Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

ISSN: 0379-5136  

CODEN :I JMNBF

VOLUME 32

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2003

 

CONTENTS

Papers

 

Recent sea surface temperature variability in the coastal regions of the north Indian Ocean

O. P. Singh & Majajul Alam Sarker

7-13

 

 

Propagation of tides in the Cochin estuarine system, southwest coast of India

K. Srinivas, C. Revichandran, P. A. Maheswaran, T. T. Mohamed Asharaf & Nuncio Murukesh

14-24

 

 

Prediction of tides using hydrodynamic and neural network approaches

N. Vivekanandan & C.B. Singh

25-30

 

 

Morphology and sediment movement in a monsoon influenced open beach at Gangavali,near Gokarn (central west coast of India)

M.S. Bhat, V.C. Chavadi & V.S. Hegde

31-36

 

 

Vegetation structure of Kachchh mangroves, Gujarat, northwest coast of India

G. A. Thivakaran, A. Saravanakumar, J. Sesh Serebiah, Justus Joshua, W. Sunderraj & V. Vijayakumar

37-44

 

 

Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in Coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

K. Padma Dorothy, B. Satyanarayana, C. Kalavati & A. V. Raman

45-51

 

 

The effect of sea brine and bittern on survival and growth of mangrove Avicennia marina (Dicotyledones : Avicenniaceae)

A. Tewari, H. V. Joshi, C. Raghunathan, R. H. Trivedi & P. K. Ghosh

52-56

 

 

Effects of industrial wastes on the growth and reproductive stages of macroalgae of Visakhapatnam coastline, east coast of India

S. B. K. Murthy & M. Umamaheswara Rao

57-66

 

 

Growth and mortality of Indian squid, Loligo duvauceli (d’Orbigny)

(Mollusca/Cephalopoda/Teuthoidea) from Mumbai waters, India

Nirmala S. Karnik, S. K. Chakraborty, A.K. Jaiswar, R.P. Swamy, R. Rajaprasad, S. Boomireddy & A. F. Rizvi

67-70

   

Pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility of Vibrio species isolated from moribund shrimps

Abhay B. Thakur, R. B. Vaidya & S. A. Suryawanshi

71-75

   

Effect of synthetic feed additive Stafac-20 on the growth characteristics of juveniles of white prawn Penaeus indicus (Crustacea/Penaeidea)

C. Sambhu & V. Jayaprakas

76-80

 

   

Short Communications

 

Antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus spp. isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture ponds

S. Balakrishnan, K. R. John & M. R. George

81-84

   

Stock assessment of small head hair tail Eupleurogrammus muticus (Gray)(Pisces/ Trichiuridae) from Mumbai coast

Anees Fatma Rizvi, Sushant K. Chakraborty & Vinay D. Deshmukh

85-88

   

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 7-13

 

 

Recent sea surface temperature variability in the
coastal regions of the north Indian Ocean

O. P. Singh & Majajul Alam Sarker

SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC), Abhawa Bhaban, Agargaon, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh

[ E-mail: smrc@bol-online.com ]

 

Received 3 August 2001, revised 7 October 2002

 

 

The coastal region of the Indian Ocean is more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In the present paper an at-tempt has been made to estimate the recent SST ( sea surface temperature ) trends in the coastal zones of the northern Indian Ocean. For this purpose the satellite derived grid point SST data for the period 1985-1998 has been utilized. The SST has shown consistent increasing trends in all the seasons in the coastal belts of Pakistan and the northwestern India upto Bombay (Mumbai). In the coastal regions of the islands the increasing trend is confined to the summer only. During the winter season the SSTs in the island regions have registered decreasing trends. This is indicative of an extension of the continental influ-ence towards the island regions. It has been found that the interannual mode of SST variation dominates the linear SST trends which is characterised by the Quasi Biennial Oscillations (QBO) and the El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) scale cycle. QBO having a periodicity of approximately two years and ENSO having a periodicity of about three to seven years are dominant oscillations of the tropical region. The results of the study can provide useful projections of the future scenario of SST trends and the associated impacts in South Asia.

