of daily residuals shows that about 78 % of the variance can be modeled by a first order auto-regressive model AR (1).

[ Key words : Atmospheric pressure, evaporation, Jeddah, Red Sea, sea level, steric , wind stress ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 123-132

Currents in the Cochin estuarine system [southwest coast of India] during March 2000

*K. Srinivas, C. Revichandran, T.J. Thottam, P. A. Maheswaran, T. T. Mohamed Asharaf & Nuncio Murukesh

National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, P.O.Box-1616, Cochin-682 014, India

*[ E-mail:srinivas_kantha@rediffmail.com ]

Received 1 February 2002, revised 24 March 2003

Analysis of current meter data collected in the Cochin estuarine system (southwest coast of India) has been made, to understand variations of currents in the estuary for spring and neap tidal phases during March 2000. The currents were strongest at an interior station as compared to stations close to the mouth of the estuary. The currents were also found to be rectilinear in nature at most of the stations. The observed currents were dominated by tidal signals - spring phase was dominated by semi-diurnal and neap phase by diurnal tidal currents.

[ Key words: Cochin estuarine system, currents, progressive vector diagrams, tides ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 133-140

Spatio-temporal variation of optically active substances in the coastal waters off Orissa from Rushikulya to Dhamra
(east coast of India)

R. K. Mishra & B. P. Shaw*

Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar 751 023, Orissa, India

and

S. K. Das, K. Srinivas Rao, S. B. Choudhury & K. H. Rao

National Remote Sensing Agency, Balanagar, Hyderabad-500037, AP, India

*[ E-mail : b p shaw@yahoo.com ]

Received 28 December 2001, revised 27 February 2003

Surface concentration of gelbstoff and vertical structure of chlorophyll-a (chl-a) and pheophytin-a were determined in coastal waters off Orissa along five transects. Depth-dependent concentrations of NO3- and PO43- at several stations along the Paradip transect (Tr.), Tr.-IV were also studied. The concentration of chl-a differed greatly between various sampling stations. Along a transect the concentration of the pigment was mostly higher in the near-shore waters (station depth  20 m) than in the offshore waters (station depth > 20 m). And irrespective of the depth of the sampling stations and the transects, the pigment was more concentrated towards the bottom than towards the surface (0 m) and sub-surface (10/15 m) layers of the water column. Similar to chl-a both NO3- and PO43- were found to be more concentrated towards the bottom than towards the surface of the water column, but none of them really regulated the growth of phytoplankton. Pheophytin-a constituted mostly less than 5-7 % of the total chl-a value in the surface waters, and the concentration of gelbstoff differed greatly in time and space. Secchi-disc transparencies indicated one attenuation depth (for light) of around 4 m and 7 m for the near-shore and the offshore waters, respectively, suggesting the use of only the surface chl-a value for validation of the satellite derived values for the pigment. The study also indicated that chl-a retrieval from the satellite image need not be corrected for the presence of pheophytin-a because of its low presence in the surface waters, but must be corrected for interference by the presence of high concentration of the gelbstoff.

[ Key words: Chl-a, Orissa coast, gelbstoff, nitrate, pheophytin-a, phosphate, secchi depth ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 141-146

 

Distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to physico-chemical properties in the Köyceğiz-Dalyan estuarine channel system (Mediterranean Sea, Turkey)

Nilgün Kazancı1*, Didem Oğuzkurt1, Sönmez Girgin2 & Muzaffer Dügel1

Hacettepe University, Science Faculty, Biology Department, Hydrobiology Section, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey

2Gazi University, Gazi Education Faculty, Biology Section, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey

*[ E-mail : kazanci@tr.net ]

Received 16 April 2002, revised 7 April 2003

The Köyceğiz-Dalyan Channel system is located between the ectogenic, crenogenic and meromictic Lake Köyceğiz and the Mediterranean Sea. Twenty one species belonging to Bryozoa, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Polychaeta and Crustacea were found at 6 sampling sites from the channel entrance of Lake Köyceğiz to the Mediterranean Sea. The faunal assemblage of sampling sites 3 and 4 along the Dalyan Channel had the highest species diversity because of the almost similar effects of Lake Köyceğiz and the Mediterranean Sea on the benthic assemblages and stable salinity compared to the other stations. The distribution of species in the channel system is mainly affected by salinity, temperature, phosphate, Mg2+, DO (dissolved oxygen) and SO42-. Regular physical, chemical and biological monitoring of the channel system is recommended.

