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Indian Journal of Marine Science

 

 

 

ISSN: 0379-5136             

 

CODEN : IJMNBF

VOLUME 33

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2004

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Oceansat-1 derived met-ocean parameters during various stages of monsoon depression of June 1999, along Orissa coastline, east coast of India

 

113-121

R. M. Khaladkar, P. N. Mahajan, S.G. Narkhedkar, Sathy Nair, P.K. Pal & P.C. Joshi

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 G01W 1/00 ]

 

 

 

Studies on the drift of ocean colour features using satellite-derived sea surface wind for updating potential fishing zone

 

122-128

R.Vinu Chandran, H. U. Solanki, R. M. Dwivedi, Shailesh Nayak, A. Jeyaram, & S. Adiga

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 G01P 13/02 , G01W 1/00 ]

 

 

 

Application of IRS-P4 OCM data to study the impact of tidal propagation on sediment dynamics in the Gulf of Kachchh

 

129-137

Yaswant Pradhan, A.S. Rajawat & Shailesh Nayak

 

 

 

Zircon and ilmenite from the beach placers of southern coast of Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

 

138-149

N Angusamy, V. J. Loveson & G. V. Rajamanickam

 

 

 

Long period waves in the coastal regions of north Indian Ocean

150-154

P V Hareesh Kumar & K V Sanilkumar

 

 

 

Sea level and currents in the upper reaches of the Cochin estuarine system during October 2000

 

155-163

K. Srinivas*, C. Revichandran, T.T. Mohamed Asharaf, T.J. Thottam, P.A. Maheswaran  & Nuncio Murukesh

 

 

 

Variation of water quality in Chilika lake, Orissa

164-169

B. K. Nayak, B. C. Acharya, U. C. Panda, B. B. Nayak & S. K. Acharya

 

 

 

Water quality, nutrient dynamics and sediment profile in shrimp farms of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh

 

170-176

M.L. Islam, M.J. Alam, S. Rheman, S.U. Ahmed & M.A. Mazid

 

 

 

Alkaliphiles in estuarine mangrove regions of Goa, (central west coast of India)

177-180

R.S. Desai, N.K. Krishnamurthy, S. Mavinkurve, & S. Bhosle

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 A01 ]

 

 

 

Factors influencing polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation in marine bacteria

181-186

T. Rawate & S Mavinkurve

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 C12Q 1/02 , C12P 1/04, C12P 39/00 ]

 

 

Environmental influences on the species diversity, biomass and population density of soft bottom macrofauna in the estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

 

187-193

Sadanand N. Harkantra & Nimi R. Rodrigues

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 A01 ]

 

 

 

Effect of thermal effluent discharge on benthic fauna off Tuticorin bay, South east coast of India

 

194-201

M.Kailasam & S.Sivakami

 

 

 

Short Communications

 

Effect of alkali treatment on the yield and quality of agar from red alga Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) occurring at different salinity gradient of Chilika lake

 

 

202-205

J. Rath & S.P. Adhikary

 

[IPC Code : Int.Cl.7 C08B 37/12 ]

 

 

 

Seasonal variation of some physicochemical parameters of the Chilika lagoon (east coast) of India after opening the new mouth, near Sipakuda

 

206-208

Lakshman Nayak & Durga Prasad Behera

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 113-121

 

Oceansat-1 derived met-ocean parameters during various stages of monsoon
depression of June 1999, along Orissa coastline, east coast of India

R M Khaladkar*, P N Mahajan, S G Narkhedkar & Sathy Nair and P K Pal & P C Joshi

 

After the launch of Oceansat-1 (IRS-P4) on May 26, 1999, weather scientists got the opportunity to study some of the meteorological and oceanographic (met-ocean) parameters associated with the weather systems formed over the oceanic regions around India, even under cloudy conditions. Oceansat-1 carries multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) which has a capability to provide information of certain parameters viz. sea surface wind speeds (SSW), sea surface temperature (SST), integrated water vapour (IWV) and cloud liquid water content (CLW). A monsoon depression was formed over the Bay of Bengal on 17 June 1999 causing widespread rainfall over Orissa coast and the adjoining regions. Oceansat-1 derived met-ocean parameters were studied during various stages of this depression. The maximum values of these parameters during the life cycle of the depression over the Bay of Bengal were SST : 30 - 31 C, SSW :


16-18 m/s, IWV : 7.0 g/cm2, CLW : 90-100 mg/cm2. It was observed that SSW, IWV and CLW show high values one to three days before the formation of the depression. High values, shape and steep gradients of the met-ocean parameters give prior indication of formation/intensification of the weather system and its probable location. SST reduced by about 1o-2 after the passage of the low pressure system over the region.

