Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

                              

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                            [ ISSN: 0379-5136       CODEN: IJMNBF]

    VOLUME   35

    NUMBER 3

      SEPTEMBER 2006

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 


 

 

A new wind-wave spectrum model for deep water

      Yongcun Cheng , Yuguang Liu 1 & Qing Xu

181-194

 

 

Source depth characterization of potential field data of Bay of Bengal by continuous wavelet transform

      Ashutosh Chamoli , R. P. Srivastava & V. P. Dimri

195-204

 

 

North Atlantic Oscillation and northern hemispheric warming

      S.B.Kakade & S.S.Dugam

205-209

 

 

Predictability of sea surface temperature anomalies in the Indian Ocean using artificial neural networks

      K. C. Tripathi, I. M. L. Das & A. K. Sahai

210-220

 

 

Size variations of planktonic foraminiferal population in the Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

      N. Khare & S.K. Chaturvedi

221-226

 
 

Sediment oxygen consumption in a developed coastal lagoon of the
Mexican Caribbean

      David S. Valdes-Lozano, Marcela Chumacero & Elizabeth Real

227-234

 

 

 

Effect of oxygen manipulations on benthic foraminifera: A preliminary experiment

      Rajani Panchang, R. Nigam, V. Linshy, S. S. Rana & B. Ingole

 

235-239

Development of nitrifying bacterial consortia for immobilizing in nitrifying bioreactors designed for penaeid and non-penaeid larval rearing systems in the tropics

      Cini Achuthan, V.J. Rejish Kumar, N.J. Manju, Rosamma Philip &
I.S.Bright Singh

240-248

 

 

Variations on the infaunal polychaetes due to bottom trawling along the inshore waters of Kerala(south-west coast of India)

      Joice V. Thomas, C. Sreedevi & B.Madhusoodana Kurup

249-256

 

 

A stochastic model to analyse pelagic fishery resource dominance along the Karnataka coast

      Somy Kuriakose & K.G. Mini

 

257-262

Biosorption studies for removal of chromium using immobilized marine alga Isochrysis galbana

      K. Kishore Kumar, M. Krishna Prasad, G.V.S.Sarma & Ch.V.R.Murthy

263-267

 

 

Superior quality agar from red alga Gelidiella acerosa (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) from Gujarat coast of India: An evaluation

      Kamalesh Prasad, A.M Goswami, Ramavatar Meena, B.K. Ramavat,
Pushpito K. Ghosh & A.K. Siddhanta

268-274

 

 

Short Communication

 

 

Virulence of Vibrio harveyi possessing a transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant to larvae of Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus (Decapoda)

      T. Jawahar Abraham

 

275-278

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.181-194

 

A new wind-wave spectrum model for deep water

Yongcun Cheng 1,2 Yuguang Liu1* & Qing Xu1

                        1Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China

                        2Institute of Meteorology, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, 211101, China

*[E-mail: yugliu@mail.ouc.edu.cn ]

Received 2 September 2005; Revised 2 May 2006

With the statistical relationships and equations, a new wind wave spectrum model for deep water is proposed in this study. In the new model, the total spectral energy level, the location of the maximum spectral energy (represented by location of spectral peak), and the width character of energy distribution (represented by the spectral steepness) at high frequencies located to the right of spectral peak of wind waves are all determined by the two basic parameters, i.e., the wind speed and the inverse wave age. The statistical relationships also show that with the same wind speed and wave age, the steepness of the wind wave spectrum at high frequencies located to the right of the spectral peak for field case is different from that for laboratory case. This is the main difference between field wind wave spectrum and laboratory spectrum. With the inverse spectral width, the new model is more appropriate to describe the real wind wave status. Compared with measurements in the Black Sea, the model calculated zeroth spectral moment m0 and the spectral width are in both good agreements with measured data. Furthermore, the new model can match elevation spectrum data obtained by four-frequency microwave radar and other field measurements fairly well. The new model can describe better and explain the influence of the wind speed and wave age on the energy distribution of developing wind waves generated in open ocean, also it plays a significant role in the study of oceanic microwave remote sensing, especially for understanding the uncertainty of retrieved ocean environment variables.

