Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

(www. niscair.res.in)

 

[CODEN : IJMNBF          ISSN: 0379-5136]

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VOLUME 37

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2008

Special issue

on

Tsunami-2004, other natural processes and anthropogenic impact on Hydro biogeochemistry of Coastal Ecosystem

Guest Editors

Dr. A. L. Ramanathan
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi-110 067, India

Dr. Thorsten Dittmar
Florida State University ,Dept. of Oceanography, OSB 311
117 N. Woodward Av.Tallahassee, FL 32306-4320 , USA

and

Dr. B. R. Neupane, PhD, DBA
Regional Programme Specialist (Hydrology and Water Sciences)
UNESCO House, B-5/29 Safdarjung Enclave
New Delhi 110 029, India

 

CONTENTS

 

Study on the impact of tsunami on shallow groundwater from Portnova to Pumpuhar, using geoelectrical technique - south east coast of India

121-131

      S. Chidambaram, A. L. Ramanathan, M. V. Prasanna, D. Lognatan, T. S. Badri narayanan,
K. Srinivasamoorthy & P. Anandhan

 

 

Seasonal and tidal dynamics of nutrients and chlorophyll a in a tropical mangrove estuary, southeast coast of India

132-140

        B.Senthilkumar, R. Purvaja and R. Ramesh

 

 

Dissolved organic nutrients in the Pichavaram mangrove waters of east coast of India

141-145

        M. Bala Krishna Prasad and A. L. Ramanathan

 

 

Assessment of microbial pollution in the coastal environs of the Little Andaman island, India

146-152

        N. S. Swarnakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu, K. Sivakumar and T. Thangaradjou

 

 

Evaluation of water quality of Bhitarkanika mangrove system, Orissa, East coast of India

153-158

        Rita Chauhan and A. L. Ramanathan

 

 

A study of microbial diversity and its interaction with nutrients in the sediments of Sundarban   mangroves

159-165

A. L. Ramanathan, Gurmeet Singh Jayjit Majumdar, A. C. Samal, Rita Chauhan, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan, K. Rajkumar and S. C. Santra

 

 

Composition and origin of modern hydrothermal systems of the Kuril island arc

166-180

        O. Chudaev, V. Chudaeva, K. Sugimori, A. Kuno, M. Matsuo

 

 

Evaluation of the hydro geochemistry of groundwater using factor analysis in the Cuddalore  coastal region, Tamilnadu, India

181-185

        Senthilkumar G, A. L. Ramanathan, H. C. Nainwal and Chidambaram S

 

 

A statistical evaluation of ground water chemistry from the west coast of Tamil Nadu, India

186-192

        Asa Rani1 & D. S. Suresh Babu

 

 

The composition of groundwaters of Muraviov-Amursky Peninsula, Primorye, Russia

193-199

        V. A. Chudaeva, O. V. Chudaev, S. G. Yurchenko, K. Sugimory, M. Matsuo & A. Kuno

 

Identification of the geochemical processes in coastal groundwater using hydrogeochemical and isotopic data: A Case study of the Gadilam river basin in southern India

200-206

        Prasanna M. V, Chidambaram S, Vasu K, Shahul Hameed A, Unnikrishna Warrier C, Srinivasamoorthy K, Anandhan P and John Peter A

 

 

Comparative investigation on physico-chemical properties of the coral reef and seagrass ecosystems of the Palk Bay

207-213

        R. Sridhar, T. Thangaradjou & L. Kannan

 

 

 

Chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh — A review

214-219

        Dilip K. Datta, Subrota K. Saha and Md Sayadur Rahaman

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 121-131

 

Study on the impact of tsunami on shallow groundwater from Portnova to Pumpuhar, using geoelectrical technique - south east coast of India

S. Chidambaram1 , AL. Ramanathan2,  M.V. Prasanna2, D.Lognatan2, T.S. Badri narayanan3,
K. Srinivasamoorthy2 & P. Anandhan2

1 Department of Earth Sciences, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamilnadu, India

2.School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

3#97, Agraharam street, annaikaran chattram (P.O), Coleroon, Tamilnadu. 609102, India

Received 11 January 2008,  revised  22 May 2008

Andaman – Sumatra tsunami has caused distress to humanity and natural environment. Damage on the natural system has to be assessed scientifically for sustainable development. Geoelectrical studies are the realistic approach for comparing behavior of aquifer before and after tsunami. A study has been conducted on a shallow aquifer in the coastal region to assess salinity variation due to the impact of tsunami. Significant variations were observed in apparent resistivity values, due to percolation of sea water into shallow aquifers. Transformation of curve types has been noted in few regions in various aquifer depths. Changes in the formation resistivity and formation factor have also been noticed, which indicate salinity increase in aquifers. Geoelectrical cross section of the aquifer shows that perched water lens identified has also been affected by tsunami stress.

