Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

 

 

Total visitors: 1,180  since 20-12-06
 

 

VOLUME 35

ISSN: 0379-5136

NUMBER 4

DECEMBER 2006

 CODEN : IJMNBF

 

CONTENTS

 

Special Issue

on

Marine  Mycology

 

 

Papers

 

Marine discomycetes: A review

      Satinee Suetrong & E.B.Gareth Jones

291-296

 

 

Biodiversity and ecological observations on filamentous fungi of mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurumb (Liliopsida – Arecales) along the Tutong River, Brunei

      K.D. Hyde & V.V. Sarma

297-307

 

 

Diversity and ecology of fungi on mangroves of Bay of Bengal region  –An overview

      B.P.R. Vittal & V. Venkateswara Sarma

308-317

 

 

Fungal diversity on mangrove woody litter Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae)

      K.R.Sridhar & G.L.Maria

318-325

 

 

Morphology and physiology of the marine straminipilan fungi, the aplanochytrids isolated from the equatorial Indian Ocean

      Varada Damare & Seshagiri Raghukumar

326-340

 
 

Isolation and characterization of four novel thraustochytrid strains from a colonial tunicate

      C. Rabinowitz , J. Douek, R. Weisz , A. Shabtay & B. Rinkevich

341-350

 

 

Strategies for osmoregulation in the marine fungus Cirrenalia pygmea Kohl. (Hyphomycetes)

      J.P. Ravishankar, T.S. Suryanarayanan & V. Muruganandam

351-358

 

Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

      Prabha Devi, M.P. Divya Shridhar, Lisette D’Souza & C.G. Naik

359-363

 

 

Effect of nutrient nitrogen on laccase production, its isozyme pattern and effluent decolorization by the fungus NIOCC #2a, isolated from mangrove wood

      Donna D’Souza-Ticlo, Ashutosh Kumar Verma, Meril Mathew &
Chandralata Raghukumar

364-372

 

 

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC # 312: involvement of lignin-degrading enzymes and exopolysaccharides

      Chandralata Raghukumar, M.S. Shailaja, P.S. Parameswaran &         S.K. Singh

373-379

 

 

A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

      N. Ramaiah

380-387

 

 

Marine microbial eukaryotic diversity, with particular reference to fungi: Lessons from prokaryotes

      Seshagiri Raghukumar

388-398

 

 

Annual Author Index

399-400

Annual Key Word Index

401-403

Acknowledgement to Referees

404-405

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp.
291-296

 

Marine discomycetes: A review

Satinee Suetrong & E.B.Gareth Jones*

BIOTEC Central Research Unit, National Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

National Science and Technology  Development Agency Development, 113 Phaholyothin Road

Khlong 1, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand

*[E-mail:  bhgareth@yahoo.com ]

Received 10 July 2006, revised 7 September 2006

In common with basidiomycetes, few discomycetes occur in the marine environment as they do not have the ability to withstand being submerged in seawater for long periods or exposure to wave action. Most marine basidiomycetes are agarics, which have adapted to life in the sea and evolved a reduced basidiome. Marine discomycetes include Dactylospora canariensis, D. haliotrepha, D. mangrovei, Gloniella clavatispora and Vibrissea nypicola from tropical or subtropical mangroves as well as Lachnum spartinae and Laetinaevia marina on the marsh-grass Spartina or various brown seaweeds in temperate latitudes. Marine discomycetes have leathery apothecia and can withstand constant wetting by brackish to fully saline water. Further studies are warranted of marine discomycetes especially in brackish water habitats.

[Key words: Discomycetes, mangrove wood, fungi, biodiversity]

======================

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 297-307

 

Biodiversity and ecological observations on filamentous fungi of
mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurumb (Liliopsida – Arecales)
along the Tutong River, Brunei

K.D. Hyde & V.V. Sarma1*#

Centre for Research in Fungal Diversity, Department of Ecology & Biodiversity,
The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, PR China

*[Email:  sarmavv@yahoo.com ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 21 August 2006

