Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

(www.niscair.res.in)

[ISSN: 0379-5136               CODEN : IJMNBF]

Total visitors: 4,061         since 04-09-08

 

VOLUME 37

NUMBER 3

SEPTEMBER  2008

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

First evidence of tumor-like anomaly infestation in Copepods from the Central Indian Ridge

        C. Bhandare & B S Ingole

227-232

 

 

A numerical model for the prediction of movement of gas condensate from spill accidents in the Assalouyeh Marine Region, Persian Gulf, Iran

        Habibi. S, Torabi Azad. M & Bidokhti. A.A

233-242

 

 

Assessment of different screening methods for selecting biosurfactant producing marine bacteria

        S K Satpute, B D Bhawsar, P K Dhakephalkar & B A Chopade

243-250

 

 

Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

        Sushama R. Parab, Reena A. Pandit, Arun N. Kadam & Madhavi M. Indap

251-255

 

 

Monthly variability of chlorophyll and associated physical parameters in the southwest Bay of Bengal water using remote sensing data

        R.K Sarangi,  Shailesh Nayak & R.C Panigrahy

256-266

 

 

Historical changes of heavy metals content and sequential extraction in a sediment core from the Gorgan Bay, Southeastern Caspian Sea

        Abdolreza Karbassi, Mohsen Saeedi & Reza Amirnejad

267-272

 

 

Thermal structure in coastal waters of central Bushehr (Iran/Persian Gulf)

        Seyed Ali Azarmsa

273-278

 

 

Statistical and fourier analysis of cyclic changes of zooplankton abundance in the eastern harbor of Alexandria

        A.A H El-Gindy, N.E . Abdel-Aziz & M.M Dorgham

279-290

 

 

Effect of dredging on benthic-pelagic production in the mouth of Cross River Estuary (off the Gulf of Guinea), S. E. Nigeria

           I. Ewa-Oboho, O. Oladimeji & F. Emile Asuquo

291-297

 

 

Distribution of ostracode assemblages along the nearshore and offshore areas of Malabar coast, Kerala (West coast of India)

        K.Gopalakrishna, B. Shabi& L.Mahesh Bilwa

298-306

 

 

Carotenes produced by alkaliphilic orange- pigmented strain of Microbacterium arborescens - AGSB isolated from coastal sand dunes

        A Godinho & S Bhosle

307-312

 

 

Evaluation of the seed production and grow out culture of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) in India

        G Maheswarudu, Josileen Jose, K R Manmadhan Nair, M R Arputharaj, ARamakrishna, A Vairamani & N Ramamoorthy

313-321

 

 

Short Communications

 

Isolation and characterization of meta-toluic acid degrading marine bacterium

        Divya Prakash, Rakesh Kumar Raushan & U.M.X Sangodkar

322-325

 

 

Marine-derived fungi as a source of proteases

        Tonima Kamat, Celina Rodrigues & Chandrakant G. Naik

326-328

 

 

Biochemical composition of eight benthic algae collected from Sunderban

        Sukalyan Chakraborty  & S.C Santra

329-332

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 227-232

 

First evidence of tumor-like anomaly infestation in Copepods from the Central Indian Ridge

C Bhandare & B S Ingole*

Biological Oceanography Division; National Institute of Oceanography, CSIR, Dona Paula, Goa-403004, India

(Email:baban@nio.org)

Received 26 September 2006, revised 12 February 2008

To investigate the distribution and abundance of mesozooplankton in the Indian Ocean, zooplankton sampling was conducted along the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) from the equatorial waters to 8oS latitude. Of the seven sampling locations, cysts or Tumor Like Anomalies (TLA) of ectoparasites like Ellobiopsis sp (Protista, Ellobiopsidae), being known as TLA were observed at the 5 locations. The highest frequency of TLA was observed at Stn. MPN-03 at all the 3 depths sampled (0-500 m, 500-1000 m and 1000-1500 m). Frequency of infected specimens among all the sampled copepods varied from 3.0 – 6.9%. Among the infected genera, Oncaea sp (Copepoda: Poecillostomatoida) was the most dominant accounting 21.2% followed by Clausocalanus sp (13.6%), Centropages sp (12.9%), Pleuromamma sp (9.4%) and Acrocalanus sp (7.8%). Two types of tumors were observed. Type ‘A’ was elongated and full of small granular structures in the tumor and type ‘B’ was spherical with few or no granules in the structure. Type ‘B’ was the most common that dominated in terms of frequency (96.60%), where as type ‘A’ which was observed rarely, was in  3.4% of the total parasitized population. Consequent to the physico-chemical anomalous signatures of active hydrothermal mineralisation recorded at station MPN-03, it is hypothesized that high levels of potentially toxic chemicals erupted from the hydrothermal plume caused the weakening of the exoskeleton of Oncaea and other copepod species, making them more susceptible to the parasitic attack, especially to ectoparasites like Ellobiopsis sp. These ectoparasites attack the host and feed on their body fluids which may lead to the death of the host. This study emphasis the consequences of parasitic infection in dominant planktonic copepods like Oncaea to the deep-sea food chain.