 

[Key words : Oceansat-1, met-ocean parameters, monsoon depression]

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 G01W 1/00]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 122-128

 

Studies on the drift of ocean colour features using satellite-derived sea surface
wind for updating potential fishing zone

*1R Vinu Chandran, H U Solanki2, R M Dwivedi2, Shailesh Nayak2, A Jeyaram1 & S Adiga3

 

Ocean colour features like chlorophyll fronts are widely used for the prediction of Potential Fishery Zones (PFZs). These mesoscale features are dynamic since ocean surface is always in motion. They tend to drift because of surface advective movements. The present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between wind speed and drift of ocean colour features, which can be used to update the location of PFZ mesoscale features. Ocean colour images from IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) were atmospherically corrected and Ocean Chlorophyll-2 bio-optical algorithm was applied to derive the sea surface chlorophyll. QuikSCAT (NASA) scatterometer wind data was obtained from the global 25 km2 gridded dataset. A mathematical relationship between wind speed and drift was derived. The relation was validated on a second set of time series images. Results show that the relation can be used for updating the location of PFZ features in the northeast Arabian Sea for up to 96 hr within an error of 12%.

 

[Keywords: Ocean colour, fishing zone, sea surface wind, OCM

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 G01P 13/02, G01W 1/00]]

 

 

 

Indian  Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 129-137

 
Application of IRS-P4 OCM data to study the impact of tidal propagation
on sediment dynamics in the Gulf of Kachchh

Yaswant Pradhan, A S Rajawat & Shailesh Nayak*

 

This paper reports observations with respect to suspended sediment dispersal pattern at various stages of the tide cycles using the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data, exploiting the high temporal resolution of two days and specific narrow spectral channels suitable to retrieve suspended sediment concentration. The shelf region of the Gulf, west of its mouth, plays a key role in sediment dispersal pattern within the Gulf of Kachchh as is evidenced by different linear shaped, clockwise and anticlockwise circulation patterns. The suspended sediments are transported as a V-shaped front into the Gulf during flooding conditions and as linear plumes fanning out of the Gulf during ebb conditions. Sediments are being transported into the Gulf along the northern shore from the Indus delta during flooding phase, whereas the southern shore gets sediments from the southern parts of the mouth. The study of sediment dispersal pattern led to dividing the Gulf of Kachchh into six zones, having characteristic sediment dispersal patterns. The information is useful for maintaining the approach channels of ports in addition to understanding dispersal of pollutants such as oil slicks under tidal influence.

 

[Key words: IRS-P4 OCM, suspended sediment concentration (SSC), tidal conditions, sediment dynamics]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 138-149

 

Zircon and ilmenite from the beach placers of southern coast of Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

N Angusamy, V J Loveson* & G V Rajamanickam**

 

Zircons were studied from the two different zones of enrichment of placer deposits namely, Kanyakumari-Kuttankuli (KK) and Kallar-Vaippar (VP) along the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The average heavy mineral contents were 67 wt % for KK and 64 wt % in VP region. The heavy mineral assemblage of the two zones were akin to each other. However, monazite was present in the KK region. In KK, zircons were rounded (44.5 63.2 %), overgrown (4.1-16 %), and euhedral (9-4.9 %) while in VP, they are largely broken (47.8-59.6 %), rounded (22.2-38.9 %), and euhedral (7.3-8.1 %). Mean length and breadth of zircons of KK and VP ranged from 0.22-0.26 mm and 0.07-0.13 mm and, 0.06 0.16 mm and 0.07-0.11 mm, respectively. Zircons of VP are more fine-grained and well-rounded than KK. The northerly currents, in the Gulf of Mannar, must have transported and deposited the heavy minerals due to the inflection of coastline, and downwarped basinal structure. REE pattern of zircons exhibit Eu and Ce anomalies which could be explained only in terms of crystallochemical factors and the bulk compositional differences of the melt. In the study area, abundance of rounded zircons, length/breadth (L/B) ratios, reduced major axis (RMA) angles, indicated that the source rock for zircons must have been primarily of charnockites. The distribution, composition and REE content of zircons compare well with that of other countries where it is currently under exploitation.