Biodiversity and ecology of higher filamentous fungi on Nypa fruticans in Brunei were examined during 1999. Forty-six taxa were recorded including 33 ascomycetes and 13 anamorphic taxa in 25 genera. Linocarpon was the most speciose genus (6 species) followed by Aniptodera and Astrosphaeriella (4 each). The mycota mostly comprised typical marine species (e.g. Aniptodera, Lulworthia, Savoryella). Linocarpon appendiculatum (13%) and L. bipolaris (13%) were most frequently recorded, while Oxydothis nypae (9%), Astrosphaeriella striatispora (6.4%), Trichocladium nypae (6.4%) and Linocarpon nypae (5.4%) were also common. Most of the fungi (50%) were rare in their occurrence. More diversity was found on fronds than on leaves. Linocarpon appendiculatum, L. bipolaris, Neolinocarpon globosicarpum and Oxydothis nypae were more frequently recorded on fronds than other fungi, while Linocarpon bipolaris (13.5%), Astrosphaeriella striatispora (12.2%), Trichocladium nypae (8.1%) and Linocarpon appendiculatum (8.1%) were more frequently recorded on leaves. Examination of vertical distribution of fungi showed that the submerged parts have a rich fungal diversity followed by intertidal parts and finally the aerial parts.

[Key words: Frequency of occurrence, horizontal distribution, fungi, mangrove fungi, vertical distribution, Tutong river, Brunei, biodiversity]

================================

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 308-317

 

Diversity and ecology of fungi on mangroves of Bay of Bengal
region - An overview

B.P.R. Vittal* & V. Venkateswara Sarma#

Centre for advanced studies in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025, India

*[E-mail: bprvittal44@yahoo.co.in ]

Recived 10 July 2006, revised 23 August 2006

An overview on the diversity and ecology of fungi colonizing litter of mangroves in Bay of Bengal region (mangroves of Godavary and Krishna deltas of Andhra Pradesh, Pichavaram of Tamil Nadu, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands) are presented in this paper. A total number of 131 species belonging to 77 genera have so far been reported from the three regions. Verruculina enalia showed highest percentage occurrence at all the sites and on different hosts. The fungi exhibited vertical zonation in their occurrence with more number occurring in the intertidal zone. While some fungi occurred throughout the tidal range many showed affinity to a particular level. Ascomycetes with immersed or semi-immersed fruit bodies occurred in water inundated niches.

[Key words: Mangrove fungi, seasonal occurrence, substratum preference, vertical distribution, Bay of Bengal,  diversity, ecology]

============================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 318-32
5

 

Fungal diversity on mangrove woody litter Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae)

K. R. Sridhar* & G. L. Maria

Microbiology and Biotechnology Division, Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University,
Mangalagangotri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India

*[E-mail: sirikr@yahoo.com ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 28 August 2006

This study provides the pattern of colonization and diversity of filamentous fungi on naturally deposited and deliberately introduced Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. wood during monsoon and summer in a mangrove of southwest India and compares overall occurrence with three species co-occurrence. The number of fungi ranged between 1 and 9 per naturally deposited wood and 1 and 8 per deliberately introduced wood. Out of 66 fungi recovered, naturally deposited wood showed higher fungi during monsoon (September, 2000) than summer (March, 2001) (48 vs. 24), so also among 40 fungi on wood showing co-occurrence of three fungi (21 vs. 18). Percent frequency of occurrence of fungi was not significantly different between wood types and seasons in overall occurrence and three species co-occurrence (P > 0.05). Among 17 core-group fungi (≥10 %), Aigialus mangrovei, Cirrenalia pygmea, Lignincola laevis, Lulworthia grandispora, Passeriniella mangrovei, Trichocladium linderi, Tirispora sp., Zalerion maritimum and Z. varium were highly dominant (≥20 %). On wood showing co-occurrence of three fungi, A. mangrovei, Cirrenalia tropicalis, L. grandispora and T. linderi were highly dominant core-group fungi. Even though A. mangrovei, C. pygmea, C. tropicalis, Halosarpheia cincinnatula, L. grandispora, P. mangrovei, Verruculina enalia and Z. maritimum are typical marine or mangrove fungi, they were core-group fungi on deliberately introduced wood in monsoon season indicates their high colonization activity on wood even under low salinity. Several terrestrial mitosporic fungi (Alternaria, Arthrobotrys, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma and Tetracrium) were found particularly in monsoon season, but none of them belonged to core-group. Irrespective of wood types, overall fungal diversity and richness was highest in monsoon than in summer samples, while in wood showing co-occurrence of three fungi, it was high in naturally introduced wood of summer and deliberately introduced wood of monsoon. Issues related to core-group fungi, seasonal dominance, diversity and co-occurrence have been discussed.

