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Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

 

 ISSN: 0019-5596

CODEN: IJOPAU 43 (5) 315-394

VOLUME  43

NUMBER 5

MAY 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

General

Ramification of uncertainty due to limited resolution of universal measuring machine

Arif Sanjid M*, Nasrin M, K P Chaudhary & R P Singhal

319

 

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

 

Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra and normal coordinate analysis of aminobenzosaeure

S Gunasekaran* & P Abitha

329

Spectroscopic study of charge transfer on photoconductivity of quinhydrone

Parimal Trivedi, R G Patel, Ashok Patel, Vipul Patel & A T Oza*

335

 

Origin of the X-ray satellite La4 for 48 < Z < 56

U D Misra* & N Kumar

 

341

 

Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics

 

Theoretical evaluation of ultrasonic velocities in binary liquid mixtures of o-chlorophenol at different temperatures

G V Rama Rao, A Viswanatha Sarma, J Siva Rama Krishna & C Rambabu*

345

 

Ultrasonic studies of thulium monochalcogenides

S K Kor*, Devraj Singh & A K Srivastava

 

355

Optical absorption and transmission in CuxZn1-xSe pseudo-binary alloy

A I Mukolu

 

359

Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

Specific heat studies in glassy Se78Ge22 and Se68Ge22M10(M=Cd, In,Pb) alloys

R S Tiwari, N Mehta, R K Shukla, P Agarwal & A Kumar*

 

363

Studies on the properties of dip-coated indium tin oxide films considering substrate vibration

V R Viji*, K S Kumar, M Mary Stella & V K Vaidyan

 

368

Crystal growth of some amino acids in gel: crystallization of DL-serine and its characterization

E Ramachandran & S Natarajan*

 

372

Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic and Optical Properties

Effect of parallel electric field on electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability: a study using loss-cone distribution function

Ruchi Mishra & M S Tiwari*

 

377

Magneto-resistance and I-V characteristic studies of AlSb and InSb thin film bilayer structure

M Singh* & Y K Vijay

 

383

Positive hysteresis of electrodeless discharge in hydrogen in a co-axial cylindrical configuration

S V Salvi & Sushma S Pimpale*

386

 

*The corresponding author has been indicated by (*) mark in case of papers with more than one author.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 319-328

 

Ramification of uncertainty due to limited resolution of universal measuring machine

Arif Sanjid M, Nasrin M*, K P Chaudhary & R P Singhal

 

Universal measuring machine (UMM) is a fundamental displacement-measuring machine equipped with reference standard scale attached to its movable-bed. A microscope is fixed rigidly on the UMM to locate the graduation marks on the reference scale. As the movable-bed moves, the reference scale under the microscope also moves. Therefore, the microscope locates new graduation mark of the reference scale correspondingly. It has been observed that the readings are dependent on the direction (i.e. left to right and right to left) of the movement of the movable-bed. Experiments are performed using a displacement laser interferometer to investigate this problem. It is found that the limited resolution of the microscope, properties of eye and the criterion for the acceptance of reading in the microscope are influencing factors. The effective error components are found experimentally. Based on the error components, the uncertainty due to limited resolution of UMM has been ramified. A novel sensing approach for detecting the graduation marks is described in this paper.

 

Keywords: Uncertainty, Resolution, Laser interferometer, Adaptation amplification, Photoreceptor

IPC Code: G01B9/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 329-334

  

Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra and normal
coordinate analysis of aminobenzoesaeure

S Gunasekaran and P Abitha

 

The infrared and Raman spectral studies and the normal coordinate analysis of aminobenzoesaeure (AB) have been presented. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectrum has been obtained in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and the FT-Raman spectrum has been recorded over the range 3500-200 cm-1. The spectra have been investigated in terms of various fundamental modes of vibration. The observed infrared and Raman spectra exhibit all the salient features reported in literature. Accuracy of the spectral line positions and their bandwidths are found to be satisfactory. The structure of the complex has been established on the basis of CS symmetry. A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out following Wilson’s F.G.matrix method and a systematic set of potential constants has been evaluated. To check whether the chosen set of symmetric coordinates contribute maximum to the potential energy associated with the molecule, the potential energy distribution (PED) has been carried out.

 

Keywords: FT-Raman spectrum, Infrared, Aminobenzoesaeure, Normal coordinate analysis, Potential energy distribution

IPC Code: G01J3/28

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 335-340

  

Spectroscopic study of charge transfer on photoconductivity of quinhydrone

Parimal Trivedi*, R G Patel**, Ashok Patel, Vipul Patel & A T Oza

 

Quinhydrone is a 1:1 charge transfer complex of hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone having intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The effects of charge transfer on the photonconductivity of quinhydrone have been studied. The charge transfer complexes (CTCs) of quinhydrone with organic donors like 2, 2¢-bis(quinoline), benzidine, DPPD, 2,2¢-bipyridyl, TMPD and pyrene were prepared and studied using infrared spectroscopy. Strong envelopes are formed in the spectrum below 1800 cm-1. It interacts most with 2,2¢-bis(quinoline) and least with pyrene. Other cases are intermediates. There is either free-carrier absorption or band-to-band transition above the gap region of the complexes and photoconducting gap is at lower frequency than Peierls gap.

