Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics


Total visitors: 1,724  since 20-08-05

 

 ISSN: 0019-5596

CODEN: IJOPAU 43 (8) 233 - 314

Volume 43

Number 8

AUGUST 2005

 

CONTENTS

Nuclear Physics

 

Development of a large area telescopic detector system for elastic and transfer reaction angular distribution measurements

K Kalita*, A Jhingan, S Barua, J J Das, T Varughese, P Sugathan, N Madhavan, S Nath, S Verma & R Singh

567

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

Normal coordinate analysis of 1-chloroisoquinoline and 2-methyl-8-nitroquinoline

M Arivazhagan &V Krishnakumar*

573

Spectroscopic studies of gamma-irradiated transition metals-doped soda lime phosphate glass

Fatma H El-Batal*, Sherief M Abo-Naf & Fathy M  Ezzldin

579

Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics

 

Ultrasonic studies on binary mixtures of some aromatic ketones with acrylonitrile at 308.15 K

T Savitha Jyostna & N Satyanarayana*

591

Simple diffusion wave analyzer

K Sreekumar

596

Evaluation of excess free volumes and excess internal pressures of binary solutions of o-chlorophenol at different temperatures

G V Rama Rao, A Viswanatha Sarma, D Ramachandran & C Rambabu*

602

Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

 

Variation of band gap in CdPbS with composition prepared by a precipitation technique

Sanjeev Kumar* & B Bhattacharya

609

Effect of several irreversibilities on the thermo-economic performance of a realistic Brayton heat engine cycle

S K Tyagi, Jincan Chen, Gouxing Lin & S C Kaushik*

612

Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic and Optical Properties

 

Effect of substrate temperature on the electrical and optical properties of reactively evaporated tin oxide thin films

P S Raghupathi*, Joseph George & C S Menon

620

Dielectric study of binary mixtures of edible unsaturated oils

Shilpi Agrawal & Deepak Bhatnagar*

624

High field conduction in amorphous thin films of Se70Te30-xCdx in dark and in the presence of light

V S Kushwaha, N Mehta & A Kumar*

630

Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology

 

CFA-based three input and two outputs voltage-mode universal filter

N A Shah*, M F Rather & S Z Iqbal

636

 

*The corresponding author has been indicated by (*) mark in case of papers with more than one author.

 

 

 


Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 567-572

 

 

 

Development of a large area telescopic detector system for elastic and transfer reaction angular distribution measurements

K Kalita*, A Jhingan, S Barua**, J J Das, T Varughese, P Sugathan, N Madhavan,

S Nath, S Verma* & R Singh*

*Department of Physics & Astrophysics, Delhi University, Delhi 110 007

Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi 110 067

**Physics Department, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014

*E-mail address: ku_kalita@yahoo.com

Received 23 September 2004; revised 24 January 2005; accepted 20 April 2005

A large area telescopic detector set-up (DE-E) has been developed for elastic scattering and transfer reaction measurements involving low intensity radioactive ion beam (RIB) at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), New Delhi. The detector system consists of a transmission type gas ionization chamber (DE) with axial field geometry followed by E-two-two-dimensional position sensitive  silicon detectors (2D-PSSD) placed side by side (50 mm ´ 50 mm each) for the residual-energy measurements. The gas ionization chamber (IC) gives the energy loss of the particles for Z-identification whereas the silicon detectors give their energy as well as the position. The responses of the IC with alpha  and fission sources, and of the entire detector system with 7Be beam are presented which demonstrate the overall performance.

Keywords: RIB, Axial field geometry, 2D-PSSD, Heavy ion reaction analyzer

IPC Code: H01L

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 573-578

 

 

 

Normal coordinate analysis of 1-chloroisoquinoline and 2-methyl-8-nitroquinoline

 

M Arivazhagan

Department of Physics, JJ College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 009

and

V Krishnakumar

Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011

Received 14 March 2005; accepted 3 June 2005

The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 1-chloroisoquinoline and 2-methyl-8-nitroquinoline have been recorded in the region 4000-50 cm-1 and 3500-50 cm-1 respectively. The normal coordinate calculations were carried out using Wilson’s FG Matrix mechanism on the basis of General Valence Force Field for both in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. All the modes of vibrations are assigned and calculations of potential energy distributions are also performed.