Keywords: Tsunami, Apparent Resistivity, Shallow aquifers, Tamilnadu.

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 132-140

 

Seasonal and tidal dynamics of nutrients and chlorophyll a in a tropical mangrove estuary, southeast coast of India

B. Senthilkumar, R. Purvaja and R. Ramesh*

Institute for Ocean Management, Anna University Chennai 600 025, India

Received 27 January 2008; revised 20 May 2008

Seasonal and tidal dynamics of dissolved nutrients (NH4-N, NO3+NO2-N, PO4-P and DOC), chlorophyll a, and primary production was studied in Pichavaram mangroves, Southeast coast of India. Seasonal changes showed an increase in salinity after tsunami (Pre-Tsunami; 24 ± 4.61, Post-Tsunami; 31 ± 2.35) due to the opening of sand bar at Coleroon River mouth causing an influx of seawater into the mangrove region at flood flow. However, dissolved nutrients showed no marked changes after tsunami and followed the seasonal pattern as observed prior to the event. There is an in situ regeneration of nutrients as a primary nutrient source rather than riverine input during a major part of the year. The nutrient balance of the Pichavaram mangroves was influenced by the tidal cycle. This is indicated by the changes in tidal height, salinity, inorganic nutrients, DOC and chlorophyll a over a 24 hours diurnal survey in both wet and dry seasons. The main features of the low tidewater were high concentrations of the nutrients showed the effects of tidal pumping mechanism. The tidal range were high after the December 2004 tsunami (Tidal range: Pre tsunami; 69±4.7, Post tsunami 126 ±11.8). It did not causes significant changes in the chemistry of the mangrove surrounding water column.

Keywords: Pichavaram mangroves, tsunami, inorganic nutrients, DOC, Chlorophyll a, primary productivity, tidal pumping

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 141-145

 

Dissolved organic nutrients in the Pichavaram mangrove waters of east coast of India

M. Bala Krishna Prasad1* and AL. Ramanathan2

1 Earth System Sciences Interdisciplinary Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740, USA.

2 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India.

Received 12 December 2007,  revised 13 May 2008

Spatial and temporal analytical measurements of organic nutrients were made in the Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem (south east coast of India) to understand the dissolved organic nutrient dynamics. Monthly measurements of physical parameters and dissolved organic nutrients were made at several locations at daytime during low tides. High concentrations of DOC and DON were found in monsoon and DOP in summer. The distribution and dynamics of dissolved organic matter have been regulated by the monsoonal fresh water discharge from the adjacent sources. However, the microbial mineralization induced by summer temperature regulates the nutrient biogeochemical processes and also control the biological productivity. In general, the mangrove ecosystem supplies considerable loads of nutrients to the oceans than the river systems and regulate the global nutrient biogeochemical cycles.

Keywords: Mangrove, DOC, DON, DOP, Outwelling, Pichavaram

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 146-152

 

Assessment of microbial pollution in the coastal environs of the
Little Andaman island, India

N.S. Swarnakumar, Maloy Kumar Sahu, K. Sivakumar and T. Thangaradjou

1Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology Annamalai University, Parangipettati 608 502 Tamil Nadu, India

and

L. Kannan

Thiruvalluvar University, Fort Campus, Vellore 632 004, Tamilnadu, India

Received 18 December 2007, revised 13 May 2008

The qualitative and quantitative distribution of total heterotrophic bacteria and human pathogens from eight different marine locations along the east coast of Little Andaman island.had been examined. During the investigation, 82 bacterial strains were isolated and 12 genera were identified with the dominance of Vibrio (23%) and Pseudomonas (20%). THB population density recorded in the present study varied from 5.2 to 273 ´ 102 CFUml-1 in the water samples and from 6.2 to 40 ´ 103 CFUg-1 in the sediment samples. In the case of pathogenic forms, 10 species were recorded from the eight stations and their densities were within the optimal levels. The present study indicates the less polluted nature of the coastal environs of the Little Andaman island.