[Key words: Mangrove, woody litter, Rhizophora mucronata, filamentous fungi, diversity,                         co-occurrence, monsoon, summer

====================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 326-340

 

Morphology and physiology of the marine straminipilan fungi, the aplanochytrids isolated from the equatorial Indian Ocean

 

Varada Damare1 & Seshagiri Raghukumar2*

1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004. India

2313 Vainguinnim Valley, Dona Paula, Goa, 403004. India

*[E-mail: sraghu865@yahoo.co.in ]

Received 10 July 2006, revised 31 August 2006

While thraustochytrids, a group of unicellular marine straminipilan protists, have been found to be abundant in the water column, little is known of aplanochytrids. These constitute one of the 3 groups belonging to the Labyrinthulomycetes. Aplanochytrids were isolated from 34 out of 76 zooplankton samples from different strata in the 0–1000 m water column in the equatorial Indian Ocean. None of the samples yielded thraustochytrids in culture, suggesting that aplanochytrids might be more prevalent in the zooplankton samples of these waters than thraustochytrids. Fourteen isolates of aplanochytrids were studied with reference to their colony and cell morphological characteristics, carbon and nitrogen nutrition and the production of four degradative enzymes. All isolates produced proteases, but not lipase, amylase or chitinase. Major interesting features of several isolates included the production of motile amoebae, preference to pentoses and disaccharides and the common preference to glutamate. Cluster analysis based on all the characters showed no clear relations to morphological or physiological traits of the isolates, thus indicating the unreliability of these characters in taxonomy of aplanochytrids. All isolates corresponded to taxon Aplanochytrium yorkensis. The differences observed in these isolates correspond to variations in populations of A. yorkensis inhabiting zooplankton in the Indian Ocean and not related to different species of the genus.

[Key words: Aplanochytrids, Straminipila, Labyrinthulomycetes, zooplankton, Indian Ocean]

====================================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 341-350

 

Isolation and characterization of four novel thraustochytrid strains
from a colonial tunicate

 

C. Rabinowitz1, J. Douek1, R. Weisz1,2, A. Shabtay2 & B. Rinkevich1*

1National Institute of Oceanography, Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research, Tel Shikmona,
P.O. Box 8030, Haifa 31080, Israel

2Department of Cattle and Genetic Sciences, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization,
Newe-Ya’ar Research Center, P.O. Box 1021, Ramat Yishay 30095, Israel

*[E-mail: buki@ocean.org.il ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 31 August 2006

Thraustochytrids, a common group of marine eukaryotic protists, are the major contaminants of invertebrate primary cell cultures. Here we have attempted to isolate thraustochytrid species from primary cultures of extirpated buds of the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri. Four new strains (termed BS3-BS6) were isolated. Cells of these strains subjected to three media conditions, showed different growth patterns and cellular morphologies. Phylogenetic (18S rDNA) and AFLP analyses revealed two-band patterns, one characteristic to strains BS3 and BS5 and the other to strains BS4 and BS6. A Sequence analysis showed 98 % identity between strains BS3 and BS5, and 100 % identity between strains BS4 and BS6. Distance analysis tree showed that the four new strains were primarily related to two other thraustochytrids strains, independently isolated from the same tunicate species a few years ago. It is suggested that the six closely related thraustochytrid strains isolated from Botryllus schlosseri reveal a biological association between the tunicate and a clade of species/cryptic species of thraustochytrids, which can be identified by molecular markers, growth patterns and cellular characterizations.