Keywords: FTIR, FT-Raman, Normal coordinate analysis, 1-Chloroisoquinoline, 2-Methyl-8-nitroquinoline

IPC Code: G01J3/28

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 579-590

 

 

 

 

Spectroscopic studies of gamma-irradiated transition metals-doped

soda lime phosphate glass

 

Fatma H El-Batal, Sherief M Abo-Naf*

Glass Research Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, 12622 Cairo, Egypt

and

Fathy M Ezzldin

National Center for Radiation Research & Technology, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

Received 3 November 2004; revised 1 April 2005; accepted 1 June 2005

Optical absorption spectra of 3d transition metals have been measured in soda-lime phosphate glass before and after successive gamma irradiation. In general, the transition metals exhibit the lower oxidation state or octahedral coordination in phosphate glass. The experimental optical spectra are related to the respective specific transition of each transition metal ion. Transition metal-doped phosphate glasses reveal varying response to the effect of successive gamma irradiation. The intensity and growth behaviour of the radiation-induced bands are seen to depend on the type of the 3d transition metal. The response of the doped-phosphate glass to gamma rays irradiation is related to the formation of characteristic induced colour centers and the subsequent annihilation or approach of saturation.

Keywords: Optical absorption, Phosphate glasses, Transition metals, Gamma-ray irradiation

IPC Code: G01J3/42

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp 591-595

 

 

 

 

Ultrasonic studies on binary mixtures of some aromatic ketones with
acrylonitrile at 308.15 K

T Savitha Jyostna & N Satyanarayana

Department of Chemistry, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009

Received 2 December 2004; accepted 3 June 2005

The densities and sound speeds of mixtures of acetophenone, propiophenone, paramethyl acetophenone and parachloro acetophenone with acrylonitrile, over the entire range of composition, have been measured at a temperature of 308.15 K. The deviations in speed Du, isentropic compressibility DkS, intermolecular free-length DLF and relative association RA have been computed using speed and density values. The Du values are positive whereas DkS and DLF values are negative for all the systems, which indicate the specific interactions between unlike molecules. The results are discussed in the light of intermolecular interactions occurring in the solutions. The computed results of DkS, have been fitted to a Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation.

Keywords: Ultrasonics, Binary mixtures, Aromatic ketones, Acrylonitrile

IPC Code: B01J 19/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 596-601

 

 

 

Simple diffusion wave analyzer

 

K Sreekumar

Laboratory of Photothermal Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 581

Received 17 December 2004; accepted 7 June 2005

A simple, cost-effective, compact and efficient photothermal diffusion wave analyzer for 1 Hz-150 kHz frequency band has been developed and analyzed. The sensitivity is 12 nV and the total error is about 1.5% at 60 dB dynamic reserve, excluding the laser intensity variation that may be corrected. The input voltage and current noises are  and , respectively. The low power consumption of about 4 W is advantageous for long time off-line applications. The instrument has been used for the metrology of silicon wafers by radiometric simulations. Results regarding the studies on transport parameters and contamination control are presented.

Keywords: Diffusion waves, Photothermal radiometry, Laser diode, Wafer metrology

IPC code: H01L29/861

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 602-608

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of excess free volumes and excess internal pressures of binary solutions of o-chlorophenol at different temperatures

 

G V Rama Raoa, A Viswanatha Sarmab, D Ramachandranc & C Rambabuc

aDepartment of Physics, Dharma Appa Rao College, Nuzvid 521 201, Andhra Pradesh

bUltrasonic Research Laboratories, Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, Andhra Pradesh

cDepartment of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University PG Center, Nuzvid 521 201, Andhra Pradesh

Received 10 December 2004; revised 25 April 2005; accepted 30 May 2005

Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured experimentally and free volume as well as internal pressure and enthalpy were calculated for the binary mixtures of o-chlorophenol with ethyl benzoate, anisic aldehyde and acetonitrile at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K over the entire range of composition. Excess values of free volume, internal pressure, enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy of activation have been calculated for these systems. The results were discussed in the light of existing theories of molecular interactions involved and chemical constitution of the liquid components.

