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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 

 

 

ISSN: 0379-5136

 

CODEN :IJMNBF

VOLUME 32

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER  2003

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

Assimilation of satellite altimeter data in a multilayer Indian Ocean circulation model

Sujit Basu, Vihang Bhatt, Raj Kumar & Vijay K. Agarwal

181-193

 

 

Simulation of coastal currents and river discharges in the south-eastern Black Sea

Ercan Köse, Coşkun Erüz, Abdulaziz Güneroğlu, Sebnem Erkebay &Yasar Gulten

194-201

 

 

Biosurfactants production by the quinoline degrading marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GU 104, and its effect on the metabolism of green mussel Perna viridis L.

Joanita Coelho, C. U. Rivonkar, N. S. Bhavesh., M. Jothi & U. M. X.  Sangodkar

 

202-207

 

 

Distribution and abundance of luminous bacteria with special reference to shrimp farming activities

T. Jawahar Abraham, S.A. Shanmugam, R.Palaniappan & K. Dhevendaran

 

208-213

 

 

Impact of turbidity on intertidal macrofauna at Gopnath, Mahuva and Veraval coasts (west coast of India)

C. Raghunathan, A. Tewari, H. V. Joshi, V. G. Sravan Kumar, R. H. Trivedi & Yasmin Khambhaty

 

214-221

 

 

Zooplankton biomass in the Straits of Malacca

H. Rezai, F.  M. Yusoff, A.  Kawamura, A. Arshad & B. H. R.  Othman

222-225

 

 

Marine protected areas in India

H. S. Singh

226-233

 

 

Short Communications
 

Temperature error in digital bathythermograph data

Thadathil Pankajakshan, G. V. Reddy, Lasitha Ratnakaran, J. S. Sarupria & V. Ramesh Babu

234-236

 

 

Insect foliovory in mangroves

K. Kathiresan

237-239

Mercury in zooplankton from the Malacca Straits

H. Rezai, F. M. Yusoff & C. K. Yap

240-243

 

 

Utilization of IRS P4 ocean colour data for potential fishing zone — A cost benefit analysis

Shailesh Nayak, H. U. Solanki & R. M. Dwivedi

 

244-248

 

 

Diel feeding periodicity, gastric emptying, and estimated daily food consumption of whelk (Rapana venosa) in the south eastern Black Sea (Turkey) marine ecosystem

Kadir Seyhan, Evren R. Mazlum, Hacer Emiral, Semih Engin & Sefa Demirhan

 

249-251

 

 

Length-weight relationship and relative condition of a silver biddy Gerres oblongus (Pisces: Perciformes) from the Jaffna lagoon, Sri Lanka

K. Sivashanthini & B. Abeyrami

252-254

 

 

Estimating dolphins weight: Some evidence of seasonality

Kuldeep Kumar

255-257

 

 

Sea mammals in marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat State, India

H. S. Singh

258-262

 

 

Errata

 

[Murugan & Ramasamy, I.J.M.S., 32 (2003) 162-154 ]

263

 

 

 

 Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 181-193

 

Assimilation of satellite altimeter data in a multilayer Indian Ocean circulation model

Sujit Basu, Vihang Bhatt, Raj Kumar & Vijay K. Agarwal

 

The present study was dictated by a curiosity to examine whether the forecast capability of a multilayer Indian Ocean circulation model can be improved by assimilating satellite altimeter data into the model. In the present investigation we have studied the assimilation of Topex/Poseidon (T/P) altimeter observed sea level anomaly data in a 2 1/2 layer thermodynamic model of the Indian Ocean. The model has been spun up for 7 years with climatological winds and heat fluxes obtained by 5 years average of monthly mean winds and heat fluxes from the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to achieve steady annual cycle. Thereafter, the model has been run further for 5 years (1995-1999) with interannually varying daily NCEP winds and heat fluxes so as to reach the initial state corresponding to 1st January of the experimental year 2000. Subsequently, the model has been run for the experimental year 2000. It has been able to produce the known patterns of current and SST in the Indian Ocean reasonably well. However, the model simulated sea level anomalies (SLA) do not compare well with observations. An attempt has been made to improve the simulation of SLA by assimilating highly accurate T/P altimeter data into the model using the techniques of blending and nudging. Both monsoon and non-monsoon cases have been studied. From the study it can be concluded that it is possible to provide reasonably accurate forecast of oceanic sea level variations in the short time scale (about 5 to 10 days) using this model of intermediate complexity forced by good quality forecast winds if satellite data can be properly assimilated into the model.