 

[ Key words: Sea surface temperature (SST), interannual mode, quasi biennial oscillation (QBO), El Nino/ Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 14-24

 

 

Propagation of tides in the Cochin estuarine system,
southwest coast of India

*K. Srinivas, C. Revichandran, P. A. Maheswaran, T. T. Mohamed Asharaf & Nuncio Murukesh

National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, P.O.Box-1616, Cochin - 682 014, India

*[ E-mail:srinivas_kantha@rediffmail.com ]

 

Received 28 January 2002, revised 7 October 2002

 

 

Analysis of hourly data on sea level collected at four stations in the Cochin estuarine system has been made to under-stand the tidal and non-tidal sea level variations inside the estuary, for spring and neap phases during March 2000. Spring phase was dominated by semi-diurnal tides whereas neap phase was dominated by diurnal tides. Diurnal and semi-diurnal bands were together responsible for a high percentage of variance of the observed sea level. The dominance of shallow wa-ter tides was seen with increasing distance from the mouth. The sea level variance was dominated mainly by tidal signals, but the tidal influence decreased rapidly inside the estuary. Doodson’s Xo filter appears to be efficient for de-tiding the ob-served sea level time series.

 

[ Key words: Sea level, tides, meteorological residuals, estuary, Cochin ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 25-30

 

 

Prediction of tides using hydrodynamic and
neural network approaches

N. Vivekanandan* & C.B. Singh#

*Statistics Division, #Tidal Hydraulics Division, Central Water and Power Research Station,

P.O. Khadakwasla Research Station, Pune 411024, Maharastra, India

[ E-mail: anandaan@rediffmail.com ]

 

Received 30 July 2001, revised 8 October 2002

 

 

The Indian subcontinent with a long coastline distributed among nine coastal states and the islands group of Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshdeep Islands, requires prediction of tides at desired location, based on data from one place to another place, for planning and design needs, especially at interior of bays or at the vicinity of civil structures. There is no exact ana-lytical model that can predict tides at desired locations, since the phenomenon involved is uncertain and random in nature. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model provides a non-hydrodynamic mapping between given sets of input and output val-ues. Built-in-dynamism in network tracing, data error tolerance and lack of requirements of any exogenous input, etc, make neural network modelling attractive. This paper reports a study to predict tides at Navalakhi station based on reference sta-tion at Okha of Gulf of Kutch. The paper also shows show that the ANN results of prediction of tides at Navalakhi could be encapsulated in hydrodynamic model so as to save enormous efforts involved in CPU time as well as long duration of boundary conditions at Okha to be prescribed.

[ Key words: Artificial neural network, back propagation, conservation of laws, hydrodynamic, tide ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 31-36

 

 

Morphology and sediment movement in a monsoon influenced open beach at Gangavali,near Gokarn (central west coast of India)

*M.S. Bhat, **V.C. Chavadi & *V.S. Hegde

*Department of Civil Engineering, SDM college of Engineering and Technology, Dharwad-580002,Karnataka, India

**Geology department, Karnatak University, Dharwad-580003,Karnataka,India

[ E- mail : vshegde2001@yahoo.com ]

 

Received 13 December 2001, revised 16 December 2002

 

 

Morphological and grain size studies have been carried out at monthly intervals (February 1993 to February 1994) to understand sedimentation pattern. Eight study sites were selected for morphological studies and five for grain size studies. It is observed that the morphological changes are cyclic i.e. erosion during monsoon and deposition during fair-weather season. The beach has experienced a loss of about 951 m3/m-1, a gain of about 1677 m3/m-1 and hence a net gain of about 725 m3/m-1 of sediments along the line of transect (all the 8 stations together) over a period of one year. A secondary cycle of erosion is observed between December and February. In general, the sediments of the study area are fine grained, well sorted, and symmetrical and platykurtic in nature. Mean grain size decreases, sorting improves and percentage of fine sand, positively skewed grains increases from north to south (G1 to G8). Beach experiences moderate turbulent energy conditions and the sediment movement is towards south in this beach .The prevailing conditions in this beach are ideal for recreational development.

[ Key words: Beach morphology, sedimentation, grain size, longshore transport ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 37-44

 

 

Vegetation structure of Kachchh mangroves, Gujarat,
northwest coast of India

*G. A. Thivakaran, A. Saravanakumar, J. Sesh Serebiah, Justus Joshua, W. Sunderraj & V. Vijayakumar

Gujarat Institute of Desert Ecology, Bhuj-370 001, Gujarat, India

[ *E-mail: ga_thiva@rediffmail.com ]

 

Received 3 October 2001, revised 16 October 2002

 

 