Key words: Deep-sea; mesozooplankton; copepods; ectoparasite; Ellobiopsis; sp; infestation; zooplankton; parasites; tumors; ridge; hydrothermal vent; Indian Ocean; Central Indian Ridge

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 233-242

 

A numerical model for the prediction of movement of gas condensate from spill accidents in the Assalouyeh marine region, Persian Gulf, Iran

 

Habibi. S1, Torabi Azad. M2 & Bidokhti. A.A*3

1Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2Physical Oceanography Dept. Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, PO Box 19735-181, Iran

3Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, PO Box 14155-6466, Iran

*[E-mail: bidokhti@ut.ac.ir]

Received 14 February 2007, revised.12 October 2007

This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical model of flow and movement of gas condensate spills based on Navier-Stokes and continuity equations with Boussinesq approximation involving various surface wind forcings. The model simulates the surface movement of gas condensate slick from spill accidents in Assalouyeh marine region. For the advection term an upwind weighted, multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm (MPDATA) was used. This algorithm uses an explicit finite difference scheme with an antidiffusive velocity for equilibrium diffusion. It also uses a generalized-conjugate-residual (GCR) method for the solution. The model is run for gas condensate spill accidents in Assalouyeh marine region in summer and winter of 2005. Numerical results show that gas condensate particles spread torwards the shore in summer, while in winter it mostly spreads towards east. The spreadings follow the flow fields that are in good agreement with flow field observations. Diffusion of gas condensate particles in the water due to more turbulence in winter is larger, while gas condensate particles are observed on the water surface due to more stability and buoyancy force in summer.

Keywords: Gas condensate, concentration of particles, Assalouyeh marine region, Iran, numerical model, oil spill

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 243-250

 

Assessment of different screening methods for selecting biosurfactant
producing marine bacteria

S K Satpute1, B D Bhawsar1, P K Dhakephalkar2 & B A Chopade1*

1Department of Microbiology, *Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology,
University of Pune 411 007, Maharashtra, India

2 Microbial Science Division, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, Maharashtra, India

*[E-mail: chopade@unipune.ernet.in]

Received 22 August 2006, revised 11 February 2008

Different screening methods namely, hemolytic assay (HA), modified drop collapse (MDC), tilted glass slide (TGST), oil spread method (OSM), blue agar plate (BAP), hydrocarbon overlaid agar (HOA) plate, emulsification index (EI), emulsification assay (EA) were assessed for their efficiency to detect biosurfactant producing marine bacteria. Forty-five strains of bacteria, comprising 18 Acinetobacter and 27 other bacteria along with positive MTCC reference strains were examined. HA, MDC, TGST efficiently detected 15, 17 and 14 biosurfactant producers respectively. Five hemolytic cultures did not show any biosurfactant production in MDC, TGST, and/or OSM. The emulsification of kerosene was also poorer. These results suggest that HA is not totally reliable. Six bacterial isolates produced biosurfactant in OSM, and MDC as well as TGST. MDC and TGS tests demonstrated good activity for nine isolates and proved to be the essential methods. None of the bacteria produced glycolipid on BAP. Cultures showing >30% of emulsification with kerosene were found to be positive in at least one of the above mentioned screening methods. The reference strains, Gram negative bacterium MM73b produced 68% the highest emulsification and demonstrated biosurfactant production in modified drop collapse, tilted glass slide test with highest emulsification units of 213.8 (EU/ml) for petrol. In case of xylene, Acinetobacter spp. MM74 demonstrated 187.5, Acinetobacter spp. WB42 demonstrated 170.4 emulsification units. HOA plate identified 31 and 22 bacteria for diesel and crude oil degradation respectively. Thus, this method proved to be significant one. We suggest that single method is not suitable to identify all type of biosurfactants, and recommend that drop collapse, tilted glass slide test, oil spread method followed by emulsification assay are more suitable for primary screening.