 

[ Key words : Altimeter data, assimilation, forecast, Indian Ocean circulation model ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 194-201

 

 

Simulation of coastal currents and river discharges in the south-eastern Black Sea

Ercan Köse, Coşkun Erüz, Abdulaziz Güneroğlu, Sebnem Erkebay &Yasar Gulten

 

 

In this study, development and evaluation of buoyant river plumes under the influence of the coastal currents and the guidance of topography in the south eastern Black Sea coast (Solaklı and Sürmene) rivers were analyzed. For simulation, the rivers are inputted as source of zero salinity in computer based simulation model CARDINAL, which uses depth averaged shallow water equation for two-dimensional conditions and the equations of non-steady boundary layer for three-dimensional conditions. The river plumes are examined with realistic topography and idealized wind conditions. In order to check accuracy of the simulation, temperature, salinity, current speed and directions were measured in 22 stations and then density was calculated by using UNESCO formulae. Comparison of the measurements and modeling of currents showed good agreement. When both buoyancy and wind are employed as external forcing, the circulation is influenced by the opposing tendencies for stratification. The present findings suggest that transport of low salinity waters depends on buoyancy in the vicinity of rivers and wind components away from river mouths.

 

[Key words: Black Sea, coastal currents, river discharge]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 202-207

 

 

Biosurfactants production by the quinoline degrading marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GU 104, and its effect on the metabolism of green mussel Perna viridis L.

Joanita Coelho, C. U. Rivonkar, N. S. Bhavesh., M. Jothi & U. M. X.  Sangodkar

 

Biosurfactants produced by bacteria in marine ecosystems are involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. In the present study, large-scale production of biosurfactants was demonstrated in a quinoline degrading marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain GU 104. Studies were also carried out in experimental set ups to understand the effect of biosurfactants, along with the metabolites of quinoline, on the physiology of the green mussel Perna viridis. Acetylcholinesterase (AchE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phenoloxidase and a-amylase activities from specific organs were analysed. The findings of the present study indicate that biosurfactant, as well as quinoline intermediates, produced by Pseudomonas sp. strain GU 104 do not have a significant effect on the physiology of Perna viridis.

 

[Key words: Biosurfactants, enzymes, green mussel]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 208-213

 

 

Distribution and abundance of luminous bacteria with special reference to shrimp farming activities

T. Jawahar Abraham, S.A. Shanmugam, R.Palaniappan & K. Dhevendaran

 

 

Quantitative and qualitative distribution of planktonic luminous bacteria in aquaculturally affected region of Tuticorin Bay, along southeast coast of India was studied. Luminous bacterial abundance ranging from 20 to 1050 cells/ml in nearshore seawater and 100 to 8,150 cells/g inshore sediment were recorded. A significant positive correlation was observed between the luminous bacterial counts and total viable counts of seawater in areas having intensive shrimp farming activities. Five different species of luminous bacteria namely Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, V. orientalis, V. splendidus biotype 1 and Photobacterium leiognathi were identified during this study with V. harveyi as the dominant species, comprising


 82-97 % of the total luminous population. These results suggest that intensive shrimp farming which largely contributed to luminous bacterial population strongly influences the distribution of planktonic luminous bacteria in nearshore seawater and probably alters the balance of autochthonous microflora in areas affected by shrimp farming.