Keywords: Little Andaman island, coral reef, THB, pathogenic bacteria

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 153-158

 

Evaluation of water quality of Bhitarkanika mangrove system, Orissa,
east coast of India

Rita Chauhan and AL. Ramanathan

School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India

Received 4 December 2007, revised 18 May 2008

The nutrient and dissolved metal concentration in Bhitarkanika mangrove system, Orissa, east coast of India had been examined. Surface water samples were collected from the different regions of mangrove-estuarine complex during the post monsoon season. There was distinct variation in chemical constituents of water among the estuarine, mangrove and bay region. Physicochemical parameters like pH, EC and TDS and nutrients like NO3, PO4 varied significantly among three sectors. The cations like K+, Ca2+, NH4 and anions like SO42-, HCO-3, SiO2 didn’t showed any significant variation. There is high concentration of dissolved metal in this mangrove system. The above fact will reveal that mangrove is facing severe threat due to industrial pollution. The metals, Cu, Zn and Co showed higher affinity, while Pb and Cr also result in strong coupling with each other.

Keywords ľ Bhitarkanika mangroves, water quality, heavy metal, pollution

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 159-165

 

A study of microbial diversity and its interaction with nutrients in the sediments
of Sundarban mangroves

A L Ramanathan1, Gurmeet Singh1*, Jayjit Majumdar1,2, A C Samal2, Rita Chauhan1, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan1
K Rajkumar1, and S C Santra

1School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India

2Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia 741 235, West Bengal, India

Received 9 January 2008, revised 23 May 2008

Mangroves provide a unique ecological environment for diverse microbial communities. They are particularly important in controlling the chemical environment of the ecosystem. Sundarban, being a rapidly changing ecosystem, is under stress due to various anthropogenic activities. The present study was taken with an objective to assess the microbial (fungal and bacterial) diversity with respect to behaviour of nutrients. Three sampling location viz. Canning, Jharkhali and Pakhiralay, were chosen based on anthropogenic stress. It was observed that at Canning, nitrate (7.46 mg.L-1) and phosphate (8.12 mg.
L-1) in water were maximum of all the three locations. Total bacterial load (29.83 × 106), Phosphorus solubilising (14.08 × 104 CFU.g-1), N2 fixing (13.67 × 104 CFU.g-1) and nitrifying bacteria (13.67 × 104 CFU.g-1) as well as exchangeable phosphorus (42 µg.g-1) was highest in the sediments collected at Canning. Sediments associated with dense mangroves (Pakhiralay) showed highest count of cellulose degrading bacteria (45.15 × 104 CFU.g-1). Fungal diversity was also assessed and it was observed that Aspergillus and Penicillium were the most abundant species in the three sampling locations. The study had elucidated the existing environmental conditions played a significant role in the determination of microbial diversity as well as nutrient behaviour in the sediments.

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 166-180

 

Composition and origin of modern hydrothermal systems of the Kuril island arc

O. Chudaev1, V. Chudaeva2, K. Sugimori3, A. Kuno4, M. Matsuo4

1Far East Geological Institute, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

2Pacific Institute of Geography, FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

3Toho University, Tokyo, Japan

4Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan

Received on 11 January 2008; revised 22 May 2008

The resent study consists the original geochemical data on the thermal waters of the Kuril Islands (Mendeleev, Golovnin, and Ebeko volcanoes) and relation between thermal waters and ore formation. Among the thermal water types three main groups can be distinguished: sodium–chloride, acid sulfate and chloride-sulfate-bicarbonate. The contents and behaviors of siderophile, chalcophile, lithophile, and rare-earth elements are discussed. These data, together with the result of isotopic studies, enumerates the origin of these waters. The high-temperature sodium-chloride waters have a profound effect on the formation of copper-pyrite mineralization on Mendeleev, Ebeko and Baransky volcanoes. The acid waters influence the processes of hypergenic ore formation

Keywords: geochemistry of thermal waters, stable isotopes, ore formation, Kuril Islands

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 181-185

 

Evaluation of the Hydro geochemistry of groundwater using factor analysis  in the Cuddalore coastal region, Tamil Nadu, India

Senthilkumar G1, AL.Ramanathan1*,  H.C. Nainwal3 and Chidambaram2 S

1School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, India

3Department of Geology, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, India.