Keywords: Acinetobacter, biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers, hydrocarbon, screening methods, bacteria, microbial cultures

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 251-255

 

Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

Sushama R. Parab1, Reena A. Pandit1, Arun N. Kadam2 & Madhavi M. Indap1*

1Department of Zoology, D. G. Ruparel College, Mahim, Mumbai 400 016, India

2National Institute of Oceanography, Four Bungalows, Versova, Mumbai 400 061, India

* [E-mail – madhaviindap@yahoo.com]

Received 1 August 2006; revised 6 August 2007

Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0.5%) and WSF (40%), while stimulatory effect was observed at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1% of BHC and 5, 10% of WSF). WSF at higher concentrations (20 and 40%) caused reduction in DNA and RNA of the diatom. At lower concentrations it caused increase in protein and RNA content indicating increased metabolism. High concentrations of oil and its fraction had inhibitory effect on growth, protein content and nucleic acid content. This indicates that biosynthesis of these molecules may be probable targets for toxicity of oil.

Keywords: Phytoplankton, diatom, Thalassiosira sp., water-soluble fraction, DNA/RNA, protein

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 256-266

 

Monthly variability of chlorophyll and associated physical parameters in the southwest Bay of Bengal water using remote sensing data

 

* 1R.K.Sarangi, Shailesh Nayak2 & R.C.Panigrahy3

1Marine and Earth Sciences Group, Remote Sensing Applications Area,

Space Applications Center (ISRO), Ahmedabad - 380 015, India

2Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad - 500 055, India

3Department of Marine Science, Berhampur University, Bhanja Bihar, Berhampur - 760 007, Orissa, India

*[E-mail : sarangi@sac.isro.gov.in ]

Received 18 September 2006; revised 11 February 2008

In the present paper, we have carried out analysis of surface chlorophyll-a concentration in the seas around India obtained using the Indian Remote Sensing satellite IRS-P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data. The focus was given to southwest Bay of Bengal where such studies are scanty. The study portraits the chlorophyll-a pattern during July 1999-June 2000. The monthly sea surface temperature (SST) trend and wind patterns using NOAA-NCEP and Quickscat Scatterometer data, respectively, were studied, to elucidate their impact on chlorophyll distribution. This helped to decipher how the reversing monsoon wind induces algal blooming in the surface waters of the study area. Several features like eddies, algal blooms and coastal plumes were observed. Highest mean chlorophyll was observed in January (northeast monsoon) and lowest in May (summer inter monsoon). Adjacent Arabian Sea water found predominantly productive than the Bay of Bengal water. Higher wind speed around 10 m/s in southwest and northeast monsoon shows about two fold increase in chlorophyll concentration to 1.0-2.0 mg/m3 and the SST has shown gradient and decrease of about 1-2ºC in the BoB and off southern India, respectively.

Key words: IRS-P4 OCM, chlorophyll, physical parameters, SST, wind speed/vector, Bay of Bengal, remote sensing

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 267-272

 

Historical changes of heavy metals content and sequential extraction in a sediment core from the Gorgan Bay, Southeastern Caspian Sea

Abdolreza Karbassi1, Mohsen Saeedi2* & Reza Amirnejad3

1 Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, P.O.Box 14155-6135, Tehran, Iran

2 Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of Hydraulics and Environment, College of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O.Box 16765-163, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

3 Faculty of Energy and Environment, Science and Research Branch, Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Received 7 August 2006; revised 16 August 2007

In the present investigation sedimentation rate, contents of heavy metals (Zn, Co and Ni), enrichment factors and speciation of Zn, Co and Ni of a sediment core from Gorgan Bay have been studied. Sedimentation rate in the study area has given an ample opportunity to track contents of Zn, Co and Ni with different sedimentary phases for the past 500 years (1500 t0 2002). Sedimentation rate of 1.4 mm/yr was obtained based on 210Pb activity study of sediment core. A very low content of Al and Fe in the core compared to those of the mean crust was observed. Heavy metal contents increase towards the top of the sediment core. Chemical partitioning studies revealed that percentiles and amounts of Zn, Ni and Co in non-lithogenous phases increase slightly towards the top of the core sediment sample. There seems to be a slight increasing trend in pollution level of the sediments of the study area over the last 70 years. Further, despite many research reports, application of Enrichment Factors (EFs) for determination of origin of heavy metals in sediments and pollution detection may lead to incorrect results due to naturally lower concentration of Al than the mean crust and/or higher contents of heavy metals in sediments than those in the crust, as the EFs in the present investigation were high even in 17th century when there were no significant sources of pollution. The results of Igeo values, on the other hand, show that minor elements fall within non-polluted classification which can obviously show the error of the enrichment factor calculations with the use of Al as earth reference element.