[Key words:  Botryllus, invertebrate cell culture, labyrinthulomycota, thraustochytrids,

18S gDNA, tunicate, isolation]

 

===========================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 351-358

 

Strategies for osmoregulation in the marine fungus
Cirrenalia pygmea Kohl. (Hyphomycetes)

 

J.P. Ravishankar1*, T.S. Suryanarayanan2 & V. Muruganandam2

1Department of Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology, D.G. Vaishnav College, Chennai 600 106, India

2Vivekananda Institute of Tropical Mycology, Ramakrishna Mission Vidyapith, Chennai 600 004, India

*[E-mail: jp_ravishankar@yahoo.com ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 18 September 2006

The marine fungus Cirrenalia pygmea during growth at increased salinities responded by increasing its intramyceliar polyol content. A similar response was noticed when the fungus was exposed to sudden hyper-osmotic shock; this response was irrespective of the osmotic substance (ionic or nonionic) present in the growth medium. A hypo-osmotic shock treatment led to a decrease in the polyol content. Increasing salinity increased the activity of polyol enzymes such as polyol dehydrogenase and mannitol dehydrogenase. These observations suggested that polyols contribute to osmotic regulation in this marine fungus. The fungus accumulated a mixture of polyols, when the mycelium aged. The sodium content of the mycelium increased with salinity, although the potassium content did not. Higher salinity also led to an increase in the amino acid pool size. Proline and Dragendorff - positive compounds were absent from the mycelium growing in higher salinities. The level of mycelial sugars decreased with increase in salinity whereas that of glycogen and sterols increased with salinity. The fatty acid profile of the fungus was also influenced by salinity. Higher salinities brought about a decrease in the extent of unsaturation of fatty acids. The melanin content of hyphae also increased with external salinity. Based on these results, a synthetic approach is attempted here to explain the various strategies evolved by this manglicolous fungus to survive in a vagarious environment.

[Key words: Fungus, osmoregulation, Cirrenalia pygmea]

==================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 359-363

 

Cellular fatty acid composition of marine-derived fungi

 

Prabha Devi*, M.P. Divya Shridhar, Lisette D’Souza & C.G. Naik

Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Chemical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography,
Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India
*[E-mail: dprabha@nio.org ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 28 August 2006

The present study quantifies cellular fatty acid composition of four filamentous, marine fungi viz. Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Curvularia lunata, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niveus. These fungi were isolated from different marine sources and mass cultured in the laboratory using organic media. Fatty acids were quantified as methyl esters using gas chromatography (GC), using WICHROM software and data collector. This efficient approach using a computer modelled software program provides optimized fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analyses. The principal fatty acids recorded from these cultures were oleic (18:1 n-9), linoleic (18:2 n-6), palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), behenic (22:0), lignoceric (24:0), a-linolenic (18:3 n-3), arachidic (20:0), myristic (14:0) and lauric (12:0) in the decreasing order of abundance. Unsaturated fatty acids varied between 57.86% and 85.23% while the saturated fatty acids varied between 14.12% and 41.26% respectively of the total fatty acids. The fatty acids specific to the above mentioned fungi can be used as biomarkers for taxonomic purposes. High concentrations of C18 PUFAs (18:2 n-6 and 18:1 n-9) together with relatively high concentrations of saturated fatty acids like palmitic (16:0) and stearic acids (18:0) accompanied by minor concentrations of lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0), palmitic (16:0), arachidic (20:0), behenic (22:0), lignoceric (24:0), and
α-linolenic (18:3 n-3) may be used as reliable biomarkers of the above mentioned cultures.
a-Linolenic acid, which is an economically important omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid was produced less than 1% by all the test cultures. However,
T. pseudokoningii (0.58%) and P. chrysogenum (0.68%) may be taken up for manipulation in order to increase the concentration of PUFAs.

[Key words: Cellular fatty acids, marine fungi, PUFA, taxonomy]

===========================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 364-372

 

Effect of nutrient nitrogen on laccase production, its isozyme pattern and effluent decolorization by the fungus NIOCC #2a, isolated from mangrove wood

Donna D’Souza-Ticlo1, Ashutosh Kumar Verma1, Meril Mathew2 & Chandralata Raghukumar1*

1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India

2College of Biotechnology and Allied Sciences, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University,
Allahabad-211 007, U.P., India

*[E-mail: lata@nio.org ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 31 August 2006

