CODEN :  [ISSN: 0379-5136 IJMNBF]

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

(www. www. niscom.res.in) ; bioline.org.br/im

 

31 VOLUME

3 NUMBER

2002 SEPTEMBER

CONTENTS

Papers

 

 

Coherence between interannual variability of sea level with some surface met-ocean parameters at Cochin, southwest coast of India

K. Srinivas

173-178

 

 

 

 

Wave forces on a vertical cylinder defenced by a perforated vertical and inclined barriers

S. Neelamani & M. G. Muni Reddy

179-187

 

 

 

 

Nutrients and phytoplankton in the Babadillimani Bight, northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

Sevim Polat & Mine Percin Piner

188-194

 

 

 

 

Role of natural productivity in modified extensive shrimp pond growing Penaeus monodon (Penaeidae, Crustacea)

M. Suriyanarayana Moorthy & K. Altaff

195-200

 

 

 

 

Occurrence of a new species of colonial ascidian ¾ Eudistoma kaverium sp. nov. and four new records of Eudistoma to Indian coastal waters

V. K. Meenakshi

201-206

 

 

 

 

Settlement pattern of ascidians in harbour waters of Mumbai, west coast of India

B. S. Swami & B.F. Chhapgar

207-212

 

 

 

 

Population dynamics of siboga squid Doryteuthis sibogae (Cephalopoda/Teuthoidea) in Thoothukkudi (Tuticorin) coast, southeast coast of India

N. Neethiselvan & V. K. Venkataramani

213-217

 

 

 

 

Reproductive effects of heavy metals on the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis (Mollusca: Prosobranchia)

Erema R. Daka & S. J. Hawkins

218-224

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrocarbon distribution in flat fish Psettodes erumei (Pleuronectiformes) and mussel Modiolus striatulus (Heterodonta) from the southeast coastal region of Bangladesh

Biplob Das, Y.S.A. Khan, Pranab Das & S. H. Likhon

225-230

 

(Contd)

Short Communications

 

Acoustic characteristics of the eastern Mediterranean during winter season

231-234

Ahmed M. Mahar

 

 

 

Epiphytic bryozoan community of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadow in the northern Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean)

Ferah Kocak, Andrea Balduzzi & H. Avni Benli

235-238

 

 

Antimicrobial activity in the tissue extracts of five species of cowries Cypraea spp. (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and an ascidian Didemnum psammathodes (Tunicata: Didemnidae)

T. Prem Anand & J. K. Patterson Edward

239-242

 

 

Imposex in muricid gastropod Thais biserialis (Mollusca: Neogastropoda Muricidae) from Tuticorin harbour, southeast coast of India

M. Santhana Ramasamy & A. Murugan

243-245

 

 

Biochemical changes in tissues of crab Sesarma quadratum (decapoda) exposed to CuC12

S. Valarmathi & J. Azariah

246-248

 

 

In vivo induction of multiple shoots for scaling up of propagation of tree mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav. (Rhizophoraceae)

U. C. Basak & P. Das

249-250

 

 

Metal concentrations in five mangrove species of the Bhitarkanika, Orissa, east coast of India

R. K. Sarangi, K. Kathiresan & A. N. Subramanian

251-253

 

 

Book Review

 

Paleamonid prawns : Biodiversity,  taxonomy, biology and management(by K. V. Jayachandran)

C. T. Achuthankutty

254-256

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 173-178

 

 

Coherence between interannual variability of sea level with some surface
met-ocean parameters at Cochin, southwest coast of India

K. Srinivas

National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Cochin - 682 014, Kerala, India

[ E-mail: srinivas_kantha@rediffmail.com; srinivas_kantha@yahoo.co.in ]

Received 4 October 2001, revised 14 June 2002

The interannual coherence of some surface met-ocean parameters (viz. SST, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, scalar wind speed, cross-shore and along-shore wind stress, rainfall and relative density) with observed sea level has been studied for Cochin (southwest coast of India) using long term time series data. Among the parameters, SST, relative density and sea level showed statistically significant long term trends. All the parameters, when smoothed, showed statistically significant correlations with the observed sea level. Forty percent of the variance in the sea level was accounted for by the along-shore wind stress.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 179-187

 

 

Wave forces on a vertical cylinder defenced by a perforated vertical
and inclined barriers

S. Neelamani & M. G. Muni Reddy

Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai—600 036, India

[ E-mail: sneel@pallava.iitm.ernet.in ]

Received 7 September 2001, revised 27 May 2002

Wave forces on a vertical cylinder defensed by a perforated vertical and inclined barriers with 45° angle of inclination were experimentally investigated. The relative wave height, (Hi/d) varied from 0.114 to 0.429 and the porosity was kept constant with 12%. The force ratios were found reducing with increase of Hi/d. It is estimated that on an average, the reduction of force on the vertical cylinder is about 35% due to perforated vertical barrier and is about 30% due to sloped barrier. Incident wave steepness, (Hi/L) varied from 0.007 to 0. 080 and the force ratios were also found reducing with increase of wave steepness. The force ratios are less sensitive for the scattering parameter (ka).