[ Key words : Benthic macroinvertebrates, distribution, estuary, Köyceğiz-Dalyan Nature Reserve,

Mediterranean Sea, physico-chemical variables, Turkey ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 147-150

 

Population dynamics of lizard fish Saurida tumbil (Teleostomi/Synodontidae) from Mumbai,
west coast of India

A. K. Jaiswar, S. K. Chakraborty*, R. Raja Prasad, R. Palaniswamy & Suneel Bommireddy

Fisheries Resource Management Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Seven Bungalows, Versova, Mumbai-400 061, India

[ *E-mail: sushanta123in@yahoo.co.in ]

Received 3 June 2002, revised 20 December 2002

Employing FiSAT technique the growth, mortality and relative yield per recruit of Saurida tumbil (Bloch) is reported in the present communication. The asymptotic length (L) and growth coefficient (K) were estimated as 605 mm and 0.73/y respectively. The total, natural and fishing mortality coefficients were 4.59, 1.20 and 3.39 respectively. The exploitation rate (U) and exploitation ratio (E) were calculated as 0.73 and 0.74 respectively. The length at first capture was 223 mm. The relative yield per recruit and biomass per recruit was estimated from the knife-edge selection of size at first capture. Emax was obtained at 0.58. The yield isopleth diagram shows that eumetric fishing can be achieved at E of 0.65 and Lc/L ratio of 0.38. The catch has shown fluctuations in the recent years and maximum length has already shown a decline indicating signs of growth overfishing. As the exploitation ratio is also very high, reduction in efforts is necessary.

[ Key words: Isopleth, lizard fish, mortality, stock assessment, yield ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 151-155

 

Effect of dietary protein level on its in vitro and in vivo digestibility in the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

J. Syama Dayal, S. Ahamad Ali, K. Ambasankar & Pramod Singh

Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, (ICAR),

75, Santhome High Road, Raja Annamalai Puram, Chennai- 600 028, India

Received 26 April 2002, revised 3 March 2003

Protein being the most important and expensive nutrient in shrimp feed, determination of its appropriate level in relation to the digestive capacity of shrimp is essential in order to make the feed cost effective as well as to minimize the nitrogenous waste excretions. Six diets having different levels of crude protein (30-41 %) were investigated by in vitro digestibility method using the homogenate of hepatopancreas (digestive proteases) of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Peak digestibility of dietary protein was observed at 3 hours incubation. Maximum digestibility of protein (69.19 %) was recorded with diet having 35.28 % protein. The in vivo results in tiger shrimp (2.0 g) also showed that the weight gain in the shrimp was also highest at this dietary protein level. The average apparent protein digestibility was highest (76.02 %) in animals fed with diet having 35 % crude protein. The results of the study suggested that dietary protein for P.monodon can be lowered to 35 %, considerably reducing the cost of the feed and making it more environmental friendly.

[ Key words: Digestibility, enzyme studies, Penaeus monodon, shrimp nutrition ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 156-161

 

 

Effect of wood apple Aegle marmelos, Correa (Dicotyledons, Sapindales, Rutaceae) extract as an antibacterial agent
 on pathogens infecting prawn
(Penaeus indicus) larviculture

T. Citarasu1,4,†, R. Rajajeyasekar2, K. Venkatramalingam1, P. S. Dhandapani3 & M. Peter Marian1

1Marine Biotechnology Lab, Institute for Coastal Area Studies, Rajakkamangalam 629502, Tamilnadu, India

2Department of Zoology/Vocational Sericulture, S.T.Hindu College, Nagercoil 629003, Tamilnadu, India

3CAS in Functional Genomics, School of Biological Sciences, M.K. University, Madurai 625021, Tamilnadu, India

Received 1 January 2002,revised 24 March 2003

Aegle marmelos, an antimicrobial plant was extracted with 100% methanol and the sensitivity of the extract was assessed against different fish diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. For sensitivity test, the minimal bacterial population growth (10-20 %) was observed in the 40 mg/100 ml concentration of the culture medium. Different concentrations (25,50,75 and 100 %) of the extracts were enriched with Artemia franciscana nauplii/pre-adult. These were fed to the Penaeus indicus post-larvae (6.5 to 6.85 mg of average weight) for 25 days, which were reared with four different pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio sp.) inoculated seawater. Among the four pathogens, P.aeruginosa was very sensitive to A. marmelos extract. Penaeus indicus post larvae fed on the un-enriched Artemia exhibited the lowest survival, which averaged 21 %, and this increased to the maximum of 58 % (averaged) in the 75 % extract enriched Artemia fed post larvae of P.indicus. Similarly, the weight gain and specific growth rate were also increased significantly (P< 0.01) in the enriched Artemia fed post-larvae of P.indicus. Among the four different pathogens inoculated, the post-larvae, which were reared in the P.aeruginosa inoculation, exhibited the maximum survival (37.35 mg) and better growth rate (12.03 %). Also the bacterial count (cfu/g) was significantly (P<0.01) differed from the un-enriched to enriched Artemia fed post-larvae. The extract helped to reduce the bacterial count of a maximum of 1.9, 2.45, 0.96 and 2.36 times in the P.aerugiosna, A.hydrophila, S.typhi and Vibrio sp. respectively in the 100 % extract enriched Artemia fed post-larvae of P.indicus. Among the different percentages of enrichment, 75 % was considered the best for survival and growth characteristics of the post larvae.