Key words: Caspian Sea, Gorgan Bay, heavy metals, sediment core, chemical partitioning, enrichment factor

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 273-278

 

Thermal structure in coastal waters of central Bushehr (Iran/Persian Gulf)

Seyed Ali Azarmsa*

Faculty of Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Gisha Bridge, P. O. Box: 14115-111, Tehran, I.R. Iran

*[E-mail: azarmsaa@modares.ac.ir]

Received 12 May 2006, revised 24 March 2008

Thermal structure was studied in the northern coastal part of the Persian Gulf in Iranian southern province of Bushehr. Temperature measurements revealed that the morning–afternoon temperature variations were in the range of 0.2 – 4°C at deeper layers and 0.2 – 1.7°C near the sea surface. The range of the morning–afternoon temperature variations was also time dependent and reduced from a maximum value of 4°C in August to its minimum value of 0.2°C in November. Monthly average of the seawater temperature decreased about 7.4°C in the temperature decreasing period of August to November; with the maximum thermal gradient of about 3.8°C / month occurred in transition from October to November. Cross shore distribution of the sea surface temperature was almost constant. Moreover, both the maximum (36.8°C observed in August) and minimum (26.5°C observed in November) water temperatures were recorded at the surface layer, indicating that the temperature field in the study area is mainly affected by the air-sea heat fluxes. Water column was not thermally stratified at shallow waters (h < 24 m). In November, intense heat losses at the air–sea interface cause the water column become well mixed in the study area and thus, thermal stratification disappeared even at deeper waters.

Key words: Temperature, thermal stratification, mixing, Bushehr, Persian Gulf, Iran

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 279-290

 

Statistical and fourier analysis of cyclic changes of zooplankton abundance in the eastern harbor of Alexandria

 

A.A.H El-Gindy1, N. E. Abdel-Aziz2 & M.M. Dorgham1*

1 Oceanography Dept., Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt

2 National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries NIOF, Alexandria, El-Anfoushi, Egypt

*E-mail: mdorgham@yahoo.com

Received 10 January 2007, revised 31 July 2007

Time series data of monthly averages, over three stations, for counts of zooplankton groups and species, and some environmental factors (water temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a) were collected from the Eastern Harbor of Alexandria, during the period of 48 months, from October 1999 to November 2003. The spectral density graphics with frequency indicated that inspite of the presence of several peaks for different variables the only significant peak, at 95% confidence limit, was found in case of water temperature. The results of Fourier analysis show that the most common periods that are relatively important and affecting the movement of the time-series of environmental and the biological variables are 12, 9 and 6 months. The 12 months was corresponding to seasonal changes, while periods less than 12 months were due to local changes depending on the hydrological exchange between the Eastern Harbor and the open Mediterranean coastal waters in front of the study area. The time lags of the occurrence of the maxima of each two variables at the important cycles with periods 12, 9 and 6 months were calculated to express the response time of the different groups flourishing relative to the occurrence of the effecting environmental factors. The cluster and correlation analyses of the different variables have also been done to show most correlated ones. The results indicated that the annual cycle is the most important one in most cases. The multiple regression equations between the zooplankton counts and the environmental variables showed the important controlling factor in the different species and groups of zooplankton.

Key wards: Zooplankton, harbor-, Alexandria, cyclic changes

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 291-297

 

Effect of dredging on benthic-pelagic production in the mouth of Cross River Estuary (off the Gulf of Guinea), S. E. Nigeria

1I. Ewa-Oboho*,2 O. Oladimeji & F. Emile Asuquo

1          Department of Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanography,

University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

2          Department of Food Technology, Obafemi Owolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3          Marine Chemistry Department, Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar, P.M.B. 1115, Calabar, Nigeria

*      E-mail: ita_ewa_oboho2005@yahoo.co.uk

Received: 7 April 2006, revised: 27 August 2007

The effect of high turbidity on benthic-pelagic production at the mouth of Cross River Estuary (South Eastern Nigeria) was investigated following the dredging of the river channel in 1998. Annual phytoplankton production in the estuary was higher (25.9g C/m2/yr) before dredging than after (20.7g C/m2/yr). The seasonal distribution of chlorophyll-a correlated positively with that of primary production before (r = 0.82, P<0.001) and after dredging (r = 0.65, p <0.001). Primary production values were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Reduction in chlorophyll-a concentration (primary production) shortly after dredging, could be attributed to the significant reduction in light penetration, the physical smothering of benthic algae and disruption of benthic habitats. The patterns of seasonal copepod densities closely paralleled that of algal biomass. The efficiency of energy transfer from primary production to copepod production was lower after dredging (8%) than before (15%). Copepod grazing rates were high and greater on larger phytoplankton species which had < 10 % of algal carbon needed for secondary production.

