Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

(www. bioline.org.br/im ; www. niscom.res.in)

[ISSN: 0379-5136  CODEN : IJMNBF]

VOLUME 31

NUMBER 2

JUNE 2002

CONTENTS

Papers

 

 

Variability of wind stress curl over the Indian Ocean during years 1970-1995

87-92

 

A. D. Rao

 

 

 

 

 

Macrobenthic communities of the coastal waters of Dabhol, west coast of India

93-99

 

Baban Ingole, Nimi Rodrigues & Zakir Ali Ansari

 

 

 

 

 

Biomass, horizontal zonation and vertical stratification of polychaete

Fauna in the littoral sediment of Cochin estuarine mangrove habitat,

south west coast of India

100-107

 

R. Sunil Kumar

 

 

 

 

 

Oyster species of the sub tropical coast of Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea)

108-118

 

Ghazala Siddiqui & Muzammil Ahmed

 

 

 

 

 

Maturation and spawning of four commercially important penaeid shrimps

of Pakistan

119-124

 

Zarrien Ayub & Muzammil Ahmed

 

 

 

 

 

Biochemical composition of zooplankton from Visakhapatnam harbour waters,

east coast of India

125-129

 

I. Nageswara Rao & R. Ratna Kumari

 

 

 

 

 

Decomposition and seasonal changes in nutrient constituents in mangrove

litter of Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh

130-135

 

M. Enamul Hoq, M.L. Islam, H.K. Paul, S.U. Ahmed & M.N. Islam

 

 

 

 

 

Quantitative study of Co(II) complexation by synchronous fluorescence

spectroscopy with Sundarban mangrove habitat humic substances

136-140

 

H. Ghatak, S.K. Mukhopadhyay, H. Biswas, S. Sen & T.K. Jana

 

 

 

 

 

Trace metals concentrations in the sediment cores of estuary and tidal zones

between Chennai and Pondicherry, along  the east coast of  India

141-149

 

Hema Achyuthan, D. Richardmohan, S. Srinivasalu & K. Selvaraj

 

 


 

Short Communications

 

 

Intercapsular embryonic development of the big fin squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana

(Loliginidae)

150-152

 

V. Deepak Samuel & Jamila Patterson

 

 

 

 

 

Distribution of sediment nutrients of Vellar estuary in relation to shrimp farming

153-156

 

M. Rajasegar, M. Srinivasan & S. Ajmal Khan

 

 

 

 

 

Quantification of halophilic Azospirillum from mangroves

157-160

 

S. Ravikumar, G. Ramanathan, N. Suba, L. Jeyaseeli & M. Sukumaran

 

 

 

 

 

Antimicrobial substances of potential biomedical importance from holothurian

species

161-164

 

T. Jawahar Abraham, J. Nagarajan & S.A. Shanmugam

 

 

 

 

 

Book Review

 

 

Prawns of Japan and the World [Ed-in-chief Chiaki Koizumi]

165-166

 

C.T. Achuthankutty

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 87-92

 

Variability of wind stress curl over the Indian Ocean during years 1970-1995

A.D. Rao

Climatological and interannual variability aspects of monthly mean pseudo-stress curl over the Indian Ocean for the period 1970-1995 are explored. A harmonic analysis of the curl fields finds most of the variance of the northern basins dominated by semi-annual variability. In particular the coastal areas of Somalia and south/southwestern India have large contributions from this har­monic. In the southern basin, interannual harmonics are the primary ones of curl variance. Biennial oscillatory behaviour is only sporadically evident in various harmonics between 20 and 30 months, and was absent north of 10°S. An EOF analysis confirms that the summer monsoon is the dominant feature compared to the wintermonsoon. The mean positive curl in the eastern Arabian Sea indicated positive Ekman velocities (upwards) enhancing coastal upwelling in this region. More exceptional and not previously noted factor is an opposite and somewhat dramatic reduction of curl magnitude since 1988/89. The rate of decline is much larger than the (positive) trend in the early 1980’s and was most notable in the early part of the summer monsoon. It is also evident in the win­ter monsoon periods, but not so for other months of the year. Additional evidence supports this change in variability patterns.

