Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

(www. bioline.org.br/im ; www. niscom.res.in)

[ISSN: 0379-5136  CODEN : IJMNBF]

 

VOLUME 31

NUMBER 1

MARCH 2002

CONTENTS

Papers

Mangroves along the coastal stretch of the Bay of Bengal: Present status

9-20

F. Blasco & M. Aizpuru

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Effect of light quality on the cell integrity in marine alga Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyceae)

21-25

B. Muthuvelan, T. Noro & K. Nakamura

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Seasonal growth pattern in Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh (Phaeophyta, Fucales) occurring at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

26-32

A. Srinivasa Rao & M. Umamaheswara Rao

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Screening of Codiacean algae (Chlorophyta) of the Indian coasts for blood anticoagulant activity

33-38

M. Shanmugam, K. H. Mody, B. K. Ramavat, A. Sai Krishna Murthy

& A.K. Siddhanta

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Isolation of marine bacteria, antagonistic to human pathogens

39-44

K. Jayanth, G. Jeyasekaran & R. Jeya Shakila

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Sepia prabahari sp. nov. (Mollusca/Cephalopoda), a new species of Acanthosepion species complex from Tuticorin bay, southeast coast of India

45-51

N. Neethiselvan & V. K. Venkataramani

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

A study on the seasonal dynamics of Beypore estuary, Kerala coast

52-58

N. Anilkumar & P. K. Dineshkumar

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Short Communications

 

 

 

Heat budget of the southeastern part of the Arabian gulf

59-61

S. A. R. Sultan & N.M. Elghribi

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Do outer membrane proteins of biofouling bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus have lectins?

62-64

J. Muralidharan & S. Jayachandran

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Abundance of indicator and general heterotrophic bacteria in Port Blair bay, Andamans

65-68

T. Nallathambi, M. Eashwar, K. Kuberaraj & G. Govindarajan

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )                       

 

Variations in hetetrophic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Chennai, southeast coast of India

69-72

S. Seshadri, S. Ignacimuthu & C. Lakshminarsimhan

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Endophytic fungi associated with the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis (Hydrocharitaceae)

73-74

P. T. Devarajan, T. S. Suryanarayanan & V. Geetha

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Cultivation of marine red alga Gracilaria edulis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta) from spores

75-77

Reeta Jayasankar & Sally Varghese

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

Breeding biology of shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Miline Edwards) (Crustacea: Decapoda) along the Neendakara zone, SW coast of India

78-80

V. Sunil & H. Suryanarayanan

 

(For full text : www. bioline.org.br/im )

 

 

 

ABSTRACTS   OF  THE   PAPERS

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 9-20

 

Mangroves along the coastal stretch of the Bay of Bengal: Present status

F. Blasco & M. Aizpuru

With the help of high resolution satellite data (SPOT products), it has been possible to portray on maps the present distribution of main mangrove types and sub-types of the Bay of Bengal coastline. New figures have been given for the mangroves of each concerned country especially for Myanmar. The present ecological status of mangrove ecosystems in the three major deltas, the Godavari, the Ganges and the Irrawaddy are totally distinct. In the Godavari delta (India) mangroves are receding in area and biomass; in the Ganges, the Sunderbans (India and Bangladesh) are evolving very slowly in size but an important species substitution is in progress; in the Irrawaddy (Myanmar) mangroves are in continuous decline. The present distribution and status of each mangrove type is the result of direct and indirect anthropic factors. Conversion to agriculture, reafforestation, fishponds constructions, forest exploitation are now easily detected from space. Conversely, indirect impacts, such as freshwater diversion or chemical pollution, cannot be monitored with sensors operating in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum.

[ Key words : Mangroves, mapping, remote sensing, Bay of Bengal ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 21-25

 

Effect of light quality on the cell integrity in marine alga
Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyceae)

B. Muthuvelan, T. Noro, & K. Nakamura

A floating sterile mutant of Ulva pertusa was grown in the laboratory under various light conditions: White light (as reference), broadband isoquantic red (600 – 700 nm) and blue (400 – 500 nm) light. The morphological variation of cell organelles of white (WLC), blue (BLC) and red light cultures (RLC) was studied by electron microscopy after 15 days of light treatment with 14: 10 h light and dark photoperiod. The results indicate that blue light is more efficient than the red light in developing the thylakoid architecture of individual cell organelles. The cell maintenance (integrity) process, which is most essential for the cell division and growth, was found to be positively controlled by blue light. Furthermore, the cell morphology of Ulva was relatively well developed in BLC than in RLC and also comparable with WLC. The results suggest that the red part of the light, though not by itself able to support the growth, is not inhibitory either to growth or to the maintenance of cell integrity. However, the energy is not substantial to run other essential metabolic process.