Key words: Benthic-pelagic production, dredging, detritus, phytoplankton, Cross River Estuary, Nigeria.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 298-306

 

Distribution of ostracode assemblages along the nearshore and offshore areas of Malabar coast, Kerala (west coast of India)

 

K. Gopalakrishna*1, B. Shabi2 & L. Mahesh Bilwa3

1PG Department of Applied Geology, M.E.S. Ponnani College, University of Calicut -679 586, Kerala, India

2Groundwater Department, District Office, Malappuram 676 505, Kerala, India

3Department of Studies in Geology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, 570 006, Karnataka, India.

*E-mail: gkgeo@rediffmail.com

Received 19 June 2006; revised 14 February 2008

Sixty-one ostracode species have been identified in 76 sediment samples from 28 nearshore and 48 offshore locations off Malabar Coast, Kerala. Q mode cluster analysis of the ostracode assemblages of the nearshore sediments indicates that the entire nearshore assemblages can be classified into two clusters – cluster I – Kumbla (A1) – Hosdurg (B1) and Mattul (D1) blocks and Cluster II – Payyannur (C1) – Cannanore (E1) – Telicherry (F1) blocks. This clustering is probably due to the differences in the depositional environment. The influence of estuarine environment is predominant in the cluster I due to the mixing of freshwater from the surrounding land masses. Several backwaters are observed in the areas covered by this cluster. Cluster analysis of offshore assemblages indicate that the entire offshore off Malabar coast can be divided into two clusters, cluster I – Kumbla (A2) and Bekal (B2), cluster II – Neeleswaram (C2), Payyannur (D2) and Payangoti (E2) blocks. The presence of shallow water ostracode species in cluster I which lived in nearshore sand and silty sand substrate under the influence of subtropical water currents are inferred and further indicated by the fossil molluscan assemblages. Q-mode cluster analysis and details of physical and ecological parameters suggest that there is a substantial influence of substrate, organic matter and salinity in the distribution, diversity and abundance of the ostracode. Based on this, the Malabar coast of Kerala is significantly classified as a marine ecosystem/environment category.

Keywords: Ostracods, Malabar coast, cluster analysis, Kerala, west coast of India, distribution of Ostracodes

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 307-312

 

Carotenes produced by alkaliphilic orange- pigmented strain of
Microbacterium arborescens - AGSB isolated from coastal sand dunes

A Godinho & S Bhosle*

Department of Microbiology, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403206, India

*[E-mail: sarojbhosle@yahoo.co.in]

Received 16 March 2007; revised 11 March 2008

Collections of gram positive bacteria from coastal sand dune vegetation, Ipomoea pes-caprae showed a predominance of orange pigmented colonies of Microbacterium arborescens-AGSB. The pigment was identified using a combination of UV/visible spectral data and HPLC retention time as a lycopene type carotenoid pigment with λmax at 468 nms. These bacteria may be accumulating carotenoids as part of their responses to various environmental stresses and thus aiding their survival in this stressed habitat.

Key words: Microbacterium arborescens, sand dunes, carotenoids, bacterium, HPLC, TLC

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 313-321

Evaluation of the seed production and grow out culture of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) in India

G Maheswarudu1*, Josileen Jose, K R Manmadhan Nair, M R Arputharaj, A Ramakrishna,
A Vairamani & N Ramamoorthy

Crustacean Fisheries Division, Mandapam Regional Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Mandapam Camp
Marine Fisheries Post-623520, Tamil Nadu, India

*[E-mail: maheswarudu@yahoo. com]