[ Key words. Interannual variability, Indian Ocean, surface curl, EOF analysis, harmonic analysis ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 93-99

 

Macrobenthic communities of the coastal waters of Dabhol, west coast of India

Baban Ingole*, Nimi Rodrigues & Zakir Ali Ansari

Macrobenthic community of a shallow subtidal (5-20 m) muddy deposit off Dabhol was investigated. Sediment comprised mainly of silt and clay with less of sand. Dominance of clayey-silt fraction reflects on active flocculation of fine grain particles. The sediment organic carbon with a mean value of 1.42% was rather high. The population density of macro-invertebrates varied from 250 to 600 no.m-2 (mean=395±111) during December 1994. The values increased significantly during December 1996 and ranged between 400 and 975 no.m-2 (mean = 621±194). Macrofaunal community comprised of typical near-shore species, numerically dominated by polychaetes. The sediment organic content reflects on the high biological productivity of the area, particularly benthic production that was evident from a good fish catch in the experimental bottom trawling. Values for species diversity followed more or less similar trends and less variability among the sampling stations in Dec.1994 and Dec. 1996. However, species composition indicated the dominance of different taxa among the sampling locations during two sampling years. The occurrence of juvenile forms of decapods (shrimps and crabs) in the benthic samples suggest that the coastal waters of Dabhol provide favourable environmental conditions for feeding and breeding of commercially important prawn and crab species.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 100-107

Biomass, horizontal zonation and vertical stratification of polychaete fauna in the littoral sediment of Cochin estuarine mangrove habitat, south west coast of India

R. Sunil Kumar

Biomass distribution, horizontal zonation, relative dominance and vertical distribution of polychaetes were studied. Highest biomass was recorded in the mid tidal region in both study areas. The monthly values varied from 4.43 to 128.28 g.m-2 at st 1 and 2.57 to 67.31 g.m-2 at st 2. Multiple regression analysis between biomass and environmental parameters indicate that they could not individually or in combination bring about the spatial and temporal variability in biomass distribution. Moreover, at st 1 edaphic factors appear to be responsible for partial variation in biomass indicating comparatively high F ratio for variance analysis than station 2. ANOVA of species diversity indices values (P < 0.5) between the three tidal regions showed a clear horizontal zonation of polychaetes, especially at st 1. A substantial difference in percentage composition of fauna, up to 15 cm depth of mangrove soil, was found in all the three tidal zones studied. This variability in the community structure in the top (0-5 cm) and deeper mangrove sediment (10-15 cm) is pertained to a variety of characteristic features of both upper and deeper sediments. High numerical abundance and coexistence of certain euryhaline species showed significant similarity index (>70%) among polychaete fauna. This similarity and affinity of fauna for a long period evidently indicate the habitat stability that is pertained to the existence of species diversity and abundance. This is related to the prolonged food resource input and profound standing capacity in the littoral mangrove soil, which virtually render in building up a stable community structure of polychaetes. As a result of this, selection of habitat by polychaetes, its survival and subsequent long-term biomass production were occurred. The strong similarity of polychaete fauna between months and biomass productivity can be considered for deriving the productive characteristic of the mangrove habitat, and also for assessing demersal fishery potential.

[ Key words: Mangrove, sediment, polychaetes, biomass, estuary, India ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 108-118

Oyster species of the sub tropical coast of Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea)

Ghazala Siddiqui & Muzammil Ahmed

In the present study 9 species of oysters belonging to three genera (Crassostrea, Saccostrea and Ostrea) were identified on the basis of their conchological and malacological features. These included Crassostrea gryphoides,           C. madrasensis,C. belcheri, C. glomerata, Saccostrea cucullata, S echinata, Ostrea nomades, O. folium and O. cristagalli. Two species Ostrea nomades and O. cristagalli which are being reported for the first time from Pakistan. Crassostrea gryphoides and  C. rivularis from Hub River Delta were earlier treated as separate species have been assigned to a single species C. gryphoides. Crassostrea gryphoides and C. madrasensis, which occur in the same habitat and show marked similarity in their external shell morphology, but differ in the colouration of their adductor muscle scar, are treated here as separate species.

[ Key words : Taxonomy, oyster, Crassostrea, Saccostrea, Ostrea ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 119-124

Maturation and spawning of four commercially important
penaeid shrimps of Pakistan

*Zarrien Ayub & Muzammil Ahmed

The spawning seasons of four species of penaeid shrimp, Penaeus penicillatus (Alcock), P. merguiensis (de Man), Metapenaeus affinis (Milne Edwards) and Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Milne Edwards) from Pakistan’s inshore waters were studied on the basis of ovarian colour and ovarian histology. During maturation shrimp ovaries pass through a series of colour changes. Females with green ovaries (green yellow, green white, light green and dark green) were considered as spawning females while those with other than green ovaries (translucent, white, cream and yellow) were considered as non-spawning. The maturation stages of the ovaries recognized histologically in these shrimps are: undeveloped, developing, nearly-ripe, fully-ripe, resorbing and resorbing/developing. Presence of nearly-ripe or fully-ripe ovaries in these species throughout the year suggests that these shrimps have the potential for spawning throughout the year. However, P. penicillatus, P. merguiensis and M. affinis showed two spawning peaks, the first one in winter-spring (February-May) and second one in July, September and/or October. In P. stylifera the spawning was more frequent from November to February. The present study indicated that the spawning seasons based on the colouration of the ovaries and on ovarian histology are more or less similar.