       [Key words: Wind wave spectrum, wind speed, spectral width, wave age, microwave remote sensing]

 

   

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp. 195-204

Source depth characterization of potential field data of

Bay of Bengal by continuous wavelet transform

 

Ashutosh Chamoli*, R. P. Srivastava & V. P. Dimri

National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad-500 007, India

*[E-mail: chamoli_jp@rediffmail.com ]

Received 4 July 2005, revised 3 April 2006

Wavelet transform is an efficient technique to interpret the potential field data. The continuous wavelet transform is used to locate and characterize the source of the potential field by transferring the data into an auxiliary space. The technique has been tested on several synthetic source anomalies and applied to potential field data from Bay of Bengal. Using free air gravity and magnetic data the mean depth to causative sources indicates presence of lithospheric flexure at the central part of profile across 85°E ridge. Using free air gravity data, it is inferred that mean depth to causative sources decreases from west to east across 90°E ridge along MAN-01 profile which indicates increase of sediment thickness across the ridge from east to west. The technique gives mean depth of the causative sources without any a priori information which can be used as a initial model in any inversion algorithm.

[Key words: Wavelet transform, potential field, source characterization, ridge, Bay of Bengal]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.205-209

 

North Atlantic Oscillation and northern hemispheric warming

S.B.Kakade* & S.S.Dugam

Forecasting Research Division, Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune-411008, India

*[E-mail: kakade@tropmet.res.in ]

Received 11 April 2005, revised 27 March 2006

In this paper, the effect of Winter-NAO on northern hemispheric temperature and snow-cover is studied because North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) fluctuations are strongest in the winter season. The correlation analysis, for the period 1973-2003, suggests that winter-NAO is inversely associated with Northern hemispheric snow-cover from winter through summer and the correlation coefficients are significant at 5% level. Moreover, NAO is showing direct relationship with northern hemispheric temperature during winter season. This relationship is also significant at 5% level. The stability of this relationship is tested and found to be stable. The correlation analysis further suggests that winter-NAO and global temperature difference between land and ocean have direct association, which is significant at 5% level. The effect of rising trend in winter-NAO may have resulted in decreasing northern hemispheric snow-cover, which ultimately results in warming of northern hemispheric temperature. The study suggests that NAO plays an important role in warming of northern hemisphere through decreasing northern hemispheric snow-cover extent.

[Key words: NAO, snow-cover, northern hemisphere temperature, SST, warming, land-ocean  

                                    temperature, thermal contrast]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.210-220

 

Predictability of sea surface temperature anomalies in the

Indian Ocean using artificial neural networks

K C Tripathi1, I M L Das*1,2 & A K Sahai3

                           1K.Banerjee Center of Atmospheric & Ocean Studies, University of Allahabad,

Allahabad - 211002, India

                        2Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad - 211002, India

                        3Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Homi Bhabha Road, Pune - 411008, India

*[E-mail: drimldas@yahoo.com ]

Received 20 October 2005, revised 26 April 2006

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have been used to access the predictability of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies for the small area of Indian Ocean Region  (27° to 35° S and 96° to 104o E). Twelve networks, corresponding to each month, have been trained on the area average SST values. The performance of the networks has been evaluated and found that the models have been able to predict the anomalies with a reasonably good accuracy. The performance of ANN models has been compared with the Linear Multivariate Regression model to justify the use of a nonlinear model. It has been found that whenever the dependence of present anomalies on the past anomalies show a nonlinear relationship, the linear model such as regression models fails to make any forecast. These are the months of June, September, October and November. In such cases the nonlinear ANN models have been proved to be fairly useful and make relatively better forecasts. When the dependence is linear, the performance of the ANN models is similar to the regression models. In such cases, use of ANN models only leads to increase in complexity without significant improvement in the performance.

           [Key words: Artificial neural networks, error back propagation, sea surface temperature,

                                linear regression, Indian Ocean]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.221-226

 

Size variations of planktonic foraminiferal population in the
Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

N. Khare* & S.K. Chaturvedi

National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research, (Ministry of Earth Sciences),
Headland Sada, Vasco–da-Gama, Goa – 403 804, India

*[E-mail: nkhare@ncaor.org ]

Received 28 April 2005, revised 10 April 2006

Twenty five surface sediment samples (comprising Peterson Grab, Piston, Gravity and Spade core top samples) were collected along a north-south transect (between 9.69° N and 55.01° S latitude and 80° E and 40° E longitude). On the basis of overall size, the total planktonic population has been divided into two groups (> 120 mm sized population and <120 mm sized population). The results show an apparent interrelationship between shell size and variations in hydrographic conditions such as food availability/nutrition (phosphate) of ambient water masses. It is apparent that nutrients play a significant role in determining the size of the foraminiferal population and an increase in the nutrient supply is conducive for the growth of the planktonic population.