[ Key words : Light quality, cell integrity, Ulva pertusa ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 26-32

 

Seasonal growth pattern in Sargassum polycystum C. Agardh
(Phaeophyta, Fucales) occurring at Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

A. Srinivasa Rao and M. Umamaheswara Rao

Sargassum polycystum is a conspicuous component of the intertidal algal flora of Visakhapatnam coast. Seasonal growth pattern of this brown alga was studied, collecting data on mean thallus length, mean number of primary shoots, frequency of different size classes and reproductive condition as well as on some environmental factors for two years (November 1994 to October 1996). This alga showed marked seasonality, commencing its growth from April/May every year and attained its maximum length in the winter months (November to December/January). Maximum number of primary shoots and higher frequency of larger size classes were also noticed during the winter season. The seasonal growth showed significant negative correlation with temperature, indicating it as a causal factor for seasonality than the other environmental conditions.

[ Key words : Environmental factors, seasonality, growth, fertility,   brown seaweed, Sargassum ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 33-38

 

Screening of Codiacean algae (Chlorophyta) of the Indian coasts for
blood anticoagulant activity

M. Shanmugam, K. H. Mody, B. K. Ramavat, A. Sai Krishna Murthy & A. K. Siddhanta

 

Thirteen species of marine algae belonging to the family Codiaceae were selected from the Indian coast to study their sulphated polysaccharide (SPS) contents and their blood anticoagulant activity. The algal species studied include Codium dwarkense, C. tomentosum, C. indicum, C. geppei, C. iyengarii, C. coronatum, C. tenue, C. decorticatum, Udotea indica,
U. flabellam, Halimeda tuna, H. gracilis and Avrainvillea erecta. Cold and hot water extracts were prepared from all the species and chemical compositions (e.g. total sugar, sulphate, protein and uronic acid contents) were analysed. All the SPS samples were screened for their blood anticoagulant activity (PT test). It was observed that blood anticoagulant activity
(cf. Codium spp.) is generally higher with samples containing higher sugar and sulphate contents. Neutral sugar composition was analysed and active extract was found to contain relatively more arabinose. Seasonal variation in chemical composition and blood anticoagulant activity of the SPS of C. dwarkense were also studied alongside. It was observed that matured plants showed higher activity than the younger ones and arabinose was detected in higher quantity in the former. This work reveals that a few Codium species e.g. C. dwarkense, C. indicum and C. tomentosum, C. geppi produce strongly active blood anticoagulant SPS while the ones obtained from the other Indian Codiaceae species under investigation exhibit very low activity.

[ Key words: Blood anticoagulant, Codium species, Codiaceae, Udotea, Halimeda, Avrainvilliea ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 39-44

 

Isolation of marine bacteria, antagonistic to human pathogens

K. Jayanth, G. Jeyasekaran & R. Jeya Shakila

 

Pigmented bacteria from marine samples including seawater, sediment, seaplants, bivalves and submerged substrates of the Tuticorin coast were screened for the antibacterial activity. Of the 162 pigmented bacteria, 62 exhibited antagonism towards the indicator organisms Lactobacillus, Arthrobacter and Micrococcus. Alteromonas was the dominant antagonistic marine bacteria, exhibiting a wide antibacterial spectrum against the human pathogens associated with seafoods such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. Results indicated that antibacterial substances present in the antagonistic marine bacteria could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogens.