 

[Keywords: Zircons, ilmenite, beach placers, REE]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp 150-154

 

Long period waves in the coastal regions of north Indian Ocean

*P V Hareesh Kumar & K V Sanilkumar

 

The sea surface height (SSH) anomaly derived from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter was used to study the characteristics of long period waves in the coastal belt of north Indian Ocean. Wavelet analysis at typical locations revealed that the most dominant signals were in the bands of intra-seasonal oscillation (ISO), i.e. 30-60 days, 3-4 months, semi-annual and annual. Among them, the annual signal contained maximum energy at all the locations. But, inside the Andaman Sea, and off the Gulf of Aden, the ISO component is of nearly equal magnitude as that of annual. In the regions of large SSH variability, low frequency components (more than 3 months) dominated, whereas they contained less energy in the region of minimum SSH variability. Hovmullor diagrams revealed large inter- and intra-annual variability in the SSH fields. In general, along the eastern boundary of the ocean, high sea level was observed during April-June and October-December in association with equatorial Kelvin waves. Another notable observation was the formation of high SSH in the western Indian Ocean during February-May and August-October. Among them, the former one propagated northward while latter one was found stationary. The Markan coast was found as the region of meeting place of two waves, one from the western Indian Ocean and the other from the eastern Bay. The results can be utilized to enhance the understanding of various coastal processes controlled by long period waves, viz. upwelling, sinking, circulation and meso-scale features.

[Key words: Long period waves, coastal waters, sea surface height anomaly, intra-seasonal oscillation, wavelet analysis]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp 155-163

 

Sea level and currents in the upper reaches of the Cochin estuarine system during October 2000

K. Srinivas*, C. Revichandran, T.T. Mohamed Asharaf, T.J. Thottam,

P.A. Maheswaran  & Nuncio Murukesh

 

Data on sea level, currents, salinity and water temperature collected in the upper reaches of the Cochin estuarine system (southwest coast of India) during October 2000 have been analysed to understand their variability. The tides near to the mouth of the Cochin estuarine system were found to be of a mixed, predominantly semi-diurnal form during the month. The non-tidal sea level at the same location, showed an overall drop of nearly 9 cm during the period. Spectral analysis of the non-tidal sea level revealed the presence of 4 and 21 day period wave phenomena. The study showed that the sea level as well as currents are dominated by tidal signals (diurnal and semi-diurnal bands) even in the upper reaches. However, the amplitudes were seen to decrease with increasing distance from the mouth of the estuarine system. Conspicuous dominance of the shallow water components was noticed in the currents as compared to the sea level. The data on salinity showed tidal signatures whereas that on the water temperature showed strong solar forcing.

 

Key words: Sea level, currents, salinity, water temperature, estuarine system, upper reaches, Cochin]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 164-169

 

Variation of water quality in Chilika lake, Orissa

 B K Nayak*, B C Acharya, U C Panda, B B Nayak and S K Acharya

 

The water quality parameters such as pH, salinity, DO, BOD, PP, nutrients (NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, Total P), and chlorophyll a, b and c, were studied for the entire Chilika lake from 1998 to 2001 covering a maximum of 23 sampling stations. The pH of water was alkaline throughout the lake and both pH and salinity varied widely. Higher pH with low salinity zones reflected disintegration of submerged weeds. Correlation analysis supported the increase of pH, high photosynthetic activity, high nutrients as well as phosphate depletion due to phytoplankton utilization in the fresh water zone. The opening of a new mouth during the study period helped subsequently to bring rise to salinity throughout the lake region, flush out sediment load from lake, disintegrate weeds, increase biodiversity etc., which would ultimately enhance the fish, prawn and crab catch.

