Indian Journal of Marine Sciences


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ISSN: 0379-5136                                                                                    CODEN: IJMNBF

VOLUME  35

NUMBER  1

MARCH 2006

 

CONTENTS

Papers

 

Determination of the platinum-group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

V. Balaram, Ramavati Mathur, V.K. Banakar, James R. Hein, C.R.M.Rao, T. Gnaneswara Rao & B. Dasaram

7-16

 

 

Air entrainment by breaking waves: A theoretical study

Ashabul Hoque & Shin–ichi Aoki

17-23

 

 

Cryopreservation of the sperm of spotted halibut Verasper variegates (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae)

Xuezhou Liu, Schicui Zhang, Yongzhong Zhang & Yongjiang Xu

24-28

 

 

 Is gender a factor contributing to the variations in the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) by the green-lipped mussel    Perna viridis ?

C.K. Yap, A. Ismail, S.G. Tan & A. Rahim Ismail

29-35

 

 

Microbial diversity and enzyme production in mullet Mugil cephalus L.(Pisces) along Goa, west coast of India

G.S. Nagvenkar, S.S. Nagvenkar, C.U. Rivonker & U.M.X. Sangodkar

36-42

 
 

Effect of temperature and body size on food utilization in marine pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Bivalvia:Pteridae)

Sandip Kumar Mondal

43-49

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 7-16

 

Determination of the platinum – group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay
and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

V.Balaram1*, Ramavati Mathur1, V.K.Banakar2, James R.Hein3 , C.R.M.Rao4, T.Gnaneswara Rao1 & B.Dasaram1.
 National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad – 500 007, India.
 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa – 403 004, India 
United States Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA 94025-3591, USA Geological Survey of India, Bandlaguda, South Zone, Hyderabad –500068, India*
[E-mail: balaramv1951@yahoo.co.in ]
Received 5 November 2004; revised 5 August 2005

 

Platinum group elements (PGE) and Au data in polymetallic oceanic ferromanganese nodule reference samples and crust samples obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after separation and pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation, are presented. By optimizing several critical parameters such as flux composition, matrix matching calibration, etc., best experimental conditions were established to develop a method suitable for routine analysis of manganese nodule samples for PGE and Au. Calibrations were performed using international PGE reference materials, WMG-1 and WMS-1. This improved procedure offers extremely low detection limits in the range of 0.004 to 0.016 ng/g. The results obtained in this study for the reference materials compare well with previously published data wherever available. New PGE data are also provided on some international manganese nodule reference materials. The analytical methodology described here can be used for the routine analysis of manganese nodule and crust samples in marine geochemical studies.

[Key words : Platinum group elements (PGE), gold, manganese nodule reference samples, manganese crust, NiS fire-assay, ICP-MS]

[IPC code: Int. Cl. (2006) G01 N 31/02]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 17-23

 

Air entrainment by breaking waves: A theoretical study

Ashabul Hoque*
Department of Mathematics, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh and
 Shin-ichi Aoki
Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology,
Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan*
[E-mail: ashabulh@yahoo.com]
 Received 10 November 2004; revised 13 June 2005

The variation of static pressure, density, potential energy and kinetic energy due to air bubble entrainment in the surf zone and their physical mechanisms have been studied theoretically. An averaging technique has been used to investigate the behavior of every single bubble in the bubble cloud. The above parameters have been found to be affected significantly by the entrained air bubbles.

[Key words: Void fraction, pressure, density, potential energy, kinetic energy, air entrainment, waves breaking, breaking waves]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 24-28

 

Cryopreservation of the sperm of spotted halibut Verasper variegates (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae)

Xuezhou Liu1, Shicui Zhang2*, Yongzhong Zhang2 & Yongjiang Xu21
 
Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fisheries Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China 2 Department of Marine Biology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
* [E-mail:sczhang@ouc.edu.cn]