Keywords: Excess free volumes, Excess internal pressure, Ultrasonic velocity, Density, Viscosity, Enthalpy, Binary mixture

IPC Code: B01J19/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 609-611

 

 

 

 

Variation of band gap in CdPbS with composition prepared by a

precipitation technique

 

Sanjeev Kumar

Department of Physics, C C S University, Meerut (UP) 250 004

and

B Bhattacharya

Meerut Institute of Engineering & Technology, Bagpat Road Bye-pass Crossing, Meerut

Received 2 August 2004; accepted 12 May 2005

Cadmium sulphide (CdS) is highly sensitive of light and has high absorption coefficient. Only disadvantage with CdS is its wide band gap (2.4eV). The band gap of CdS has been tailored by mixing it with lead sulphide (PbS)(low band gap material). The material of configuration (Cd1-xPbxS) for this study has been prepared by precipitate technique in the methanol with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8. The films of this material were deposited by the vacuum deposition method. Spectroscopic technique has been used for the band gap determination. The variation of band gap with their composition has been reported. It has been found that the band gap decreases with increase in pb concentration. The nature of the band gap has also been determined in this paper.

Keywords: CdPbS, Precipitation technique, Band gap

IPC Code: F26B3/28

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 612-619

 

 

 

 

Effect of several irreversibilities on the thermo-economic performance of a realistic Brayton heat engine cycle

 

S K Tyagi1,2, Jincan Chen1, Gouxing Lin1 & S C Kaushik2

1Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, People’s Republic of China

2Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016

Received 9 August 2004; revised 3 January 2005; accepted 17 June 2005

The thermo-economic study of a more realistic regenerative Brayton cycle heat engine with finite heat capacity of external reservoirs is presented in this paper. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature differences between the external reservoirs and the heat engine while the internal irreversibilities are due to the non-isentropic processes in the compressor and turbine and the regenerative heat loss. The thermo-economic function is defined as the power output divided by the total cost plus the running and maintenance costs of the system. The objective function is optimized with respect to the cycle temperatures and the optimum performance parameters are calculated for a typical set of operating conditions. It is found that the effect of the turbine efficiency is more than that of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters. It is also found that the effects of the sink-side heat capacitance rate are more than those of the heat capacitance rates on the source-side and working fluid on all the performance parameters of the cycle for the same set of operating condition.

Keywords: Thermo-economic function, Brayton heat engine cycle, Regenerator, Turbine, Compressor

IPC Code: G01L

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 620-623

 

 

  

 

Effect of substrate temperature on the electrical and optical properties of

reactively evaporated tin oxide thin films

 

P S Raghupathi, Joseph George & C S Menon

School of Pure & Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala

Received 17 January 2005; revised 9 May 2005; accepted 14 June 2005

Transparent conducting thin films of tin oxide have been prepared by reactively evaporating pure tin in oxygen atmosphere under controlled conditions. Variation in parameters such as sheet resistance, activation energy, optical band gap with variation in substrate temperature (100 to 275°C) and annealing temperature (200 to 275°C) were studied. The electrical, optical and structural properties of these films were measured to characterize the films. It is found that the activation energy of the film is decreased with increase in substrate temperature. The lowest activation energy of 0.268 eV was obtained for a film, deposited at a substrate temperature of 275°C.The direct optical band gaps of the films at various substrate temperatures were determined and found to vary from 3.76 to 3.97eV. A conductivity of 1.8´10–3 Ωm and a transmittance of more than 85% in visible region was obtained in the optimized conditions. It is observed from the XRD results that the films are polycrystalline. From SEM photograph, the grain size of tin oxide thin film annealed for 30 min at 275°C is found to be 19.5 nm.