Investigation was carried out in the Kachchh mangroves of Gujarat to delineate its structure in a coastal stretch of 300 km. A clear trend of salinity increase from Mundra to Kori creek could be observed. Mean creek water salinity ranged from to 38.8 to 41.5 ppt. Station-wise mean density of mature trees ranged from a minimum of 832/ha to a maximum of 1900/ha with tree heights reaching up to 10 m. Mean density of mature trees decreased in the order of Kori-Jakhau-Mundra-Medi-Laki. Height and GBH classes in the range of 1.6 to 3 m and 21 to 40 cm, respectively predominated in all stations. Among 5 major stations both maximum (491666/ha) and minimum (4545/ha) regeneration density were recorded at Jakhau. Density of recruitment class was fairly high at all the stations ranging from 2240/ha at Kori creek to 7783/ha at Medi. Mangroves of Kori creek had high regeneration potential as evidenced by high entry of recruitment class to mature tree category.

[ Key words: Arid zone, vegetation, avicennia marina, density, recruitment, regeneration, environmental parameters ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 45-51

 

 

Protozoa associated with leaf litter degradation in
Coringa mangrove forest, Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

K. Padma Dorothy, B. Satyanarayana, C. Kalavati & A. V. Raman

Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530003 (AP), India

&

F. Dehairs

Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Analytical Chemistry (ANCH), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium

 

Received 10 June 2001, revised 9 December 2002

 

 

Observations (1995-’96) on mangrove leaf litter revealed a variety of microorganisms dominated by bacteria (5 types), 12 species of flagellates, 2 sarcodines, 17 ciliates, 2 suctorids and 2 sessile ciliates besides several diatoms, nematodes and nauplii. Overall, bacteria outnumbered (4.59  105 no. g-1 dry weight) all others constituting 80-90% of the population fol-lowed by flagellates (4.8%), ciliates (4.4%) and, sessile ciliates (0.2%). Chromulina sp., Spumella socialis and Euglena acus (flagellates), Cyclidium sp., Prorodon sp., Euplotoides aediculatus and Zoothamnium sp. (ciliates) were relatively dominant (mean density 4,331 individuals l–1) in the litter collected from Avicennia plot. Flagellates, Astasia sp., Heteronema sp. and Paranema sp. and, ciliates, Prorodon sp., Holosticha sp. and E. aediculatus were, however, more common in Excoecaria (mean density 3719 individuals l–1). In situ experiments on leaf decay showed that the entire process lasted 12-18 days in summer and 26-32 days during monsoon. Bacteria were the first to settle, followed by nanoflagellates (2-20 m), microcili-ates (20-100 m), macrociliates (100-200 m) and sessile ciliates. Nematodes indicated culmination. Bacterial (mean) bio-mass registered highest value (6.43  10-3 mgC g-1) within 24 hours but decreased (3.1  10-6 mgC g-1) by day-3 to 5. Mean flagellate biomass peaked (32.6 mgC g-1) by day-2 and microciliates (92 mgC g-1) by day-5 in summer and (47mgC g-1) by day-24 during monsoon. Macrociliates registered highest biomass (168.4mgC g –1) by day-6 in summer but lagged behind until day-26 to day-30 (154mgC g –1) during monsoon. A distinct prey predator relationship, direct dependence of ciliate species on nanoflagellate and bacterial populations as well as, a well marked microbial community succession were evident.

[ Key words: Mangrove leaf litter, microorganisms, Protozoa, degradation, east coast of India ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 52-56

 

 

The effect of sea brine and bittern on survival and growth of mangrove Avicennia marina (Dicotyledones : Avicenniaceae)

A. Tewari, H. V. Joshi, C. Raghunathan, R. H. Trivedi & P. K. Ghosh

Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar-364 002, Gujarat, India

[ E-mail: salt@csir.res.in ]

 

Received 27 February 2002, revised 26 November 2002

 

 

The effect of 25.5°Be brine and 28.5°Be bittern prepared from 3.5Be seawater was studied on the juvenile plants of the mangrove Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh under greenhouse conditions. The maximum in elongation growth and percentage increase in number of leaves in 5 % concentration of brine was 35.0 mm and 200 % respectively. However for 5 % bittern they were 33.0 mm and 160 % respectively. The 50 % concentrations of brine and bittern were growth inhibitory while 100 % concentration was lethal during 8 hours continuous exposure for 10 days. The highest growth of the Avicennia marina was observed when brine and bittern were diluted between 20 and 200 times. The undiluted and 50 % diluted brine and bittern were lethal and growth inhibitory, respectively. The leaves were the best indicator of the inhibitory or lethal effects on the plants. The 1 to 5 % brine promoted the growth of the leaves while other concentrations were inhibitory or lethal. However, the bittern in the range of 9 ml l-1 and 1 to 50 % were growth inhibitory for leaves, while 100 % was lethal. The results indicate that discharge of brine and bittern in the marine environment, having semi diurnal tide cycle, will not be toxic or lethal to the plants.