Carbon and nitrogen sources in the growth medium play an important role in the production of lignin-degrading enzymes in the white-rot basidiomyceteous fungi. The role of nutrient nitrogen sources in growth media on production of lignin-degrading enzymes namely laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase as well as on the decolorization of industrial effluents like black liquor, molasses spent wash and textile mill effluents was studied using the basidiomycetous fungus NIOCC #2a isolated from mangrove wood. The results indicated that the type of nitrogen source used, not only influences the amount and type of lignin-degrading enzymes produced but also has an effect on the decolorization of these effluents. The amount of extracellular peroxidases increased by several fold in the presence of effluents whereas in their absence they were of negligible quantity. Some of the effluents had an inhibitory effect on laccase production. The effect of nitrogen sources in the absence as well as presence of the effluents, on the expression of laccase isoenzymes was studied by non-denaturing SDS-PAGE. It was noticed that a few new isozymes of laccase were induced in the presence of industrial effluents. Decolorization of these effluents by the concentrated culture filtrate obtained from media containing different nitrogen sources further proved the importance of the type of nitrogen source in decolorization of colored industrial effluents.

[Key words: Laccase, isoenzymes, lignin-degrading marine fungus, nutrients, fungi, effluents]

==================================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 373-379

 

Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC # 312: involvement of lignin-degrading
enzymes and exopolysaccharides

Chandralata Raghukumar*, M.S. Shailaja, P.S. Parameswaran & S.K. Singh

National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India

*[E-mail: lata@nio.org ]

Received 10 July 2006, revised 31 August 2006

The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous culture medium by the lignin-degrading marine fungus NIOCC # 312, obtained from decaying seagrass from a coral reef lagoon is reported here. We estimated the percentage of phenanthrene removed from the culture supernatant and the fungal biomass after 6 days. About 60-70% of phenanthrene, at a concentration of 12 mg l-1 (12 ppm) was removed from the culture medium containing live or heat-killed fungus, as estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy method. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the phenanthrene extracted from the fungal biomass revealed that in the heat-killed fungal biomass, the phenanthrene remained undegraded till day 6. On the other hand in the live fungal biomass, no phenanthrene was detected on day 6 suggesting that it was metabolized or transformed into non-aromatic fragments. We conclude that the disappearance of phenanthrene from the aqueous culture medium is due to its instant adsorption to the fungal biomass owing to the presence of the exopolymeric substance (EPS) around the fungal hyphae. The EPS produced by the fungus was partially characterized. We further hypothesize that phenanthrene thus adsorbed by the live fungal biomass was subsequently degraded by the lignin-degrading enzymes present in the cell wall and the EPS envelope. Thus, the heat-killed fungal biomass could be used only for adsorption of PAHs from contaminated sites whereas use of the live fungal biomass would result in degradation of PAHs.

[Key words: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, degradation, marine fungi, exopolymeric substance, lignin-degrading enzymes, fungal isolate, isolate NIOCC # 312]

=============================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 380-387

 

A review on fungal diseases of algae, marine fishes, shrimps and corals

N. Ramaiah*

Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of OceanographyDoan Paula, Goa 403 004, India

*[E-mail: ramaiah@nio.org ]

Received 10 July 2006, revised 23 October 2006

It is a well-known fact that diseases affect health, survival and recruitment of any individual susceptible for diseases. As a consequence of disease, harvests from natural resources and, in particular, those from aquaculture dwindle quite severely. While an appreciable volume of information on variety of mycotic diseases in the marine organisms is available on global scale, studies from Indian waters are, at best, very few. This review is an attempt of bringing together a set of information deemed useful for stimulating marine mycopathological investigations in our waters. The information put together here is also to highlight the importance of pathology in general and fungal diseases in particular.