 

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 188-194

 

 

Nutrients and phytoplankton in the Babadıllimanı Bight,
northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

*Sevim Polat & Mine Perçin Piner

Çukurova University, Faculty of Fisheries, 01330, Balcalı, Adana, Turkey

[ *e-mail : sevcan@mail.cu.edu.tr ]

Received 29 October 2001, revised 8 May 2002

Phytoplankton taxa and abundance were determined and nutrients and chlorophyll a were measured in the Babadıllimanı Bight located in the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Sampling was performed four times between the period of 1999 and 2000. The concentration of, PO4-P, NO3+NO2-N and [Si(OH)4]-Si in surface water varied in the range of < 0.01-0.22 mM, 0.37-1.23 mM and 0.52-2.02 mM, respectively. Surface water phytoplankton abundance reached the highest level (572.4 ´ 102 cells l-1) in March mainly due to the increase of a diatom, Skeletonema costatum. It reached the lowest level in August (3.36 ´ 102 cells l-1). Chlorophyll a concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg l-1 to 0.87 mg l-1 in surface water. Nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton biomass of the research area were found poorer than those of the many other coastal areas in the region and the other world oceans. Although the study was performed in a coastal area, the results reflect the oligotrophic nature of the eastern Mediterranean.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 195-200

 

Role of natural productivity in modified extensive shrimp pond growing
Penaeus monodon (Penaeidae, Crustacea)

M. Suriyanarayana Moorthy & K Altaff*

Department of Zoology, The New College, Chennai-600 014, T.N., India

Received 13 August 2001, revised 18 April 2002

Hydrobiology of a modified extensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture pond was monitored. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of plankton population revealed higher phytoplankton population during the first six weeks of culture which declined to low level thereafter and remained at that level till the end of the culture period. Zooplankton was represented mainly by rotifers, copepods and mysids. Dense population of rotifers and copepods occurred during the first-month of culture while mysids appeared from the third week of first-month and dominated there after. Composition of zooplankton varied depending on the occurrence of Brachionus plicatilis, Keratella spp, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei Paracalanus
aculetaus, Oithona brevicornis
, Microstella norvegica and Mesopodopsis zeylanica during the culture period. Gut content analyses showed sand grains, zooplankton, pelletized feed and unidentified semi-digested food matter in the proportions of 43%, 16%, 21% and 20% respectively. The percentage of stomach contents varied in different size groups. It is observed that during the early phase of culture natural food contributes considerably to the growth of the shrimp.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 201-206

 

 

Occurrence of a new species of colonial ascidian – Eudistoma kaverium sp. nov. and four new records of Eudistoma to Indian coastal waters

V. K. Meenakshi

Department of Zoology, A.P.C. Mahalaxmi College for Women, Tuticorin 628 002, Tamil Nadu, India

[ E-mail: vkmeenakshi@yahoo.com ]

Received 14 August 2001, revised 10 June 2002

Five species of colonial ascidians of the genus Eudistoma are reported of which Eudistoma kaverium sp. nov. is new to science and the other four ¾ Eudistoma constrictum Kott, 1990; Eudistoma laysani (Sluiter, 1900); Eudistoma ovatum (Herdman, 1886); Eudistoma toealensis Millar, 1975 are new records to Indian waters.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 207-212

 

Settlement pattern of ascidians in harbour waters of Mumbai, west coast of India

B. S. Swami

Marine Biology & Environmental Sciences, Naval Materials Research Laboratory, Anandnagar,
P.O., Ambernath (E)-421 506, Maharashtra, India

( E-mail : swami @ ncml.ernet.in )

and

B. F. Chhapgar

Bombay Natural History Society, Hornbill House, S.B.Singh Road, Mumbai-400 023, India