[Key words: Size variation, planktonic foraminifera, nutrient, Southern Ocean, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, fronts]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.227-234

 

Sediment oxygen consumption in a developed coastal lagoon of
the Mexican Caribbean

*David S. Valdes-Lozano, Marcela Chumacero & Elizabeth Real

Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados,
Km. 6 Antigua Carretera a Progreso, C.P. 97310, Mérida, Yucatán, México

*(E-mail: dvaldes@mda.cinvestav.mx )

Received 6 June 2005; revised 10 April 2006

Nichupte is estuarine lagoon connected to the Caribbean Sea by two channels with very high levels of organic carbon in sediments, which ranged from 1.56 to 9.29 %, with the maximum concentration at the northeastern zone, known as Bojorquez, a section with high greater anthropogenic impacts. The rate of sediment oxygen consumption (measured in the laboratory) during summer (July) was 292 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 at Bojorquez, with a mean value of 70 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. During winter (January), at the same site, the rate increased to 309 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (average 125 mmol O2 m-2 d-1). The total average for both seasons (summer and winter) was 97 mmol O2 m-2 d-1. For the whole lagoon system (48.3 km2), the total oxygen consumption by sediments was 4.6 ´ 106 mol O2 d-1. During summer, the net input of oxygen from the sea to the lagoon was 1.6 ´ 105 mol O2 d-1, decreasing towards winter (1.5 ´ 105 mol O2 d-1). The oxygen input from sea to lagoon, represented only 3 % of the oxygen consumed by sediments, indicating that, if some of the oxygen sources like photosynthesis or wind re-aeration are interrupted or diminished, hypoxia might occur, particularly at Bojorquez zone.

          [Key words: Sediment, Nichupte, Bojorquez, oxygen consumption, BOD, lagoon, Mexican-Caribbean coast]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.235-239

 

Effect of oxygen manipulations on benthic foraminifera:

A preliminary experiment

*Rajani Panchang, R. Nigam, V. Linshy, S. S. Rana & B. Ingole

National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India

*[E-mail- prajani@nio.org ]

Received 16 August 2005, revised 6 March 2006

Three sediment cores were collected at 50 m water depth on the west coast of India, off Ratnagiri, and were subjected to oxygen manipulations maintaining natural temperature and salinity. The objective was to understand foraminiferal response to changed oxygen conditions. After a fortnight, the experimental cores were sub-sectioned and analyzed for their live foraminiferal content. This data was compared with background field data obtained from the non-experimental core. The data indicate that any change in natural oxygen conditions causes lowering of foraminiferal numbers. It is clearly evident that Fursenkoina and Nonions are more adaptive to changed oxygen conditions in contrast to Bolivinids and Rotalids, which quickly die out. This study clearly demonstrates the change in foraminiferal distribution in response to oxygen changes. This experimental study further can help develop foraminifera as a proxy to decipher the past fluctuations in the OMZ in the past, including assessment of their anthropogenic origin.

[Key words: Foraminifera, oxygen manipulations, vertical migration, Arabian Sea, sediment core]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.240-248

 

Development of nitrifying bacterial consortia for immobilizing in nitrifying bioreactors designed for penaeid and non-penaeid   larval rearing systems in the tropics

Cini Achuthan1, V.J. Rejish Kumar1, N.J. Manju1, Rosamma Philip2 & I.S.Bright Singh1*

1National Centre for Aquatic Animal Health, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Fine Arts Avenue, Cochin 682 016, India

 2Dept of Marine Biology, Microbiology and Biochemistry, School of Marine Sciences, Cochin University of   

Science and Technology, Fine Arts Avenue, Cochin 682 016, India

*[E- mail: bsingh@md3.vsnl.net.in ]