[ Key words :  Bacteria, pathogens, antagonism, seafoods, human pathogens ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 45-51

 

Sepia prabahari sp. nov. (Mollusca/Cephalopoda), a new species of
Acanthosepion species complex from Tuticorin bay, southeast coast of India

N. Neethiselvan & V. K. Venkataramani

 

A new cuttlefish Sepia prabahari sp. nov. collected from Tuticorin bay(8o47’N, 78o9’E) is described with a comparison of the closely related species Sepia pharaonis. Sepia prabahari sp. nov. shows a clear-cut sexual dimorphism with respect to length and shape of arms. In males, first and fourth pair of arms distinctly extended and whip like. However, in females, first and fourth arms are neither distinctly extended nor whip like. Sepia prabahari sp. nov. closely resembles the juvenile of
Sepia pharaonis as both of them have distinct tiger-stripe pattern on the dorsal side of the mantle. However, Sepia prabahari sp. nov. can easily be distinguished from the closely related species S.pharaonis based on the arrangement of suckers in the tentacular club. The tentacular club of S. prabahari sp. nov. is with minute suckers of equal size without any enlarged suckers, in contrast to that of S. pharaonis with big suckers, of which about 6 suckers in medial rows are much enlarged.
In S .prabahari sp. nov. the left ventral arm of male is hectocotylised with 8 transverse series of normal basal suckers followed by 7 series of modified suckers, in contrast to 10-12 basal transverse series of normal suckers followed by 7 series of modified suckers in S.pharaonis. Further, S prabahari sp. nov belongs to Acanthosepion species complex (Rocheburne, 1884) as its inner cone of the cuttlebone is distinct, forming rounded and cap-like cavity in contrast to that of plate like callosity in S.pharaonis and hence belongs to Sepia sensu stricto species complex. The diagnostic characters of the species belong to the Acanthosepion species complex of the genus Sepia of Indian waters with that of S. prabahari sp. nov. are also discussed.

   [ Key words: Sepia prabahari sp. nov., Acanthosepion species complex, description, diagnostic characters ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 52-58

 

A study on the seasonal dynamics of Beypore estuary, Kerala coast

N. Anilkumar & P.K. Dineshkumar

Mixing characteristics of the Beypore estuary were determined up to 15 km upstream of Chaliyar river. The study area was divided into four sections(5km interval) with two transverse stations on either side of each section. The diffusivity values were found to be almost equal in four sections during premonsoon months. In July it was 9.08 m2/sec at river mouth and zero at the upper reaches of the estuary. In postmonsoon season the diffusivity values decreased upstream. Maximum value of flushing time was computed in March (14.85 tidal cycle) and minimum in July (0.23 tidal cycle). At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon and monsoon season. During the premonsoon period the transport was upstream and the net transport was higher during May. Maximum flux of the suspended sediment was obtained during July (1220.97 mg/cm2/sec) at the river mouth. Highly negative fluxes were obtained during premonsoon period with the highest negative value occurring during May (-381.31 mg/cm2/sec) at river mouth. During the study period the annual sediment input and the net sediment transported towards the sea were estimated to be 8.8 ΄ 104 and 5.7 ΄ 104 tons/year respectively so that the annual entrapment of sediment was 3.1 ΄ 104 tons/yr. The logarithmic values of Richardsons number (logRL) showed large variation at river mouth section of the estuary and at about 10 kms upstream during the postmonsoon period. During the premonsoon period there was no noticeable variation in log RL values at these two places and the estuary was found to be well mixed. During the monsoon period, the stratification was higher and the variation in logRL was high from flood to ebb tide.

 

[ Key  words: Beypore estuary,  eddy diffusivity, flushing time, flux, sediment budget ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 59-61

 

Heat budget of the southeastern part of the Arabian Gulf

S. A. R. Sultan & N. M. Elghribi

 

The surface heat fluxes through the air-sea interface for the coastal water of the southeastern part of the Arabian Gulf have been estimated using the bulk formulas. The annual mean values of the sensible, latent and back radiation fluxes are 3, 153 and 57 W/m2 respectively. The annual mean of recorded solar radiation is 201 W/m2, thus, giving an annual heat deficit of 6 W/m2.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 62-64

 

Do outer membrane proteins of biofouling bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus
have lectins?

J. Muralidharan & S. Jayachandran

 

The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Vibrio alginolyticus, isolated from tin panels lowered into the seawater when subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis revealed proteins of molecular weight ranging from 14 – 116 kDa. However, when stained with PAS only 9 glycoprotein bands were observed. Sugar binding studies and hemagglutination assay performed with RBCs from various animals confirmed the absence of lectins. Apparantely adhesion of V. alginolyticus to tin panels involves other interactions such as Van der Wall’s interaction and electrostatic forces.