2Annamalai University, Chidambaram, India.

Received 24 January 2008; revised 30 May 2008

The hydrochemical facies and its aerial distribution of groundwater present in the coastal region of the Cuddalore region, Tamilnadu had been examined as a part to map their aerial hydrochemical distribution and attempts to explain the geochemical processes controlling its water quality/facies. In the study area aquifers occur in Quaternary deposit. Ten major ions (Ca+, Mg++, Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO32-, H4SIO4, F-, SO4 and NO3-) were determined for each of 54 water samples collected in two seasons (pre and post monsoon ). The factor analysis was performed for pre- monsoon and post-monsoon data set. This gives an insight into the source of dissolved ions and the hydro geochemical chemical processes which are responsible for the water quality changes that are occurring here including the intrusion of seawater. The present study elucidates the effectiveness of factor analysis in evaluating hydrochemical processes occurring in the coastal regions which are dominated by agriculture and industrial zones.

Keywords: hydrochemical, percolation, factor analysis, aquifer

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 186-192

 

A statistical evaluation of ground water chemistry from the west coast of
Tamil Nadu, India.

Asa Rani L1 & D.S.Suresh Babu

Centre for Earth Science Studies

Akkulam, Thiruvananthapuram-695031

Received 14 December 2007, revised 19 May 2008

Ground water chemistry in the coastal area between Kollamkode and Kanyakumari has been studied. Quality assessment was made through the estimation of pH, EC, salinity, DO, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO3-, NO2-, HCO3-, and total hardness. The wells in general showed high values of conductivity, salinity, chloride, hardness and calcium. The chemical relationship exhibited by Piper’s diagram suggests that the groundwater mainly belongs to the hydrochemical facies Na-Ca and Cl-SO4-HCO3. Samples from the coastal fringe zone seldom represent fresh groundwater. Seasonal landward shift of freshwater-saltwater interface was observed throughout the coastal zone. It was found that Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion in the area. Correlation analysis showed perfect correlation between EC and TDS, reveals that EC is a measure of dissolved solids in ground water. The clusters defined by Q-mode analysis reflect the spatial distribution of samples and the R-mode cluster conveys that salinity, TDS, EC and Na+ form one group. The interface zone that extends up to 200-250m from the shoreline has to be carefully exploited, after identifying the discharge and the probable zones.

Keywords: Coastal aquifer, Groundwater chemistry, frequency distribution, Correlation analysis, Cluster analysis, Hydrochemical facies.

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 193-199

 

The composition of groundwaters of Muraviov-Amursky Peninsula,
Primorye, Russia

 

V A Chudaeva1, O V Chudaev2, S G Yurchenko1, K Sugimory3, M Matsuo4 & A Kuno4

1Pacific Institute of Geography, Vladivostok, Russia, valchud@hotmail.com

2Far East Geological Institute, Vladivostok, Russia, chudaev@fegi.ru

3Department of Biology, Toho University School of Medicine, Japan, kensan@med.toho-u.ac.jp

4Department of Chemistry, Tokyo University, Japan, kuno@dolphin.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Received 6 December 2007, revised 19 May 2008

Seawater intrusion, composition and quality of the shallow ground water in the south of Primorye region had been investigated. The Muraviov-Amursky peninsula is a middle mountain area (up to 400 m). The rocks in this area are presented by Permian volcanic, sedimentary, and granite rocks as well as Triassic sediments. Water had been included in a fracturated zone. The water table is located at depths ranging from less than 1 meter to more 20 m. The changes is depending on seasonal and atmospheric precipitation that varies between 1000-1200 mm/y. Values of pH ranging from 5.4-8.4, main ions composition is mixed with HCO3-Ca, Na – in granite rocks. Sea water intrusions had been examined by chemical and stable isotopes data.