Received 9 March 2005, revised 17 April 2006

Two ammonia oxidizing (AMOPCU-1 and AMONPCU-1) and two nitrite oxidizing (NIOPCU-1 and NIONPCU-1) consortia for activating nitrifying bioreactors and thereby establishing nitrification in penaeid and non-penaeid hatchery systems were developed by enrichment. For further amplification of the consortia a simple medium having seawater (either salinity 30 ‰ or 15 ‰) as base, supplemented with NH4+-N/NO2--N and PO4- and pH adjusted to 8 was identified. During the amplification in a fermentor the consortia exhibited excessive wall growth and diminished their yield coefficient posing difficulty in harvesting the cells completely. The consortia consisted of both Gram negative and Gram-positive bacterial cells embedded in a mucilaginous matrix of glycocalyx - like material presumably composed of polysaccharides. The consortia besides being useful in activating nitrifying bioreactors developed for shrimp/prawn hatchery systems can also be used as bioaugmentors in the bioremediation of ammonia and nitrite toxicity in aquaculture systems.

[Key words: Nitrification, bacterial consortia, nitrifying bioreactors, hatchery systems, penaeids, non-penaeids, shrimp, prawns]

[IPC Code: Int.Cl.8  (2006)C12Q 1/00]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.249-256

 

 Variations on the infaunal polychaetes due to bottom trawling along the inshore waters of Kerala (south-west coast of India)

 

Joice V. Thomas, C. Sreedevi & B. Madhusoodana Kurup*

School of Industrial Fisheries, Cochin University of Science and Technology,

Fine Arts Avenue, Kochi-682 016, Kerala, India

*[E- mail: madhukurup@hotmail.com ]

Received 1 June 2005, revised 26 April 2006

Variations of the infaunal polychates populations due to bottom trawling were studied during December 2000 to November 2002 at depth ranging from 0-50 m along Cochin-Munambam area (Kerala, long.76º10’ 94” to 75º 56’ and lat. 9058’ to 10010’), in the southwest coast of India. Infaunal polychaetes from the sediment samples were collected both before and after experimental trawling in order to assess the variations on their abundance (no.m-2), biomass (g.m-2) and diversity due to bottom trawling. Highest variations in polychaetes were recorded at station 9 in May 2002 where polychaete abundance increased to 20710 no.m-2 after trawling from 2787 no.m-2 before trawling. Biomass showed highest variations at station 3 in December 2000 where biomass increased from 7.16 g.m-2 recorded before trawling to 34.53 g.m-2 in the samples collected after trawling. Multivariate community analysis carried out based on both species abundance and biomass of polychaetes also confirm the wide variations in the similarities of the stations comparing both before and after trawling

          [Key words: Bottom trawling, inshore waters, polychaetes, infaunal polychaetes, trawling, Kerala]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.257-262

 

A stochastic model to analyse pelagic fishery resource dominance
along the Karnataka coast (west coast of India)

 

*Somy Kuriakose & K.G. Mini

Fishery Resources Assessment Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, P.B. No. 1603,  

Cochin 682 018, India

*[E-mail: somykuriakose@rediffmail.com ]

Received 8 June 2005, revised 18 April 2006

Stochastic models are appropriate for the study of dynamics of fishery and prominent among them are Markov chain models. In this study, the dynamics of the pelagic fishery resource assemblage along the Karnataka coast is analyzed with reference to the change in resource composition and relative dominance using Markov chain. The transition probabilities of the species dominance with respect to four dominant groups namely oil sardine, Indian mackerel, carangids and whitebaits have been estimated. From the higher order transition probabilities it is clear that, if oil sardine is dominant in the fishery now, the probability that it continues to be the dominant group in the next year is 0.4875 and in case of Indian mackerel, the probability that it will dominate in the next year is only 0.3834. It is also observed that in the long run the pelagic fish assemblage is more likely to be dominated by oil sardine than Indian mackerel.