[ Key words : Outer membrane, proteins, biofouling, Vibrio alginolyticus, lectins ]

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 65-68

 

Abundance of indicator and general heterotrophic bacteria in
Port Blair bay, Andamans

T. Nallathambi, M. Eashwar & K. Kuberaraj and G. Govindarajan

 

Viable counts of indicator and general heterotrophic bacterial populations were enumerated from 6 stations in Port Blair bay during different seasons. High counts of coliforms and indicator bacteria were generally recorded in the Aberdeen zone of Port Blair bay. Other zones in the bay showed few, if any, coliforms or indicator species during non-monsoon periods. During periods of intensive rainfall, the entire bay waters showed positive results for Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli like organisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mostly absent, except during a dinoflagellate bloom when counts as high as 102 CFU ml-1 were recorded. Viable heterotrophic bacteria showed a specific pattern of variation in which the numbers decreased progressively from the entry channel to inner portions of the bay. On the whole, results point to the large probability of coastal water contamination from rainwater runoff effects.

[ Key  word s: Coastal water contamination, indicator bacteria, rainfall, heterotrophic bacteria,

Port Blair bay, Andamans, land run off ]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 69-72

 

Variations in hetetrophic and phosphate solubilizing bacteria from Chennai, southeast coast of India

S. Seshadri & S. Ignacimuthu and C. Lakshminarsimhan

Estuarine and open coastal biotopes along the Chennai coast were sampled bimonthly for total heterotrophic as well as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) between January and December 1999. THB was high during months January, September and November. THB population ranged from 6.03 – 8.13 ΄ 105 cells ml-1 and phosphate solubilizing bacterial population from 1.00–1.3 ΄ 103 cells ml-1. Pseudomonas and Bacillus were found to solubilize more phosphates than others. Further the phosphate solubilizing potential of Pseudomonas was confirmed in broth cultures where P solubilization was 1700 mg /ml-1 associated with reduction of pH.

[ Key words : Total heterotrophic bacteria, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Chennai coast, Pulicat lake ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 73-74

 

Endophytic fungi associated with the tropical seagrass Halophila ovalis
(Hydrocharitaceae)

P. T. Devarajan, T. S. Suryanarayanan and V. Geetha

Leaf blade, petiole and rhizome of the seagrass Halophila ovalis were examined for the presence of endophytic fungi. Although the seagrass harboured endophytic fungi, their number and colonization densities in seagrass tissues were low. This is presumed to be due to a combination of physical and chemical factors.

[ Key words : Seagrass, Halophila, fungal endophyte, tropical endophytes ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 75-77

 

Cultivation of marine red alga Gracilaria edulis (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta)

from spores

Reeta Jayasankar & Sally Varghese

 

Gracilaria edulis, a major Indian agarophyte, has been successfully cultivated in an experimental scale from spores at sea off Narakkal, Kochi. Artificial objects like floating raft, nylon ropes and net pieces were provided in the open sea for collection of spores of Gracilaria edulis. They were allowed to grow to mature size of 30 cm. After 76 days of culture period, fully grown healthy plants of Gracilaria edulis were harvested from the nylon rope by hand pruning. Further growth was much faster. A total yield of 7.220 kg plants was obtained during 122 days of the culture period. The work has resulted in the successful cultivation of the species from the east coast to a coastal area of the west coast, Narakkal, and also in the identification of a fertile culture ground (open sea off Narakkal, Kochi) along the Kerala coast during favourable period of growth.

[ Key words : Spores, propagation, Gracilaria, cultivation ]

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(1), March 2002, pp. 78-80

 

 

Breeding biology of shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera (Milne Edwards)
(Crustacea: Decapoda) along the Neendakara zone, SW coast of IndiaError! Bookmark not defined.

V Sunil & H Suryanarayanan

Investigations on gonado‑somatic index, stages of maturity and fecundity of Parapenaeopsis stylifera were carried out from the Neendakara zone, Kerala coast for a period of one year. Females with mature ovaries occurred throughout the year showing that they spawn continuously the peak season being May and July. The gonado‑somatic index exhibited a variation from 3.39 to 10.54(%). The mean fecundity of 87,641 was observed. There was a linear relationship between the fecundity and the length of shrimp, weight of shrimp, length of ovary and weight of ovary.

[ Key words : Feecundity, gonado-somatic index, shrimp, stages of maturity ]