Received 22 March 2001, revised 9 May 2002

The study was carried out in Mumbai (Bombay) harbour during 1995-96 by exposing perspex coupons at two study sites, namely South break waters and Tidal basin . Though the ascidian species, solitary or colonial, settle throughout the year, their prevalence however, varies considerably from month to month. As many as ten species of ascidians were recorded from the two sites. Out of these, seven species, namely Symplegma reptans, Symplegma brakenbielmi, Symplegma viride, Diplosoma macdonaldi, Botrylloides magnicoecum, Botrylloides chevalense and Ecteinascidia sp. are colonial ascidians and Styela bicolor, Ascidia indica and Ascidia sydneiensis are solitary forms. Of these, the species namely
A. sydneiensis B. magnicoecum, B. chevalense, S. viride, D. macdonaldi and A. indica are reported for the first time from this region. Amongst these, S. reptans, B. magnicoecum and A.
sydneiensis are of common occurrence. The species
S. reptans and A. sydneiensis occurred throughout the year. During monsoon (June-September), the settlement of ascidians at cleaner south break waters is notably reduced, whereas, at tidal basin the colonies recorded were around 110/m2. At south break waters, during post-monsoon period, when water temperature reduced to 27°C and sea conditions are normal, the ascidians appeared in large number (max.1776/m2). During pre-monsoon period, though the population density varied, the species composition remained high at both the sites. The non-monsoon months of October to May is the favourable period for ascidian settlement in Mumbai harbour.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 213-217

 

Population dynamics of siboga squid Doryteuthis sibogae
(Cephalopoda/Teuthoidea) in Thoothukkudi (Tuticorin)
coast, southeast coast of India

*N. Neethiselvan & V. K. Venkataramani

Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University,

Thoothukkudi-628 008, Tamil Nadu, India

Received 25 June 2001,revised 13 May 2002

Study on the population dynamics of siboga squid Doryteuthis sibogae in Thoothukkudi coast revealed that the seasonal change has definite impact on the growth of this species. The growth parameters viz. L¥, K, t0, C, and j  were 39.5 cm, 0.4, -0.02, 0.5 and 2.9 respectively. Mortality parameters Z, M and F were estimated as 2.27 / year, 0.91 / year and 1.36 / year. Weight was more or less square function of length rather than in cubic function. This squid was found to have two recruitment seasons, one major season during December and a minor season during April. The length structured virtual population analysis revealed heavy fishing pressure on the length group 17 - 20 cm and hence the fishery of D. sibogae was not found to suffer due to recruitment overfishing in Thoothukkudi waters. Estimated total stock, average annual stock and maximum sustainable yield(MSY) were 529.47, 209.14 and 217.33 tonnes respectively. Present level of exploitation rate (U) and exploitation ratio (F/Z) was estimated to be 0.5372 and 0.6 respectively. The study infers that the cod end mesh size of the trawls of Thoothukkudi has to be increased from 10 to 25 mm to increase the yield per recruit. Further, the effort should be reduced and maintained at the exploitation ratio of 0.45 to get maximum yield per recruit. The study suggests reducing the present level of effort by 10 percent to sustain the stock of D.sibogae in Thoothukkudi waters.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 218-224

 

Reproductive effects of heavy metals on the rough periwinkle Littorina saxatilis (Mollusca: Prosobranchia)

Erema R. Daka1*

Port Erin Marine Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Port Erin, Isle of Man, IM9 6JA, United Kingdom

and

S. J. Hawkins2

Biodiversity and Ecology Division, School of Biological Sciences, University of Southampton,
Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom

Received 20 August 2001, revised 10 June 2002

The effects of chronic mine-related heavy metal contamination on reproduction of Littorina saxatilis from sites around the Isle of Man were assessed. Size at birth of young, reproductive output (i.e. number of embryos in brood pouch) and frequencies of abnormal embryos in the brood pouch were examined in animals from five sites. Laxey estuary was the most contaminated compared to other sites with less contamination (Peel) and relatively uncontaminated control sites (Castletown, Ramsey estuaries and the open coast near Derbyhaven). The size at birth of young ranged from 0.365-0.876 mm and the lowest mean size at birth (0.517 + 0.048 mm) was found in the animals from Laxey estuary. Those from Derbyhaven had the highest mean size at birth (0.632 + 0.063 mm). ANOVA showed a significant difference in mean size at birth of young, between individuals from the five sites (p<0.0001). However, the individuals from Laxey also had the highest absolute mean count of embryos in their brood pouch implying that there might be some trade-off between reproductive output and size of young as a result of metal contamination. No heavy metal related differences in embryo abnormality were apparent. Rather, a high proportion of abnormal embryos in animals from Derbyhaven suggested that disease conditions, genetic factors or unidentified toxins might account for the differences observed.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 225-230