[ Key words: Maturation, spawning,  penaeid shrimps Pakistan ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 125-129

Biochemical composition of zooplankton from Visakhapatnam harbour waters, east coast of India

*I. Nageswara Rao & R. Ratna Kumari

Proximate composition, zooplankton biomass, protein, lipid, carbohydrate, organic carbon and calorific content of mixed zooplankton in the Visakhapatnam harbour waters were estimated. Biomass varied from 15.2 to 74.0 ml.100 m-3 ( =31.05 ±17.7) in the outer harbour and 10 to 64.0 ml.100 m–3 ( =26.30±14.8) in the inner harbour. Copepods, tintinnids, decapods and chaetognaths formed dominant groups of total zooplankton ( > 90%) in the harbour waters throughout the year. Of the biochemical fractions of zooplankton, protein formed the major component, varied from 233.6 to 563 mg.g-1 ( =379.62±107), lipid varied from 61.2 to 181 mg.g-1 ( =103±32.7). Carbohydrate ranged from 65.5 to 127.4 mg.g-1 ( =85.78±16.92), organic carbon varied from 334.9 to 461.2 mg.g-1 ( =380.44±33.6) and calorific values varied from 2.2 to 5.4 ( =3.5±.94) k.cal.g-1. Higher values of these constituents were observed during high saline premonsoon and postmonsoon periods when the population densities of copepods, tintinnids, decapods, chaetognaths were high. Significant positive correlations (P < 0.01) observed between calorific values, protein, lipid indicates to certain extent, that latter act as metabolic reserve of the zooplankton. Based on the results zooplankton do not have extensive lipid storage suggesting that protein in addition to the lipid may serve as metabolic reserve. Relatively higher calorific values were attributed to the dominance of copepods in the zooplankton population throughout the year.

 

[ Key words : Zooplankton, biomass, biochemical composition, Visakhapatnam harbour ]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 130-135

Decomposition and seasonal changes in nutrient constituents in mangrove litter of Sundarbans mangrove, Bangladesh

M. Enamul Hoq, M. L. Islam, H. K. Paul, S. U. Ahmed & M. N. Islam

Decomposition of Heritiera fomes, Xylocarpus mekungensis, Bruguiera gymnorhiza and Avicennia officinalis leaf and non-leaf litter was studied using litter bag in Sundarbans reserve forest. During 45 days decomposition experiment both in field and lab, 43-78% weight loss of fresh mass was recorded. Proximate and micro-nutrient concentrations were similar among different classes of leaf and non-leaf litter. Concentrations of nutrient constituents were higher during the monsoon, and winter showed the highest level of heavy metal concentrations in mangrove litter of Sundarbans. Decomposition of mangrove litter resulted in a decrease in lipid content, and increased the metal concentrations, than fresh one.

[ Key words : Mangrove litter, decomposition, nutrients, Sundarbans ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 136-140

 

Quantitative study of Co(II) complexation by synchronous fluorescence
spectroscopy with Sundarban mangrove habitat humic substances

 H. Ghataka, S. K. Mukhopadhyaya, H. Biswasa, S. Senb & T. K. Janaa *

Attempt has been made to isolate and characterize humic substances and their relative role for complexation of Co (II) in the mangrove sediment. Conditional stability constant (Kc) for Co (II) complexes with humic and fulvic acids were determined by studying quenching of fluorescence intensity of humic substances with Co (II) using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. Fulvic acid forms more stable complex than humic acid with Kc of the order of 4.7 ´ 1011 and 1.02 ´ 1011, respectively at pH 7, ionic strength of 0.1 and temperature of 250C. Rigid frame work of fulvic acid having more electron donor groups as –OH, -NH2 and less incorporation of –COOH than humic acid could be the reason for its formation of more stable complex with Co (II) than humic acid.