 

[Key words: Farm effluent, luminous bacteria, shrimp farming, Vibrio harveyi,

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 214-221

 

 

Impact of turbidity on intertidal macrofauna at Gopnath, Mahuva and Veraval coasts
(west coast of India)

C. Raghunathan, A. Tewari, H. V. Joshi, V. G. Sravan Kumar,

R. H. Trivedi & Yasmin Khambhaty

 

 

The effect of highly turbid seawater on the distribution, biomass and species diversity of intertidal macrofauna was studied in Gopnath, Mahuva and Veraval coasts during October 1998 and June 1999. The concentration of total suspended solids and turbidity were very high at Gopnath (518-583 mg/l and 632-713 NTU respectively) and Mahuva (328-412 mg/l and 566- 621 NTU respectively) during the period of study. The species diversity was minimum at Gopnath (1.14) and maximum at Mahuva (1.86). However, the biomass of benthic organisms was maximum at Veraval and the values were 2.03-5.82 and 2.02-2.03 times more as compared to Gopnath and Mahuva respectively. The data for similarity index revealed that Gopnath and Mahuva were more similar during October and June than Gopnath, Veraval and Mahuva and Veraval. Astraea semicostata, Clibanarius clibanarius, Crassostrea cuculata and Littorina scabra recorded only from Gopnath and Mahuva where seawater was highly turbid. The results indicate that these species could be cultivated in the coastal areas where seawater is significantly turbid.

 

[ Key words: Intertidal macrofauna, turbid seawater, faunal diversity, biomass ]

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 222-225

 

 

Zooplankton biomass in the Straits of Malacca

H. Rezai, F.  M. Yusoff, A.  Kawamura, A. Arshad & B. H. R.  Othman

 

The distribution patterns of zooplankton biomass were studied using samples collected in vertical hauls during four oceanographic cruises in the Straits of Malacca between November 1998 and August 2000 with 140 µm-mesh and 45-cm diameter NORPAC net. The average zooplankton biomass during Cruise III (post-SW monsoon) and IV (SW monsoon) was almost twice that of Cruise I (NE monsoon) with maximum zooplankton biomass occurring during the Cruise IV. Biomass was generally higher in waters closer to the near-coastal areas than in the neritic areas. Higher zooplankton biomass values occurred in the central part of the Straits compared to other areas, although spatial and temporal variations of biomass were not significant. Run off of major rivers and the extensive mangrove forests in the coastal areas might have influenced higher biomass in the central part of the Straits.

 

[Key words:  Zooplankton biomass, distribution, Straits of Malacca, Malaysia]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 226-233

 

 

Marine protected areas in India

H. S. Singh

 

 

India has large coastal wetlands which cover an area of over 40,230 km2. Among various types of marine ecosystems, tidal mudflats, mangroves, estuaries, lagoons, beaches, marshes, vegetated wetlands and coral reefs have a major share. A total of 97 major estuaries, 34 major lagoons, 31 mangroves areas and 5 coral reef areas have been mapped and identified in India for conservation and sustainable use. There are a total of 31 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in India, primarily in marine environment, which cover a total area of 6271.2 km2 with an average size of 202.1 km2. East coast and Andaman & Nicobar Islands have adequate areas in the MPAs whereas west coast and Lakshadweep Islands have poor representation. Also, another 100 PAs (10 in main Indian coast and 90 island PAs in Andaman & Nicobar) have terrestrial or fresh water ecosystems which constitute boundaries with seawater or partly contain marine environment, but they are not listed as MPAs as per the criteria. Although, India has a very long coastline and varied coastal habitats, contribution of the MPAs is only 4.0 % to the total area of the Protected Areas (PAs) and 1.3 % of the continental shelf area of the country. The common issues and problems that need to be tackled urgently for ensuring an effective management setup of the MPAs of the country are discussed.

 

[ Key words: Coastal wetlands, marine protected areas, marine park, marine sanctuary ]

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 234-236

 

 

Short Communication

 

Temperature error in digital bathythermograph data

Thadathil Pankajakshan, G. V. Reddy, Lasitha Ratnakaran, J. S. Sarupria &  V. Ramesh Babu

 

 

Simultaneous Digital Bathythermograph (DBT) and Nansen Cast data collected during two cruises of R.V. Gaveshani (GV-117 and GV-118) and archived in Indian Oceanographic Data Centre (IODC) are used to determine existing temperature errors in DBT. The resulting mean error for DBT data from the GV-117 cruise varies from -0.5 to - 1 oC, while it varied between -0.3 and -0.6 oC for data from cruise GV-118. For both the data sets, the error shows consistently negative bias from surface to 800 m depth, however there is no apparent or measurable systematic dependence of the error on depth. Considering the given temperature accuracy of 0.05 oC, the observed DBT error, varying from -0.3 to -1 oC, is significant and such offsets should be removed from DBT archives. It is found that a corrective measure of +0.5 oC, equivalent to the mean surface offset obtained from two cruises, can considerably reduce the temperature error at all DBT depths.