Keywords: Groundwaters, Chemical composition, Microelements, Heavy metals, Water quality,

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 200-206

 

Identification of the geochemical processes in coastal groundwater using
hydrogeochemical and isotopic data: A Case study of the Gadilam river basin in southern India

*Prasanna M.V1, Chidambaram S1, Vasu K2, Shahul Hameed A 2,

Unnikrishna Warrier C2, Srinivasamoorthy K1, Anandhan P1 and John Peter A1

1. Department of Earth Sciences, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002.

2. Centre for Water Resources Development and Management, Kozhikode, Kerala.

 

Received 7 January 2008,  revised 21 May 2008

The Gadilam river basin in Tamilnadu is characterized by different geological formation viz. Archaean, Cretaceous, Tertiary to Recent Alluvium and groundwater serves as the major source for domestic, agriculture and other water-related activities. Forty four groundwater samples were collected during summer and post monsoon. Twenty three samples were analysed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δD). Geochemical signatures of groundwater were used to identify the chemical processes that control hydrogeochemsitry. Chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca+, Mg+, HCO3-, SO4-, PO4- and H4SiO4 were determined. Interpretation of hydrogeochemical data ascribes that secondary leaching, saline water intrusion and anthropogenic impact in this regime. Interpretation of δ18O and δD indicates recharge from the meteoric water in Tertiary aquifer and from evaporated water in Alluvium aquifer.

Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry, Groundwater quality, Sea water intrusion, Stable isotopes, Gadilam river

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 207-213

 

Comparative investigation on physico-chemical properties of the coral reef and seagrass ecosystems of the Palk Bay

R. Sridhar1, T. Thangaradjou2 & L. Kannan3

1Ministry of Environment and Forests, Paryavaran Bhavan, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road

New Delhi – 110 003, India

2Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai – 608 502, Tamilnadu, India

3Thiruvalluvar University, Fort Campus, Vellore – 632 004, Tamilnadu, India

Email addresses: sridharcas@yahoo.com, umaradjou@gmail.com, kannanlk69@yahoo.com

Received 2 January 2008, revised 22 May 2008

Coral reef and seagrass ecosystems separated by a distance of 25 km in the Palk Bay region were investigated for their physico-chemical properties. Monthly variations of different parameters investigated are as follows; air temperature (27 - 35 şC), surface water temperature (25.0 - 31.5 şC), LEC (0.54 - 1.22 k), salinity (28.0 - 36.0 ‰), pH (7.0 - 8.2), DO (3.15 - 6.68 mll-1), nitrate (0.25 - 7.3 µM), nitrite (0.03 - 2.91 µM), inorganic phosphate (0.12 - 4.1 µM), reactive silicate (0.6 - 7.4 µM) and POC (0.28 - 3.25 mg C l-1). There is distinct spatial variation on the above parameters between the stations. The present study had elucidated that the ecosystems like coral reefs and seagrass are prefer specific environmental conditions for their survival.

Keywords: Physico-chemical characteristics, coral reefs, seagrasses, water quality, nutrients, Palk Bay

 

 

Indian Journal of Maine Sciences

Vol. 37(2), June 2008, pp. 214-219

 

Chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh – a review

 

Dilip K Datta*1, Subrota K Saha1 and Md Sayadur Rahaman2

1Environmental Science Discipline, 2Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh

Received 20 December 2007, revised 21 May 2008

This paper deals with the state of chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh from ex-situ-, in-situ- point and non-point sources of geogenic and anthropogenic origin. Except for ex-situ chemical flux, no in-situ chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh has been studied. The major elemental dissolved flux contributed by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river system to the coast of Bangladesh accounts for about ~5% (152 × 106 t.yr-1) of the annual global dissolved chemical flux to the oceans by rivers. This river system also contributes ~115 × 103 t.yr-1 of dissolved fluoride and ~105 × 103 t.yr-1 of dissolved phosphate to the coast of Bangladesh. The GBM river system is also one of the highest sediment dispersal systems of the world and transports about 1060 million tons of sediments to the coast of Bangladesh each year. Studies showed that DDT in zooplankton, fish and bottom sediments from the Bay of Bengal also occurs in the range of 4.0 to 5.9 ppb, 0.3 to 8.6 ppb and 0.032 to 720 ppb respectively. Since the coastal ecosystems are sensitive to chemical changes in the aquatic environment, estimation of chemical flux to the coast of Bangladesh is important.

Keywords: Coast, chemical load, ex-situ chemical load to coast, in-situ chemical load to coast,  Bangladesh.