[ Key words : Aegle marmelos, anti-bacterial, Artemia franciscana, Penaeus indicus ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 162-164

 

Biofouling deterrent activity of the natural product from ascidian,
Distaplia nathensis [Chordata]

A. Murugan* & M. Santhana Ramasamy

Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute, 44-Beach Road, Tuticorin-628 001, Tamil Nadu, India

[ *E-mail: a__murugan@hotmail.com ]

Received 24 June 2002, revised 13 December 2002

Growth of marine sedentary organisms causes notable damage to ship-hull, harbour structures and industrial cooling and filtration systems. TBT based antifouling paints are widely used worldwide and is to be phased out by the year 2008 because of its adverse effect on non-target organisms. Efforts are therefore being made to develop alternative eco-friendly antifoulant paints. The crude methanol: water extract of the ascidian, Distaplia nathensis showed antimicrobial activity against 12 out of 14 bacteria screened in the present study. At a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, the crude extract completely inhibited the byssal production and attachment in the mussel Perna indica. The EC50 and LC50 were found to be 50±6.45 µg/ml and 150±19.2 µg/ml respectively. The gradient partition showed high polar nature of the active component. The indication of non-toxic nature of the extract in the toxicity assay and the broad spectral antimicrobial activity has revealed that it could be a potential source of the antifouling compound.

[ Key words: Antifouling, ascidian, bioactive compounds, Distaplia nathensis ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 165-167

 

Intense blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum (Cyanophyta) in the open waters along east coast of India

*R. Jyothibabu, N. V. Madhu, Nuncio Murukesh, P. C. Haridas, K. K.C.Nair & P. Venugopal

National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Kochi-682014, Kerala, India

[ *E-mail- babu@niokochi.org ]

Received 15 April 2002, revised 10 March 2003

Two blooms of Trichodesmium erythraeum were observed during April 2001, in the open waters of Bay of Bengal and this is the first report from this region. The locations of the bloom were off Karaikkal (1058N, 8150E) and off south of Calcutta (19 44N, 89 04), both along east coast of India. Nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate) concentration in the upper 30 m of the water column showed very low values. High-integrated primary production (Bloom 1- 2160 mgC m-2 d-1, Bloom 2-1740 mgC m-2 d-1) was obtained in these regions, which indicated the enhancement of primary production in the earlier stages of the bloom. Very low NO3-N concentrations, brownish yellow bloom colour, undisturbed patches and high primary production strongly suggested that the blooms were in the growth phase. Low mesozooplankton biomass was found in both locations and was dominated by copepods followed by chaetognaths.

[ Key words: Bay of Bengal, bloom, nutrients, chlorophyll a, primary production ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 168-171

 

 

Conservation of olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Reptilia/Chelonia) along the Nagapattinam coast,
 southeast coast of India

S. Bhupathy

Sįlim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON),

Anaikatti (PO), Coimbatore- 641 108, Tamil Nadu, India

[ E-mail: sb62in@yahoo.co.uk ; salimali@vsnl. com ]

and

R. Karunakaran

AVC College, Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu- 609 305, India

Received 3 June 2002, Revised 7 March 2003

Nesting and mortality of Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) was studied in 50 km beach stretch along the Nagapattinam coast during December 2000 to May 2001. Lepidochelys olivacea was common constituting 97.1 % of turtles recorded. This species emerged from sea for nesting during December and continued till April. The nesting of Lepidochelys olivacea was sporadic and the peak was observed in the second fortnight of February. The poor nesting (20 nests/ km) in the area could be due to high adult mortality (12 % females) due to incidental catch in the gill nets, and nest predation (> 90 %) by human. The Nagapattinam coast will not sustain the nesting population of Lepidochelys olivacea longer, if immediate conservation measures are not undertaken.

[ Key words: Conservation, olive ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, mortality, nesting ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(2), June 2003, pp. 172-174

 

 

Heavy minerals in beach sands of Gopalpur and Paradeep along Orissa coastline, east cost of India

P. Behera

Deprtment of Geology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751 004, Orissa, India

[ E-mail : pn_behera@indiatimes.com ]

Received 29 March 2001, revised 27 February 2003

Selective sand samples were collected from Gopalpur and Paradeep beaches and studied for their heavy mineral assemblage. Beachsands of both the areas contain heavy minerals like sillimanite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, rutile, sphene, biotite, hornblende, zircon and monazite. At Gopalpur, the percentage of concentration of sillimanite is the highest followed by limonite, garnet, pyroxene, rutile, sphene, biotite, hornblende, zircon and monazite. At Paradeep, almost similar trend was observed with some exceptions, i.e., concentration of pyroxene and biotite is more here. The mineral sphene was absent at Paradeep, whereas tourmaline was negligible at Gopalpur. Higher grade percentage of heavies at Gopalpur is linked with many favourable factors and is being mined by IREL whereas low grade percentage at Paradeep discourages mining.

[ Key words : Beach sands, Gopalpur beach, heavy minerals, Orissa, Paradeep beach ]

 

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