[ Key words: Brine, bittern, Avicennia, mangrove, pollution, salt tolerance ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 57-66

 

 

Effects of industrial wastes on the growth and reproductive stages of macroalgae of Visakhapatnam coastline, east coast of India

S. B. K. Murthy & M. Umamaheswara Rao

Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, A.P., India

 

Received 8 January 2002, revised 20 November 2002

 

 

Experiments were conducted to understand the effects of effluents and sediment extracts of Hindustan Zinc Smelter and Alum factory, on the growth and reproductive stages of 9 macroalgae of the Visakhapatnam coast. In fully grown algae, growth inhibition was minimum at 0.001 or 0.01 % concentrations of HZE-I and II, HZR-I and II and AFE and AFR and maximum at intermediate concentrations (2.5-25 % HZE and R-I and 0.25-8.0 % HZE and R – II and AFE and AFR). Sta-tionary growth and death of algae was observed at highest concentrations tested. The toxic effects were more in HZE- II and HZR – II, than in AFE, AFR, HZE-I and HZR-II. Tetraspore production from one brown and 4 red algae and spore germina-tion decreased from 2.0-10.5 % HZE-1 and HZR-I and from 0.1-1.8 % of other wastes. Sporeling growth and survival were affected at concentration 4-150 times less than those observed for the fully grown algae. Among the 3 classes of algae tested, green algae were more tolerant to the industrial wastes, than the brown and red algae. These culture experiments in-dicated the damage caused by industrial wastes to macroalgal communities.

[ Key words : Industrial wastes, toxic effects, marine algae, growth, reproduction, Visakhapatnam coast ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 67-70

 

 

Growth and mortality of Indian squid, Loligo duvauceli (d’Orbigny)
(Mollusca/Cephalopoda/Teuthoidea) from Mumbai waters, India

Nirmala S. Karnik, S. K. Chakraborty, A.K. Jaiswar, R.P. Swamy, R. Rajaprasad, S. Boomireddy & A. F. Rizvi

Fisheries Resource Management Division, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Seven Bungalows, Versova,

Mumbai-400 061, India

 

Received 30 April 2002, revised 9 December 2002

 

 

The growth, mortality and exploitation ratio of Loligo duvauceli estimated by employing FiSAT Programme are re-ported. The asymptotic length (L) and growth coefficient (K) were estimated as 385 mm and 0.85 y –1 respectively. The to-tal, natural and fishing mortality co-efficients were calculated as 4.29, 1.82 and 2.47 per year respectively. The present ex-ploitation ratio is around 0.57. Relative yield per recruit analysis shows that the Emax is 0.49. Yield isopleth diagram reveals that yield per recruit can be maximized at the exploitation ratio of 0.5 and Lc/L values of 0.4. Reduction in fishing effort is required to maximize the yield per recruit of Loligo duvauceli in Mumbai waters. Increase in cod end mesh size of trawls and reduction in the present level of effort are suggested to sustain the fishery of Loligo duvauceli in Mumbai waters.

[ Key words: Asymptotic length, growth, mortality, Indian squid ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 71-75

 

 

Pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility of
Vibrio species isolated from moribund shrimps

Abhay B. Thakur, R. B. Vaidya & S. A. Suryawanshi

Department of Zoology & Department of Microbiology, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032, India

[ E-mail : abhaybt@hotmail.com ]

 

Received 26 April 2002, revised 11 December 2002

 

 

The population of Vibrios in diseased Penaeus monodon collected from culture ponds situated at Uran, Ma-harashtra (west coast of India) was studied. All animals collected were associated with more than one Vibrio species. Bacterial identification based on morphological and biochemical characteristics showed that four groups of Vibrios were present in shrimp hepatopancreas namely Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. anguil-larum and V. vulnificus. The diseased shrimps displayed poor growth, lethargic movements, red discolouration and mortality. Experimental infection of healthy P. monodon using the isolated Vibrios produced varying degrees of mortality. Antibiotic resistance of the iso-lated Vibrios were investigated. All the four species were sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol and Streptomycin. However, V. parahaemolyticus and V. anguillarum showed resistance to Oxytetracycline and Polymyxin-B respectively and V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were resistant to ampicillin. Hence, antibiotic application to control vibri-osis in shrimp farms may have limited effectiveness, based on the efficacy of the drug, because of the develop-ment of resistant strains of bacteria.