Received 23 November 2006, revised 11 April 2008

The demand for crabs is more for their delicacy. In view of developing protocol for seed production, nursery rearing and grow-out culture of P. pelagicus, experiments were conducted on the same aspects. Two larval rearing experiments, one at 50 larvae/l density and the other at 100 larvae/l density were conducted to assess the impact of stocking density on survival. Higher survival (10.3 ± 5.76%) from Zoea1 to first crab instar was recorded at lower density than (P < 0.05) that (1.8 ± 0.91%) of higher density. A nursery rearing experiment (250 first crab instars/t), conducted to measure survival, yielded low survival (8.6 ± 0.91 %) after 15 days due to cannibalism despite provision of shelter and feed ad libitum. The grow-out culture performed in a 0.06 ha earthen pond by stocking first crab instars directly (2.6 first crab instars/m2), to assess survival and growth, yielded 784 kg/ha on day 135 with 32.0% survival and Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) of 1.8. Crab attained commercial size (116 mm CW/112 g. wt.) as well as maturity after 5 months (20 days larval rearing + 134 days grow-out). After 135 days live crabs from grow-out can be shifted to recirculation system to produce soft shell crabs that have demand and fetch higher price than that of hard shell crab, to make the crab culture venture economical. The present study is a significant development in bringing out, P. pelagicus as a potential species for aquaculture.

Keywords:  Hatchery produced first crab instars, nursery rearing, grow-out culture, shrimp feed, soft-shell crab and Portunus pelagicus

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 322-325

 

Isolation and characterization of meta-toluic acid degrading marine bacterium

Divya Prakash, Rakesh Kumar Raushan &
U.M.X Sangodkar*

Department of Biotechnology, Goa University,
Taleigao Plateau, Panaji, Goa - 403206, India

*[Email: umxs@unigoa.ac.in]

and

C.U. Rivonker

Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Panaji, Goa - 403206, India

Received 6 March, 2007, revised 7 July 2008

The analysis of the sea water samples using sequential enrichment technique revealed a report of marine bacterium capable of degrading meta‑toluic acid‑a component of crude oil. An attempt to characterize the isolated culture using biochemical tests indicated the culture as a Gram­- negative aerobic rod that was highly motile exhibiting biodegrading ability and was identified as Pseudomonas spp. strain GUI13. Further, a comparative analysis of the biochemical characters with the archae‑type terrestrial soil bacterium indicated that the isolate required marked amounts of Sodium chloride (NaCl) in the medium to retain its viability. Substrate constant (Ks) of strain GUI13 with respect to meta‑toluic acid was found to be eight times lower when compared to that of a terrestrial bacterium. A similar ratio was observed in case of Michaelis constants (Km) for the key degradative enzyme, Catechol 2,3dioxygenase, emphasizing the distinguishing feature of the marine bacteria that helps it to carry on the process of bio‑transformations at very low concentrations of carbon, a unique condition that exists in the sea.

Key words: Bio-degradation, marine pollution control, Substrate constant (Ks), Michaelis constants (Km) values, crude oil, Tar balls, Catechol 2, 3‑dioxygenase, and hazardous chemicals

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 326-328

 

Marine-derived fungi as a source of proteases

Tonima Kamat*, Celina Rodrigues & Chandrakant G. Naik

Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography,

Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India

*[E-mail: tonima96@yahoo.com]

Received 21 December 2006, revised 22 July 2008

Microbial enzymes have continued to assist diverse reactions as biocatalysts. Marine derived microbes offer a prospective resource for such enzymes. In this study thirteen fungi were isolated from marine organisms (soft coral and sponge) collected from Mandapam (Tamil Nadu) coast. The fungal isolates were screened for the protease activity. Fungi Beauveria brongniartii and Acremonium fusidioides showed remarkable protease activity. Isolation, purification and characterisation of proteases from these fungi may reveal special, significant properties.

Key words: Marine fungi, proteases, soft corals, sponge

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 37(3), September 2008, pp. 329-332

 

Biochemical composition of eight benthic algae collected from Sunderban

Sukalyan Chakraborty1* & S C Santra

1N.V.Patel College of Pure and Applied Sciences, V V Nagar-388 120, Gujarat, India

Department of Environmental Science, University of Kalyani, Nadia-741 235, West Bengal, India

[Email - su_kalyanc@yahoo.co.uk ]

Received 5 February 2007; revised 22 July 2008

Eight abundantly found benthic algal species from Sunderban were collected and compared for their biochemical composition. The algae showed significant quantities of nutrient parameters like - total carbohydrate, reducing sugar, total protein, total free amino acid, proline, total lipid along with fatty acids. C16 and C18 PUFAs were present in maximum amount. The major fatty acids identified were 14:0, 16:0, 18:1, and 18:2, 18:3, 18:4 acids. Vitamin C was also present in small amounts. Pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were present in considerable quantities. Individual differences were noticeable in the biochemical composition of the algae studied. Overall observation suggests their suitability for exploitation in food and pharamaceutical industry.

Key words: Species, biochemical, benthic, algae