 

[ Key words: Digital bathythermograph, Indian Ocean, temperature error, systematic bias]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 237-239

 

 

Insect foliovory in mangroves

K. Kathiresan

 

 

The insects cause extensive damages to mangrove leaves. The damages are visibly seen as holes, galls, necrotic spots, and incursions occurring along leaf margins. The predominant insect species are leaf-mining moth (Phyllocnistis sp.), leaf gall species (Stephaniella falcaria, Monolepta sp.), caterpillars (Dasychira sp., Capua endocypha and Odites spp.) and scale insects (Aspidiotus destructor). Avicennia species suffer more leaf damage than do Rhizophora species. This correlates negatively with tannin concentration in the leaves.

 

[ Key  words : Insect, Mangroves, Rhizophora, Avicennia, foliovory, herbivory]

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 240-243

 

 

Mercury in zooplankton from the Malacca Straits

H. Rezai, F. M. Yusoff & C. K. Yap

 

 

Total mercury concentration in mixed zooplankton was determined from near surface waters in Malacca Straits (05o 59¢¢ N, 99o 59¢ E and 01o 10¢ N, 103°  29¢ E). Total mercury concentrations in mixed zooplankton ranged from 1.12 to 4.68 ng dry weight g-1 with a mean of 2.08 ± 0.25 ng dry weight g-1 and showed a decreasing trend from nearshore to offshore areas. Higher mercury concentrations were found in nearshore waters (mean of 2.79 ± 0.49 ng dry weight g-1). Total mercury content was higher in the southern part of the Straits compared to the other parts. The zooplankton in the Malacca Straits environment is not heavily contaminated with mercury.

 

[Key words : Malacca Straits, mercury, zooplankton]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 244-248

 

 

Utilization of IRS P4 ocean colour data for potential fishing zone — A cost benefit analysis

Shailesh Nayak, H. U. Solanki & R. M. Dwivedi

 

IRS P4 OCM (Ocean Colour Monitor) derived chlorophyll concentration is being used along with NOAA AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) derived SST (Sea Surface Temperature) for Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ) forecast in the country. There is a need to compute cost benefit ratio to understand its impact on the fishing industry and to evaluate utilisation of OCM data for benefit of fishermen community. In order to compute cost benefit ratio, cost towards generation of forecast, expenditure towards fishing and profits from increased catch were considered. Actual fishing cost per unit was considered based on the fisheries survey made by different agencies and probable increase in catch was assumed based on PFZ validation experiment. An average receipt was found increased from Rs. 38428/ ($814/) to Rs. 65315/ ($1390/) for trawler and Rs. 1443/ ($31/) to Rs. 2742/ ($ 58) for gill-netter to PFZs users. The benefit cost ratio increased from 1.27 to 2.12 for trawling and 1.3 to 2.14 for gillnetting compared to non-PFZ users to PFZs users, respectively.

 

[ Key  words : AVHRR, fisheries, cost benefit, OCM,  PFZs ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 249-251

 

 

Diel feeding periodicity, gastric emptying, and estimated daily food consumptionof whelk
(Rapana venosa) in the south eastern Black Sea (Turkey) marine ecosystem

Kadir Seyhan, Evren R. Mazlum, Hacer Emiral, Semih Engin & Sefa Demirhan

 

Gastric emptying, food consumption and feeding periodicity of Rapana venosa were investigated under laboratory conditions and in the field respectively. Gastric emptying was best described by an exponential function, that was independent of meal size and the range of animal size when rapana were fed on fresh mussel. The fresh mussel (0.92-2.19 g) was fully digested by an average of 47 g rapana within the 6-8 hours. No change in feeding intensity was detected over 24 hours suggesting that rapana feed continioussly. Using gastric emptying rates from the laboratory studies, the data obtained from the field was converted to the food consumption estimates and concluded that an average of 50 g rapana in the eastern Black Sea marine ecossystem consume 0.17-0.30 g. mussel in a day, meaning that rapana in the eastern Black Sea marine ecosystem may cause an important predatory impact on the mussel beds.