[Key words: Fungi, parasites, pathogens, algae, corals, marine fishes, Fusarium, Lagenidium, Sirolidium]

 

================

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(4), December 2006, pp. 388-398

 

Marine microbial eukaryotic diversity, with particular reference to fungi: Lessons from prokaryotes

 

*Seshagiri Raghukumar

Myko Tech Pvt. Ltd., 313 Vainguinnim Valley, Dona Paula, Goa–403 004, India

*[E-mail: sraghu865@yahoo.co.in ]

Received 10 July 2006; revised 31 August 2006

Novel molecular, analytical and culturing techniques have resulted in dramatic changes in our approaches towards marine eukaryotic diversity in recent years. This article reviews marine fungal diversity in the light of current knowledge, citing examples of how progress in understanding marine prokaryotes has often contributed to this new approach. Both ‘true fungi’ (termed mycenaean fungi in this review) and straminipilan fungi are considered. Molecular phylogenetic studies of prokaryotes has resulted in their redefinition as belonging to the Kingdoms Bacteria and Archaea. Likewise, major refinements have taken place in the phylogenetic classification of eukaryotes. In the case of fungi, it has now been realized that they are polyphyletic, belonging to the Kingdom Mycenae (Fungi), as well as the Kingdom Straminipila or Chromista. Although the total number of fungi on earth is estimated to be about 1.5 million, only a meagre number of obligate marine fungi , about 450 mycenaean and 50 straminipilan fungi have been described so far. It is likely that most of the true marine fungi have not yet been discovered. These are likely to have evolved between 1,500 million years ago (Ma) when fungi probably evolved in the sea and 900 Ma when they conquered land together with green plants. It now appears that most of the true marine fungi have not been cultured so far, similar to the ‘great plate count anomaly’ of bacteria. Thraustochytrids, which are abundant in the water column, but not easily culturable from that source is an example. Intelligent and novel culture methods might bring forth unusual and new marine fungi, as happened in the case of Pelagibacter ubique belonging to the SAR 11 group of bacteria. Molecular techniques might bring to light novel marine fungi, as is happening with bacteria. Such fungi may defy our conventional wisdom regarding these organisms in terms of morphology. Thus, several recent studies using 18S rRNA gene community profiles have discovered picoplanktonic marine fungi in the water column. Studies such as those on molecular diversity of eukaryotes in permanently anoxic habitats have also indicated that fungi may be abundant in exotic habitats and possess unusual physiology. A search for fungi in biodiversity-rich habitats, such as the coral reefs and the deep-sea, using a combination of molecular and novel culture methods is likely to reveal a fascinating diversity of marine fungi.

[Key words: Microbes, eukaryotes, fungi, prokaryotes, diversity]

==============

 

Acknowledgement  to  Referees [2006]

 

The Publisher and Editor of the Indian Journal of Marine Sciences (IJMS) are most grateful to the experts given below, in assisting the peer-review process of the journal. The referees have spared some of their valued time on critically reviewing the research papers submitted to IJMS during the year 2006. Their kind cooperation in critical reviewing, at times re-reviewing, is highly appreciated, which has immensely helped in maintaining the quality of the papers published in IJMS. We are thankful to them for their continuing efforts.

 

Achuthankutty, C.T., Goa, India

Aiki Hidenori ,Yokohama-city, Japan

Ajmal Khan S., Parangipettai, TN, India

Alfaro Andrea C., Auckland, New Zealand

Ali M.M., Hyderabad, India

Allison Mead, New Orleans, LA, U.S.A.

Almeida Adelaide M., Aveiro, Portugal

Alvarez Elena V., Faro,Portugal

Amon Rainer , Galveston, TX , U.S.A.

Arias-Fernandez María del Carmen,Madrid,Spain

Baba M., Trivandrum India

Badran H.M., Amado, AZ, U.S.A.

Balaram V., Hyderabad,India

Banakar, V.K., Goa, India

Becerro Mikel A., Blanes (Girona), Spain

Berloff  Pavel , Cambridge, U.K.

Bhaskar, N., Mysore, India

Bhosle N.B., Goa, India

Bhosle Saroj, Goa, India

Bilio Martin, Koenigstein,Germany

Borole,D.V., Goa, India

Bright Singh, I.S., Cochin, India

Chaillou Gwenaelle, Talence Cedex, France

Colin Jean-Paul, Cestas, France

Correa Juan A., Santiago, Chile

Deane Grant B., La Jolla, CA, U.S.A

Desa Elgar, Goa, India

Desbruyeres Daniel, Plouzane Cedex, France

Di Celma Claudio, Camerino (MC), Italy

Dong Shuanglin, Qingdao,P R China

Faraci Carla, Messina, Italy

Frenzel Peter, Jena , Germany

Gajbhiye S.N., Mumbai [Bombay], India

Ghosh, P.K., Bhavnagar, India

Guerra García José Manuel, Sevilla, Spain

Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Canada

Haines John, Cincinnati,OH, U.S.A.