[ Key words: Humic substances, spectral characteristics, Co (II) complexation ]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 141-149

Trace metals concentrations in the sediment cores of estuary and tidal zones
between Chennai and Pondicherry, along the east coast of India

*Hema Achyuthan, D. Richardmohan ,S. Srinivasalu & K. Selvaraj

 

Four sediment cores collected from the water depths varying between 1.0 and 1.50 m in estuarine and tidal zones between Chennai and Pondicherry, along the Tamil Nadu coast, were analysed for major elements (Fe and Al), trace metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Co, Pb and Ni), carbonate and organic carbon contents to understand the behaviour of trace metals and their probable sources. The results reveal that Ni and Cr are higher in the Adyar estuarine sediments compared to other three sites at Muttukadu, Mamallapuram and Marakkanam. Higher content of Ni and Cr in the entire core sediments of Adyar points to mixing of sediments and bioturbation. Calculated enrichment factor (EF) with respect to upper continental crust (UCC) values show that analysed sediments are depleted in Mn, Co, Pb and enriched in Ni, Cr. Adyar estuary is highly contaminated especially with respect to Ni and Cr due to metal inputs from anthropogenic activity. Higher Fe and Mn content in Mamallapuram sediments may be due to the variability of source rock exposed in this region. The EF values of Marakkanam sediments reveal unpolluted nature and the positive correlation among Fe, Mn and other trace metals indicate the influence of early diagenetic process.

[ Key words : Trace metals, concentrations, sediment cores, east coast, Tamil Nadu ]

 

Short Communications

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 150-152

Intercapsular embryonic development of the big fin squid
Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Loliginidae)

V. Deepak Samuel & Jamila Patterson*

 

The egg masses of big fin squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana were collected from the wild and their intercapsular embryonic development was studied. The average incubation period of the egg varied between 18-20 days. The cleavage started on the first day and the mantle developed between third and fifth day. The yolk started decreasing eighth day onwards. The tentacles with the sucker primordia on the tip were prominent from tenth day. The yolk totally reduced between thirteenth and seventeenth day and the paralarvae hatched out on eighteenth day.The developmental stages of the embryo inside the capsules during the incubation period is understood.

[ Key words: Sepioteuthis lessoniana , intercapsular development ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 153-156

 

Distribution of sediment nutrients of Vellar estuary in relation to shrimp farming

M.Rajasegar, M.Srinivasan & S.Ajmal Khan

 

Sediment composition, organic carbon, total phosphorus and total nitrogen content of sediments in Vellar estuary were studied in relation to shrimp farming. Data collected over a 2 year period showed that the nutrient rich water (due to settling of unfed feed particle) discharged periodically from the shrimp farms, did not influence much the sediment nutrients of the estuary.

[ Key words : Sediment, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, shrimp farms, Vellar estuary ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 157-160

 

Quantification of halophilic Azospirillum from mangroves

*S. Ravikumar, G.Ramanathan, N. Suba , L. Jeyaseeli & M. Sukumaran

 

Bacterial density of Azospirillum was found higher in the roots of Avicennia marina (148.88 ´ 104 g-1 dry weight) and rhizosphere sediment of Suaeda monoica (20.0 ´ 103 g-1 dry weight). The growth, production of indole acetic acid (IAA) and the rate of nitrogen fixation in Azospirillum brasilense were found to be maximum at pH 7.0. At 3 % NaCl, it showed better growth and production of IAA, however the rate of nitrogen fixation was slowed down at 1 % NaCl and was completely arrested at 1.5 %. The percentage of germination in coastal crop plants increased by 70 % in black gram and 45 % in rice with the inoculation of Azospirillum brasilense compared with control. The saline tolerant Azospirillum is recommended as biofertilizer for improving crop yield in coastal agricultural fields

[ Key words : Azospirillum, indole acetic acid, mangroves, nitrogen fixation ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 161-164

Antimicrobial substances of potential biomedical importance
from holothurian species

T. Jawahar Abraham*, J. Nagarajan & S.A. Shanmugam

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of alcoholic extracts of holothurian species such as Actinopyga echinites,A. miliaris. Holothuria atra and H. scabra of Tamil Nadu coast were studied. Bacteria such as Aeromonas hydrophila,Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi, and fish-borne mold, Aspergillus sp. were inhibited at varying levels by the extracts ofA. miliaris, H. atra and H. scabra. Bacillus sp. was not affected by holothurian extracts. The results of the study revealed the presence of antimicrobial substances possibly steroidal sapogenins in holothuria. There exist a great potential for the extraction of bioactive substances of medical importance at a lower cost from marine holothurians.

[ Key words : Holothuria spp., Actinopyga spp., antimicrobial activity, bioactive substances, human pathogens ]

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(2), June 2002, pp. 165-166

 

Book Review

Prawns of Japan and the World (Translated from Japanese), Special Indian Edition, Editor-in Chief, Chiaki Koizumi (Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Calcutta), 2001, xiii+259 pp, Hard Cover, Rs. 950/-

[ISBN: 81-204-1445-4]