          [Key words : Stochastic model, Markov chain model, transition probability matrix, fisheries, pelagic  

                               fishery, Karnataka]       

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.263-267

 

Biosorption studies for removal of chromium using immobilized marine alga Isochrysis galbana

K. Kishore Kumar, M. Krishna Prasad, G.V.S.Sarma, & Ch.V.R.Murthy*

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Andhra University,

Visakhapatnam – 530 003. AP., India

*[E-mail: prof.chvrmurthy@sify.com ]

Received: 9 March 2005, revised 24 April 2006

A new biosorbent material marine micro alga Isochrysis galbana, from marine sources Bay of Bengal, was immobilized and used as an adsorbent for removal of chromium. It was found that the increase in aqueous metal concentration increased metal uptake within the range of present study. The presence of acid decreased metal uptake probably due to the preferential adsorption of hydrogen ion compared to chromium ion. The immobilized calcium alginate beads were also found to adsorb chromium in absence of biomass as well and presence of biomass increased the metal adsorption by 3-4 fold. This immobilized biomass was very effective for the removal of chromium. Isochrysis galbana was found to adsorb chromium more strongly when compared to another marine micro alga, Chaetoceros calcitrans, probably due to presence of polysilicate layers over Chaetoceros cells and also due to larger size of Chaetoceros cells. Equilibrium distribution data were best correlated by Freundlich type of equation for the range of experimental parameters covered in the present study. An empirical equation was proposed to estimate the equilibrium metal concentration in the immobilized algal beads (CS) as a function of pH and aqueous metal concentration (CA).

[Key words:  Biosorption, chromium, Isochrysis galbana, immobilization, alga]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.268-274

Superior quality agar from red alga Gelidiella acerosa (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) from Gujarat coast of India:

An evaluation

Kamalesh Prasad, A.M Goswami, Ramavatar Meena, B.K. Ramavat, Pushpito K. Ghosh &

A.K. Siddhanta*

Marine Algae and Marine Environment Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute,
Bhavnagar 364 002,Gujarat, India

*[E-mail : aks@csmcri.org ]

Received 26 May 2005, revised 27 March 2006

Physicochemical and rheological properties of agars extracted from 20 samples of Gelidiella acerosa collected from Gujarat coast in various seasons have been evaluated. The agar yields varied significantly (8.5–40.4%). The gel strength values were in the range of 200-700 g cm-2 (1.5% gel at 20oC) having gelling temperatures 36-41oC. It was observed that agar obtained from Gelidiella acerosa of Okha, in almost all seasons has superior physicochemical and rheological properties than the rest of the samples. The 3,6-anhydrogalactose (3,6-AG) and sulphate content too varied significantly among the agar of each place. It was observed that the better quality agar has relatively lower sulphate and higher 3,6-anhydrogalactose contents. Therefore, Gelidiella acerosa of Okha can be used as a good source of agar. Rheological data of the best agar of the lot were also in good agreement with the other physicochemical data e.g., high gel strength agar showed higher G¢ value and vice versa.

[Key words: Gelidiella acerosa, agar, rheology, algae, Rhodophyta, Gelidiales, Gujarat coast]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 35(3), September 2006, pp.275-278

 

Short Communication

 

Virulence of Vibrio harveyi possessing a transferable chloramphenicol resistance determinant to larvae of Indian   white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus (Decapoda)

T. Jawahar Abraham

Department of Fishery Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Fishery Sciences,
West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, 5-Budherhat Road, Chakgaria,
P.O. Panchasayar, Kolkata - 700 094, West Bengal, India

[E-mail: jawaharabraham@rediffmail.com ]

Received 21 June 2004; revised 6 March 2006

The virulence of luminous Vibrio harveyi possessing a transferable chloramphenicol-resistance determinant to Indian white shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus larvae was studied. The V. harveyi strains isolated from luminous F. indicus larvae produced extracellular virulence factors such as haemolysin, chitinase, proteinase, lipase and phospholipase were resistant to at least four of six antibiotics tested. The chloramphenicol-resistance determinant was transferred from V. harveyi to Escherichia coli at frequencies of 6.69 ´ 10-4 - 4.27 ´ 10-3. The concentration of V. harveyi cells capable of causing 50% mortality differed significantly (P<0.05) and the 72 h LD50 values ranged between 273 and 3,040 cells/ml. The chloramphenicol-resistant strains were more virulent to shrimp larvae compared to chloramphenicol-sensitive strain. Prevalence of highly virulent V. harveyi strains harbouring a transferable chloramphenicol-resistance determinant together with other extracellular virulence factors may hamper the hatchery production of penaeid shrimp larvae.

[Key words: Virulence, chloramphenicol-resistance determinant, luminous bacteria, Vibrio harveyi, penaeid shrimp, Fenneropenaeus indicus]