 

Hydrocarbon distribution in flat fish Psettodes erumei (Pleuronectiformes)
and mussel Modiolus striatulus (Heterodonta) from the southeast coastal
region of Bangladesh

Biplob Das, Y. S. A. Khan*, Pranab Das & S. H. Likhon

Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331, Bangladesh

Received 1 January 2002, revised 22 April 2002

The nature of hydrocarbons in flat fish Psettodes erumei and mussel Modiolus striatulus were studied to assess the extent of hydrocarbon pollution in the marine environment. Concentration of group composition (aliphatic, aromatic and polar compounds) extracts in flat fish ranged from 427 ppm (w/w) to 435 ppm (w/w) for aliphatic, from 559 ppm (w/w) to 569 ppm (w/w) for aromatic and from 32992 ppm (w/w) to 33921 ppm (w/w) for polar compound. Whereas, the concentration in mussel ranged from 1415 ppm (w/w) to 1413 ppm (w/w) for aliphatic, from 479 ppm (w/w) to 496 ppm (w/w) for aromatic and from 43466 ppm (w/w) to 44066 ppm (w/w) for polar compound. Concentration of the total hydrocarbons in different extracts of flat fish and mussel were found in order of mussel > flat fish.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 231-234

 

 

 

Acoustic characteristics of the eastern Mediterranean during winter season

Ahmed M. Mahar

National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences ( NARSS)

23 Joseph Brows Tito St., El Nozha-Gedida, Cairo, Egypt

[ ammahar@yahoo.com ]

Received 23 February 2001; revised 11 May 2002

The distribution of different acoustic properties: mean vertical sound speed (MVSS), depth of the sound channel axis, sound speed along the sound channel axis, the range, and the angle of the limiting ray have been obtained. Generally the sound channel is deeper in the southern part of the eastern Mediterranean, with higher sound speed. The distribution of the MVSS and also the sound speed along the sound channel axis did not change during winter (December, January and February) season from year to year. The range and the angle of the limiting ray characterize the shadow zone. The range generally decreases in the southern section of the basin so that it is associated with deeper sound channel and higher sound speed, which are also associated with small angle of the limiting ray. The areas that had values of greater  ranges are those, which are also associated with small angle of the limiting ray. The areas that had values of greater ranges are those, which had a limiting, ray angle between 1° and 1.4°. The sound channel axis in the Eastern Mediterranean, is generally, found at depths more than 200 m. This indicates that the sound channel is associated with the depth of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The LIW sometimes are observed in the surface layer and hence the sound channel occurred near or at the surface layer.

 

Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 235-238

 

Epiphytic bryozoan community of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadow
in the northern Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean)

Ferah Kocak1*, Andrea Balduzzi2 & H. Avni Benli1

1DEU Institute of Marine Sciences and Technology, 35340, Inciraltı-Izmir, Turkey

2University of Genova, DIPTERIS, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genoa, Italy

[ *kocak@imst.deu.edu.tr ]

Received 18 June 2001, revised 26 April 2002

Bryozoan communities occurring on leaves and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, in seven meadows along the northern coast of Cyprus from 3 and 10 m depths were studied in July 1998. Forty-three epiphytic bryozoan species (5 Ctenostomata, 32 Cheilostomata, 6 Cyclostomata) were found. Crisia ramosa was recorded for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea while 6 species showed restricted biogeographical distribution. The epiphytic species are qualitatively richer on the rhizomes compared to those noted on leaves.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 239-242

 

Antimicrobial activity in the tissue extracts of five species of cowries Cypraea spp.
(Mollusca: Gastropoda) and an ascidian Didemnum psammathodes
(Tunicata: Didemnidae)

*T. Prem Anand & J. K. Patterson Edward

Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute, 44, Beach Road, Tuticorin – 628 001, Tamil Nadu, India

*[ E-mail : prem anand t@rediffmail.com ]

Received 18 July 2001, revised 2 May 2002

Five species of Cypraea (Cypraea errones, C. arabica, C. onyx, C. tigris and C. vitellus) were assayed for their antibacterial and antifungal activity against 15 bacterial pathogens and 3 fungal pathogens. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were exhibited only by C. errones extracts. An ascidian, Didemnum psammathodes, the principal diet of C. errones was also assayed for antimicrobial activity to evaluate whether the activity exhibited by C. errones was derived from its diet. The ascidian extract exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the extracts of C. errones and Didemnum psammathodes confirmed that the activity exhibited by C. errones was not diet derived.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 243-245