[ Keywords : Shrimp, antibiotic resistance, Vibrios, Penaeus monodon ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 76-80

 

 

Effect of synthetic feed additive Stafac-20 on the growth characteristics of juveniles of white prawn Penaeus indicus (Crustacea/Penaeidea)

C. Sambhu & V. Jayaprakas

Department of Aquatic Biology & Fisheries, University of Kerala, Karyavattom, P.O.,

Thiruvananthapuram- 695 581, India

[ E-mail : csambhu@yahoo.com ]

 

Received 18 December 2001, revised 4 October 2002

 

 

Juveniles of white prawn Penaeus indicus were fed with an antibiotic, virginiamycin containing feed additive Stafac-20 at concentrations of 40, 60, 80 and 100 g/kg through a fishmeal based supplementary feed having 40% protein. The growth study was carried out in nylon net hapa laid out in a brackish water pond for a period of 120 days. All diets containing Stafac-20 showed significant difference (P<0.01) in growth from that of the control with maximum growth (15.1  1.21g) in the diet containing 80 g/kg Stafac-20. A short term (30 days) laboratory experiment was conducted in fiberglass tanks to assess the feed utilization of prawns. Feed conversion efficiency, assimilation efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent nutrient digestibility were high in the prawn fed Stafac-20. RNA/DNA ratio in the muscle and hepatopancreas of prawns under Stafac-20 treatments were higher than control. Total protein content of the carcass increased while lipid, nitrogen free extract (NFE) and ash content did not vary from that of the control. Study showed that Stafac-20 stimulates the growth of P. indicus through enhanced feed intake, better nutrient digestibility and protein synthesis.

[ Key words: Stafac-20, growth, feed utilization, RNA/DNA ratio, P. indicus ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 81-84

 

 

Short Communication

 

Antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus spp. isolated from shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture ponds

S. Balakrishnan, K. R. John & M. R. George

Department of Aquaculture, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu

Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Thoothukkudi 628 008, T N, India

 

Received 11 February 2002, revised 21 October 2002

 

 

About 30 Bacillus isolates from various sources like shrimp intestine, pond water and pond sediment were assayed for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics, which included cell wall synthesis inhibitors, protein synthesis inhibitors and nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors. Most of the isolates were more sensitive against protein synthesis inhibitors than nucleic acid synthesis inhibitors. Present study showed that all the Bacillus isolates were sensitive to tetracycline and chloramphenicol, two com-monly used antibiotics in shrimp hatcheries and culture systems. This indicates that use of certain antibiotics would ad-versely affect these types of beneficial bacteria in shrimp aquaculture systems.

[ Key words: Antibiotic sensitivity, shrimp, Penaeus monodon, Bacillus ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(1), March 2003, pp. 85-88

 

 

Short Communication

 

Stock assessment of small head hair tail Eupleurogrammus muticus (Gray) (Pisces/ Trichiuridae) from Mumbai coast

Anees Fatma Rizvi†, Sushant K. Chakraborty & Vinay D. Deshmukh*

Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Fisheries University Road, Versova, Mumbai 400 061, India

[ E-mail : sushanta123in@yahoo.co.in ]

 

Received 21 March 2002, revised 8 October 2002

 

 

Based on the data collected from New Ferry Wharf, Versova and Vasai in the years 1997-99, the age, growth, mortality and stock assessment of small head hair tail, Eupleurogrammus muticus (Gray) is reported in the present communication. The growth parameters - asymptotic length (L) and growth coefficient (K) were estimated as 811 mm and 0.78 per year re-spectively. The average total, natural and fishing mortality coefficients were estimated as 4.36, 1.15 and 3.21 respectively. The yield isopleth diagram shows that eumetric fishing could be achieved at exploitation rate (E) of 0.68 and Lc / L value of 0.68. The present E of 0.73 is well beyond the optimum E of 0.50. Thus some management measures should be taken to prevent depletion of this resource.

[ Key words: E. muticus, age, growth, mortality and stock parameters ]