Hareesh Kumar,P.V., Cochin,India

Harkantra, S.N., Goa, India

Hirata Shizuko, Hiroshima, Japan

Huang, Min-Chih, Tainan , Taiwan

Huxham Mark, Sydney, Australia

Ingole B.S., Goa, India

Jain Rakesh Kumar, Chandigarh,India

Jayachandran P., Worcester,MS, U.S.A.

Joseph M.M., Cochin,India

Kamachi Mudali U., Kalpakkam, TN,India

Karageorgis Aristomenis P., Anavyssos, Greece

Karande A.A., Mumbai [Bombay], India

Karunasagar, I., Mangalore, India

Kashman Yoel , Ramat Aviv, Israel

Kathiresan K., Parangipettai,TN,India

Katsaros Kristina, Freeland, WA, U.S.A

Keyzers Rob ,grahamstown, South Africa

Khanna A.S., Mumbai [Bombay], India

Khare, A.N.,Vasco-da-Gama, Goa, India

Korbee Nathalie, Malega, Spain

López, Javier Sellanes , Coquimbo, Chile

Makarynskyy Oleg , Perth, Australia

Mandal S., Goa, India

McIntyre Alasdair D.,Aberdeen,U.K.

Messick Gretchen, Oxford, U.S.A.

Montesperelli Giampiero , Ancona,Italy

Mounteer Ann H., Vicosa – MG,Brazil

Murty V.S.N., Goa, India

Nair V.R., Cochin, India

Narayana A.C.,Cochin,India

Narayanaswamy Bhavani E., Argyll, U.K

Natesan M., Karaikudi, TN,India

Nieto-Cid Mar, Vigo, Spain

Nigam, Rajiv., Goa, India

Okumura Yutaka, Miyagi, Japan

Oudot Jean, Paris, France

Pandey Ashok, Trivandrum, India

Parekh Anant, Pune , India

Paropkari A.L., Goa, India

Pattan J.N., Goa, India

Poi Fondekar, S.N., Goa, India

Prasanna Kumar S., Goa, India

Purnachandra Rao V., Goa, India

Raghukumar, Chandralata, Goa, India

Rainbow Philip S., London, U.K.

Raj Kumar, Ahmedabad, India

Rajasekaran S., Coimbatore, India

Ramaiah, N., Goa, India

Ramasamy, V., Chidambaram,TN, India

Rao D.S., Chennai[Madras],India

Rivonker, C.U., Goa, India

Romano Nicholas, Townswille, Australia

Ruiz Marta, Madrid, Spain

Sadhuram Y., Visakhapatnam,India

Sanil Kumar V., Goa, India

Sundar, V., Chennai [Madras], India

Sannasiraj S.A., Chennai[Madras],India

Santos Alberdan da Silva, Belém–Par, Brazil

Sarquis M.I.de Moura,Rio de Janeiro- Brazil

Sathyendranath Shubha, Dartmouth,Canada

Satyanarayana M., Hyderabad, India

Scheffers Anja, Haan, Germany

Scott Willie, Ottawa, ON, Canada

Shenoy S.S.C., Goa, India

Siddhanta, A.K., Bhavnagar, India

Singh R.P., Kanpur,India

Son Seung Hyun, Orono, ME, U.S.A.

Sullivan Lindsay, Narragansett, RI, U.S.A

Szefer Piotr, Gdansk, Poland

Tegowski Jaroslaw , Sopot, Poland

Uthicke  Sven, Townsville, Australia

Vairappan Charles S., Sabah, Malaysia

Van Dover Cindy Lee, Beaufort, NC, U.S.A.

Venkatesan N., Chennai [Madras], India

Verlecar X.N., Goa, India

Viollier Eric, Paris, France

Vivekanandan N., Pune, India

Wafar, Mohideen, Goa, India

You Bob Z. J, Australia

Zingde, M.D.,Mumbai [Bombay], India