Keywords: Tin oxide, Electrical properties, Optical properties, Structural properties

IPC Code: G01R21/08; C30B

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 624-629

 

 

 

Dielectric study of binary mixtures of edible unsaturated oils

 

Shilpi Agrawal & Deepak Bhatnagar

Microwave Lab, Department of Physics, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004

E-mail: dbhatnagar_2000@rediffmail.com

Received 10 January 2005; revised 8 April 2005; accepted 18 May 2005

The dielectric and relaxation parameters of a binary system of edible oils, containing unsaturated fats namely mustard oil and coconut oil/ground nut oil/linseed oil in different proportions by volume are measured at different frequencies and a constant temperature (40°C). It is realized that at the given temperature, the dielectric constant of prepared samples at microwave frequency increases with increasing percentage of impurities. The dielectric loss at microwave frequency also increases with the increase in the amount of added impurity. However dielectric constant at optical frequency tends to decrease under similar conditions. The proposed technique to check the purity of samples at microwave frequencies is found better than the traditionally applied optical technique because here different dielectric parameters like dielectric constant (e¢), dielectric loss (e¢¢) and dielectric relaxation in prepared samples may be determined at a time.

Keywords: Unsaturated oils, Dielectric parameters, Relaxation time

IPC Code: G01R27/26

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 630-635

 

 

 

 

High field conduction in amorphous thin films of Se70Te30-xCdx in

dark and in the presence of light

 

V S Kushwaha, N Mehta & A Kumar*

Department of Physics, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur 208 002

*E-mail::dr_ashok_kumar@yahoo.com

Received 9 December 2004; revised 23 February 2005; accepted 6 June 2005

Glassy alloys of Se70Te30-xCdx (x = 2, 4, 6) are prepared by the quenching technique. Amorphous thin films of these alloys are prepared by the vacuum evaporation technique. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics have been studied at various temperatures in the films in dark and in the presence of light. For this purpose, a dc voltage (0 – 300 V) was applied across the film. I-V characteristics show that, at low electric fields, an ohmic behaviour is observed. However, at high electric fields (E ~ 104 V/cm), the current becomes super ohmic. Analysis of the data shows the absence of space charge limited currents in amorphous Se70Te30-xCdx thin films as ln I/V versus V curves are not found to be straight lines with high correlation coefficient. Instead, ln I versus V1/2 curves are found to be straight lines having high correlation coefficient. The slope of these curves decreases with the increase in temperature. A more detailed analysis shows that the dominant mechanism of conduction is of Poole-Frenkel type in dark as well as in the presence of light.

Keywords: Chalcogenide glasses, Amorphous semiconductors, High field conduction, Poole-Frenkel effect, Thin films

IPC Code: H01L

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, August 2005, pp. 636-639

 

 

  

 

CFA-based three input and two outputs voltage-mode universal filter

 

N A Shah, M F Rather & S Z Iqbal

Postgraduate Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar190 006

E-mail: farsgr@yahoo.co.in

Received 29 November 2004; revised 25 April 2005; accepted 18 May 2005

A new voltage-mode (VM) multifunction filter based on, employing two plus type current feedback amplifiers (CFA) and as many capacitors, and three resistors with three inputs and two outputs, is presented. The proposed configuration synthesize all the generic filtering functions namely lowpass (LP), bandpass (BP), highpass (HP), notch (BS) and allpass (AP) with two functions simultaneously, without requiring the change to be induced in the passive elements and/or rotation of components. The circuit enjoys the features of: orthogonal control of the natural frequency and the quality factor, low impedance outputs suiting cascadibility for higher order transfer functions, and low active and passive sensitivities. The results of computer simulation using PSPICE are discussed.

Keywords: Current feedback amplifier, Voltage-mode filter

IPC Code: H03K3/00