Received 1 September 2004; received in revised 25 October 2005

The sperm of spotted halibut Verasper variegates was cryopreserved by a simple and convenient protocol. The cryoprotectants used were dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), glycerol (Gly), methanol (MeOH), Me2SO + egg yolk, Gly + egg yolk and MeOH + egg yolk. The percentage of forward motile sperm in semen cryopreserved in the different extenders with Me2SO, Gly, MeOH, Me2SO + egg yolk, Gly + egg yolk and MeOH + egg yolk was 40.5 ± 4.2%, 49.5 ± 4.2%, 38.3 ± 2.4%, 65.0 ± 4.0%, 67.5 ± 2.9% and 49.5 ± 8.4%, respectively. The fertilization and hatching rates of cryopreserved sperm were from 59 ± 2.4% to 70 ± 3.0%, and from 11 ± 3.0% to 18 ± 2.6%, respectively. These tended to be highest when Gly + egg yolk or Me2SO + egg yolk were used as cryoprotectants. Under SEM, it could be seen that while the majority of the freeze-thawed sperm remained morphologically normal, some exhibited damaged or lost mitochondria, which possibly caused the decrease in motility and fertility of the freeze-thawed sperm

[Key words: Cryopreservation, sperm, spotted halibut, Verasper variegate]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 29-35

 

Is gender a factor contributing to the variations in the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) by the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis ?

C. K. Yap*, A. Ismail, S. G. Tan & A. Rahim Ismail 
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia *[E-mail: yapckong1973@yahoo.com.sg]
Received 6 December 2004, revised  31 May 2005

The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in mantles plus gills, gonads and the remaining soft tissues of males and females from a single population of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis. In addition, the metal concentrations were determined in the total soft tissues of male and female mussels collected from 15 sampling sites in Malaysia. Females generally accumulated higher concentrations of metals than the males but the difference was not significant (P> 0.05). The correlation coefficients showed higher R-values in the females than in the males. Although the differences in the metal concentrations of the tissues were not significant (P> 0.05), gender was still an important factor in contributing to the variations of concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in the soft tissues of P. viridis as was shown by multiple stepwise regression analysis.

[Key words: Gender, Perna viridis, heavy metals, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, mussel]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 36-42

 

Microbial diversity and enzyme production in mullet Mugil cephalus L.
(Pisces) along Goa, west coast of India

G.S.Nagvenkar, S.S.Nagvenkar, C.U.Rivonker* & U.M.X.Sangodkar
Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, 403206, Goa, India
*[E-mail: cur63@yahoo.com]

Received 29 June, 2004, revised  30 June 2005

Twelve bacterial species were isolated from different organs of the mullets. A comparative analysis of different bacterial communities isolated from surface, gills and intestinal tract showed significantly diverse population with reference to different groups and density.  During present investigations, some of the important microbial groups occurred in the different regions of the Mugil cephalus were Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Serratia sp., Azotobacter sp., Streptococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris, Planococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Serratia marescens. Further study on production of enzyme in the gut content suggested that proteolytic and amylolytic activity were of elevated level, thus emphasizing that these microbial communities do play an important role in promoting efficient food utilization among mullets.

[Key words: Mullets, intestinal micro-flora, proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme, microbial diversity, enzymes,Mugil cephalus]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences
Vol. 35(1), March 2006, pp. 43-49

Effect of temperature and body size on food utilization in the marine pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Bivalvia: Pteridae)

Sandip Kumar Mondal 
Madras Research Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. 75, Santhome High Road, Chennai-600 028, India
[E-mail: smondal281@rediffmail.com]

Received 13 August 2004; revised 10 October 2005

Physiological parameters such as clearance rates, absorption efficiency, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were estimated for four size groups ranging from 16 to 60 mm in Dorso Ventral Measurements (DVM) of the marine pearl oyster Pinctada fucata at different water temperatures and the results were integrated by means of two physiological indices, namely Scope For Growth (SFG) and Net Growth Efficiency (K2). The rates of clearance, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion were found strongly correlated  (p ≤ 0.01) with size groups (as tissue dry weight) at water temperature from 18o to 31oC. Absorption efficiency ranged from 43.2 to 56.9 % and was not related to body size in the tested temperature range. Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion increased with temperature within the same size group from 18° to 31°C. Clearance rate increased with temperature from 18° to 28°C, but declined with further increase of temperature to 31°C.  Excreted energy contributed 2.4 to 4.0% to the total absorbed energy for different size groups and water temperatures.  The SFG and K2 were higher at 26° and 28°C and were minimum at 18°C for all the size groups. The result showed that the optimum physiological conditions for survival and growth of P. fucata were in the temperature range of 26° to 28°C.

[Key words: Pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata, temperature effect, food utilization]

[IPC Code: Int.Cl. (2006) A01K 61/00]