 

[Key words: Water quality, nutrients, correlation analysis, Chilika lake.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 170-176

 

Water quality, nutrient dynamics and sediment profile in shrimp farms of the
Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh

 

M L Islam*, M J Alam, S Rheman, S U Ahmed & M A Mazid

 

Investigation was carried out to observe the sediment-water characteristics and nutrient budget of traditional shrimp farms during January- December 2000. Most of the water quality parameters between inlet and outlet of shrimp farms were similar, but transparency, turbidity, total suspended solid (TSS), phytoplankton and zooplankton concentration and primary productivity were significantly (p < 0.05) different within inlet and outlet. Pollution indicator parameter, chemical oxygen demand (COD) was more or less similar between these two points indicating less or no chance of coastal eutrophication from shrimp farm effluent. Nutrient balance due to water exchange showed that about 44.15 kg of nitrogen (N)/ha/culture cycle and 27.25 kg of phosphorus (P)/ha/culture cycle were being deposited into the bottom sediment. Most of the sediment parameters between mangrove and shrimp farms were similar, except calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and sulphur (S). Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Organic matter (OM) contents were low in the sediment sample indicating the sediment status poor and needs improvement through proper fertilization.

 

[Key words: Water quality, nutrient dynamics, sediment profile, shrimp farm, mangrove]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 177-180

 

Alkaliphiles in estuarine mangrove regions of Goa, (central west coast of India)

R S Desai, N K Krishnamurthy, S Mavinkurve & S Bhosle*

 

Obligate alkaliphilic bacteria (28 strains) were isolated from various estuarine ecosystems of Goa. Most of these strains were found to be Gram positive, motile rods, capable of growth in aerobic condition upto pH 12, exhibiting optimum growth at pH 10.5. Isolates exhibited high buffering capacity confirming their alkaliphilic nature. Significantly high difference was noted in the buffering capacities of the alkaliphiles and the neutrophile indicating their ability to maintain their internal pH. The obligate alkaliphile A52 exhibited highest cytoplasmic buffering capacity of 8,500 nanomoles OH- ions/pH unit/mg protein. The isolates also showed amylase (39%), protease (50%) and lipase (100%) activity under alkaline conditions. The present study depicts that such alkaliphilic bacteria also play an important role in the mineralization of organic matter under high pH conditions in natural ecosystems.

 

[Key words: Alkaliphiles, mangroves, buffering capacity, enzymes, biodiversity, Goa, bacteria, estuary]

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 A01]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 181-186

 

Factors influencing polyhydroxyalkanoate accumulation in marine bacteria

T Rawte & S Mavinkurve*

 

Six bacterial isolates from marine ecosystem accumulating > 1 g polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) per liter culture broth were characterized and identified. Various physicochemical parameters such as time, aeration, pH, carbon and nitrogen content, carbon substrates and organic nitrogen sources were optimized for PHA production by these selected cultures. The PHA yield from these cultures on optimization ranged between 1.4 gl-1 to 3.9 gl-1 culture broth.

 

[Key words: Physicochemical parameters, polyhydroxyalkanoates, bacterial species.]

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12 Q 1/02, C 12P 1/04, C 12P 39/00]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 187-193

 

Environmental influences on the species diversity, biomass and population density of
soft bottom macrofauna in the estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

 Sadanand N Harkantra* & Nimi R Rodrigues

 

A total of 58 species were recorded belonging to polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans and other minor groups in order of species abundance. eighteen species are new to the local fauna that were not reported earlier. The maximum mean species diversity index (Shannon-Wiener), total biomass (wet) and total population density recorded were 2.3 (Z1), 6.7 g/m2 (M1) and 703 no./m2 (M2) respectively. Significantly higher species diversity was observed at high salinity, fine sand and high sedimentary biochemical parameters of total organic carbon (TOC), total organic nitrogen (TON) and carbon of biopolymeric fraction (C-BPF) sites. Medium grain size sites supported significant high biomass whereas population density showed no significant difference among the sites. The best multiple linear regression model revealed that all the 13 parameters studied were significant influencing parameters on species diversity, biomass and population density with exception of temperature. Among these salinity and TON were the main significant parameters. The combination of significant influencing environmental parameters, % variation and Mallows' Cp values varied from sites to biotic parameters. This explained 32-72% of the total variance. The regression model derived from this data helps in detection of these biotic parameters and detection of pollution-induced effects.