 

[Key words: Food consumption, eastern Black Sea, Rapana venosa]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 252-254

 

 

Length-weight relationship and relative condition of a silver biddy Gerres oblongus (Pisces: Perciformes) from the Jaffna lagoon, Sri Lanka

K. Sivashanthini & B. Abeyrami

 

 

 Cultivation of Gerres oblongus is likely to be profitable because of the consumer demand. The values obtained for the mean weight by sex show that females were significantly (P<0.05) larger than males. Covariance analysis for length–weight relationships of male and female fishes reveals that there was significant variation between male and female fishes (P<0.05). The calculated length-weight relationships of W = 0.01127 ´ L2.958 and W = 0.015319 ´ L 3.126, obtained for males and females respectively. The exponent value, b=2.958 for males and b=3.126 for females, not significant from 3 (P>0.05) reflect an almost isometric growth in both instances. The relative condition of fish showed seasonal variation. The highest median values of average condition factor recorded from 175 to 225 mm total length clearly shows that G. oblongus would be in good condition if harvested at this total length range. Males, generally are in better condition than females. The low relative condition values in February to June indicate female G. oblongus spawn during February to June during which the breeding stock should be protected in order to maintain the sustainable exploitation of this species.

 

[Key words: Length-weight relationship, silver-biddy, relative condition, Gerres oblongus, covariance analysis, spawning]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 255-257

 

 

Estimating dolphins weight: Some evidence of seasonality

Kuldeep Kumar

 

A model for estimating the weight of dolphins is proposed by comparing the weights of dolphin kept in captivity with those in the wild. Consistent with the hypothesis, seasonality in dolphins weight was observed. Seasonal indices are obtained which reveal, average the weight of the dolphin varies in different months over a period of year.

 

[ Key words: Body weight, correlation, regression model, seasonal indices ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, pp. 258-262

 

 

Sea mammals in marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat State, India

H. S. Singh

 

Marine National Park and Sanctuary (collectively designated as Marine Protected Area or MPA) in the Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat State has coral reefs, mangroves, sea-grass beds, mudflats, network of creeks and other ecosystems which supports rich marine life, including sea mammals. Although a total of 13 sea mammals have been recorded, only small mammals like dolphins, porpoise and dugong visit shallow water areas of the MPA during high tides to collect food. In this study, three marine mammals-common dolphin (Delphinus delphinus), porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and dugong (Dugon dugon) were counted. Common dolphin has relatively good population in the western part of the MPA but other two species-porpoise and dugong are very rare. The study reveals that about one third of the total area of the MPA in this zone support about 80 % of the marine mammals which visit the area during high-tides. Unlike central and eastern zones, the western zone is relatively free from developmental activities like ports, jetties, petroleum industries and other human activities. Thus, this part of the MPA is key habitat for dwindling population of the marine mammals.

 

[ Key words : Sea mammal, mammal, coastal wetlands, Gulf of Kachchh, Marine Protected Area, dolphin,   dugong, porpoise]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 32(3), September 2003, p. 263

 

 

Errata

 

Paper entitled:

Biofouling deterrent activity of the natural product from ascidian, Distaplia nathensis [Chordata]

A.Murugan & M. Santhana Ramasamy

Indian J. Mar. Sci., ,32 (2003) 162-164

 

 

On page no. 162

Column 1: 2nd para: lines 1 to 3

 “ Specimens of Distaplia nathensis (Meenakshi, 1998) (Chordata; Urochordata: Ascidiaceae:
Ascidiaesimplices: Holozoidae) were collected from:”

 

 

Should be read as:

Specimens of Distaplia nathensis Meenakshi, 1998 (Chordata; Urochordata: Ascidiaceae:Enterogona
 Holozoidae) were collected from”