 

 

Imposex in muricid gastropod Thais biserialis (Mollusca: Neogastropoda:
Muricidae) from Tuticorin harbour, southeast coast of India

M. Santhana Ramasamy & A. Murugan*

Suganthi Devadason Marine Research Institute, 44-Beach Road, Tuticorin- 628 001, Tamil Nadu, India

[ *E-mail: a__murugan@hotmail.com ]

Received 21 November 2001, revised 15 May 2002

Imposex has been reported in the muricid gastropod Thais biserialis from inside the Tuticorin port. The sex ratio departed from 1:1 and the males were dominant. The frequency of imposex in females was 35%. The Vas deferens sequence (VDS) index indicated the occurrence of initial imposex stages of 1a and 2a i.e. the development of penis and penis with closed duct. The Relative penis size (RPS) index values were less when compared to the reports elsewhere. The observation of imposex indicated the possible contamination of tributyltin (TBT), which could have leached out from antifouling paints of the ships using Tuticorin port.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 246-248

 

Biochemical changes in tissues of crab Sesarma quadratum (Decapoda)
exposed to CuCl2

S. Valarmathi & J. Azariah*

Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 020, India

[ E-mail: jazariah@yahoo.com ]

Received 8 November 2001, revised 10 June 2002

Crabs of the species Sesarma quadratum were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of CuCl2 (2.8 and 9.3 ppm) for 21 days. Suitable control experiments were maintained. Sample tissues were taken from the muscle, gills and hepatopancreas of crabs of both test and control groups after an exposure to CuCl2 for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. The levels of protein, amino acids, lipids, free sugar and protein bound sugar were found to be lower in comparison with control crabs, in the case of muscle, gills and hepatopancreas of test crabs, especially those exposed to 9.3 ppm of sublethal concentration of CuCl2. However, present data strongly suggest that CuCl2 is toxic to Sesarma quadratum resulting in alterations in major biochemical constituents of all tissues.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 249-250

 

In vivo induction of multiple shoots for scaling up of propagation of tree mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza
(Linn.) Sav. (Rhizophoraceae)

*U. C. Basak & P. Das

Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar-751015, 0rissa, India

[ *Email: u_c_basak@hotmail.com ]

Received 19 November 2001, revised 27 May 2002

In vivo shoot induction in hypocotyls and rooting of the regenerated shoots of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Linn.) Sav., was standardised as a new method of vegetative propagation. Rooting response of the air-layers made from multiple shoots with the aid of exogenously applied plant growth regulators (IAA+IBA) by pre-girdling is studied. Multiple shoots were induced in 80 % of the hypocotyls treated and the number of regenerated shoots varied from 2-5 with an average value of 3.5 per hypocotyl. Better rooting performance (80 %) was recorded in air-layers treated with IAA+IBA (3000 mg l-1 each). More than 80 % of the rooted air-layers survived in the nursery in polybags. Thus, through this method, 2-3 times more planting materials could be made available for vegetative propagation of B. gymnorrhiza.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 251-253

 

 

Metal concentrations in five mangrove species of the Bhitarkanika, Orissa,
east coast of India

*R. K. Sarangi, K. Kathiresan & A. N. Subramanian

Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai– 608 502, TN, India

Received 3 November 2000, revised 15 April 2002

The study deals with metal concentrations in five mangrove species Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera cylindrica, Ceriops decandra, and Xylocarpus granatum with regard to the heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and major elements like Na, K, Ca. The metallic concentrations were analysed in sediment samples collected from surrounding root zone of mangrove species and in the leaves of the same plant. Avicennia officinalis accumulated high concentrations of all the metals analysed, followed by X. granatum, B. cylindrica, R. mucronata and C. decandra. The samples collected during the monsoon period (26th August 1996) showed high metallic concentrations than the samples of post-monsoon
(10th January 1997) and pre-monsoon (11th April 1996) period.

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Indian Journal of Marine Sciences

Vol. 31(3), September 2002, pp. 254-256

Book Review


Paleamonid Prawns : Biodiversity, Taxonomy,
Biology and Management,
by K.V. Jayachandran (Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Calcutta), 2001, xvi+624 pp, Paper Back, Rs. 925/-

[ISBN 81-204-1477-2]

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