 

[Keywords: Soft bottom macrofauna, species diversity, biomass, population density, linear regression model, Mandovi estury, Zuari estuary, Goa]

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 A01]

 

Short Communications

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 194-201

 

Effect of thermal effluent discharge on benthic fauna
of Tuticorin bay, south east coast of India

M Kailasam* and S Sivakami

 

Benthic fauna of Tuticorin bay in relation to thermal effluent discharge was studied for a period of two years (March 1990 to April 1992). Station I situated closer to thermal effluent discharging site was characterized by high water temperature (surface mean 38.92C, Bottom mean 38.86 C), low dissolved oxygen (surface mean 3.790.29 ml/l) and high percentage of sand (mean sand 87.96%, mean silt 7.57%, mean clay 4.87 %) with the record of only three benthic species mainly dominated by Cerithedia fluviatilis. Occasional record of Prionopsio sp. and Nassa pulla was also noticed at st. I. Higher water temperature recorded at st. I had resulted elimination of other benthic species with survival of fewer organisms. Station IV, situated far away from thermal effluent discharging site had better water quality parameters of temperature (surface mean 30.84C,), dissolved oxygen (surface mean 4.08 ml/l) and improved sediment particle size composition (mean sand 76.27 %, mean silt 16.11 %, mean clay 7.68%) with the record of 23 benthic species. Station I was recorded with the lowest benthic population density (480-1084 no/m2) and species diversity (0-0.44) while other stations showed the highest faunal density (2327-3452 no/m2 at st.VI) and species diversity (2.12-2.54 at st. V). Temperature showed significant negative correlation with species diversity (1%), benthos density (5%) and benthos biomass (1%) at st. I, while in other stations, temperature was positively correlated with species diversity, benthos density and benthic biomass but statistically insignificant. Thermal effluent increased the temperature of receiving waters and thereby by affected the benthic population of Tuticorin bay.

 

[Key words : Thermal effluent, water quality, benthic faunal, Tuticorin bay]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp 202-205

 

Effect of alkali treatment on the yield and quality of agar from red alga Gracilaria verrucosa (Rhodophyta, Gracilariales) occurring at different salinity gradient of Chilika lake

J. Rath & S.P. Adhikary*

 

Gracilaria verrucosa was collected at salinity gradient of 4.2 to 28 ppt in the Chilika lake was used for agar extraction. Agar yield of 27-30% with gel strength 165 to 180 g/cm2 was obtained from the alga occurring at two different locations of Southern sector of the lake showing salinity 6.5 to 8.0 ppt. NaOH pre-treatment strongly influenced the agar characteristics. Alkali pre-treatment of Gracilaria verrucosa yielded agar with increased gel strength but the yield was lowered. With 10% alkali pre-treatment the sulphate content of agar was reduced together with increase in 3,6,-anhydro galactose content and the gel strength. Using Gracilaria verrucosa from salinity ranges 6.5 to 8.0 ppt of Chilika lake and extraction with 10% alkali, good quality of agar with gel strength of 265 to 275 g/cm2 and moderate yield of 25 to 26% was obtained suggesting its potential for commercial exploitation.

 

[Key words: Gracilaria verrucosa, Chilika lake, agar agar, alkali treatment red alga, salinity]

[IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08B 37/12]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 

Vol. 33(2), June 2004, pp. 206-208

 

Seasonal variation of some physicochemical parameters of the Chilika lagoon
(east coast of India) after opening the new mouth, near Sipakuda

*Lakshman Nayak & Durga Prasad Behera

 

Some physicochemical parameters [temperature, transparency, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients, nitrate, phosphate and silicate] were studied during February 2001 to January 2002 at five locations in Chilika lagoon. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of the new mouth opened at Sipakuda in order to facilitate water exchange between the lagoon and the sea. High values of temperature 35.3oC and salinity about 32 ppt were noticed near the mouth during the hot and dry premonsoon and postmonsoon periods respectively. The overall average salinity ranged from 0.32 32.0 ppt recorded at the northern sector (Kalupadaghat) and near the mouth. The maximum secchi disc value was 0.91 m only. Dissolved oxygen content and pH ranged from 3.9 to 13.9 ml/l and 6.4 to 9.8 respectively. The nutrient contents showed distinct seasonal and spatial variation. Higher phosphate value than the nitrate is a noteworthy feature during the present study period, which could be due to the addition of phosphate through the land drainage. Visible changes have been noticed in spatio-temporal variations of physico-chemical parameters as a result of the opening of new mouth.

 

Key words: Seasonal variation, physicochemical parameters, Chilika lagoon]