 

Keywords: Charge Transfer, Quinohydrone, Photoconductivity, Infrared spectroscopy

IPC Code: G01J3/28

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 341-344

 

 Origin of the X-ray satellite La4 for 48 < Z < 56

U D Misra & N Kumar

 

A more realistic criterion than that of Soni S N, J Phys B, 23 (1990) 117, has been proposed for the origin of X-ray satellites in general. The criterion has been used for the identification of different transitions in two hole atoms which contribute to the formation of the La4 satellite for 48 £ Z £56.

 

Keywords: X-ray satellites, La4

IPC Code: G01J3/443

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 345-354

 

Theoretical evaluation of ultrasonic velocities in binary liquid mixtures of  o-chlorophenol at different temperatures

G V Rama Raoa, A Viswanatha Sarmab, J Siva Rama Krishnac & C Rambabuc

 

A comparison of ultrasonic velocity evaluated from Nomoto’s relation, Van Dael ideal mixing relation, impedence relation, Rao’s specific velocity relation and Junjie’s theory has been made in three binary liquid mixtures of o-chlorophenol as common component with ethylbenzoate, anisicaldehyde and acetonitrile at 303.15, 308.15, 313.15 and 318.15 K. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocities. U2exp/U2imx has also been evaluated for non-ideality in the mixtures. The relative applicability of these theories to the present systems has been checked and discussed. The results are explained in terms of intermolecular interactions occurring in these binary systems.

 

Keywords: Ultrasonic velocity, Binary liquid mixtures, o-chlorophenol

IPC Code: B01J19/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 355-358

 

Ultrasonic studies of thulium monochalcogenides

S K Kor, Devraj Singh & A K Srivastava

 

The ultrasonic studies have been made in a group of materials like thulium monochalcogenides TmX (X = S, Se and Te) which are very important because TmS behaves like a metallic crystal, TmSe is intermetallic and TmTe is a semiconductor. Thus, the ultrasonic study will give a clear picture of ultrasonic attenuation in these substances. Morse potential has been used for the evaluation of second order elastic constants (SOEC) and third order elastic constants (TOEC) for TmS and TmTe which is the most appropriate method. However, Coulomb and Born Mayer potentials are the most appropriate for evaluation of SOEC and TOEC in semiconductors. Then, the Mason’s approach has been used for the evaluation of ultrasonic attenuation.

 

Keywords: Ultrasonics, Coulomb potential, Born Mayer potential, Morse potential, Elastic constants, Monochalcogenides

IPC Code: B01J19/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 359-362

  

Optical absorption and transmission in CuxZn1-xSe pseudo-binary alloy

A I Mukolu

 

The optical absorption and transmission in the pseudo-binary alloy of copper, zinc and selenium (CuxZn1-x Se) have been investigated. The transmission is high over most of the visible region but the absorption edge moves into the visible spectrum as the concentration of copper in the alloy increases. The energy gaps of the samples were found to be 1.58, 1.60 and 1.64 eV, respectively. These values fall within the requirement for visible transmission indicating that the films from such alloys can be used as visibly transmitting materials for use as warm climate windows to transmit visible radiation into buildings which have their windows coated with such films. Also, the decrease in energy gaps of the samples with a corresponding shift in the absorption edge towards the visible spectrum as the concentration of the copper impurity increases, leads to an improvement in the conductivity of the alloys examined.

 

Keywords: Optical absorption, Optical transmission, Pseudo-binary alloy, Optical band gap, Absorption coefficient

IPC Code: C09K11/00; H01L21/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 363-367

   

Specific heat studies in glassy Se78Ge22 and Se68Ge22M10 (M = Cd, In, Pb) alloys

R S Tiwari, N Mehta, R K Shukla, P Agarwal* & A Kumar

 

The specific heat of glassy Se78Ge22 and Se68Ge22M10 (M = Cd, In, Pb) alloys using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique have been measured. An extremely large increase in the specific heat values has been observed at the glass transition temperature. It has also been found that the values of Cp below glass transition temperature and the difference of Cp values before and after glass transition (∆Cp) are highly composition dependent. This indicates that the additives used in the present study influence the structure of the binary alloy. Specific heat of the additive element is found to be important for the observed changes in the specific heat of the ternary alloys as compared to binary alloy.

 

Keywords: Specific heat measurement, Se78Ge22, Se68Ge22M10, Differential scanning calorimetry

IPC Code: G01N25/20

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 368-371

  

Studies on the properties of dip-coated indium tin oxide films considering substrate vibration

V R Viji1, K S Kumar, M Mary Stella* & V K Vaidyan

 

The indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using an automated home made dip-coater, from a solution of indium chloride. These films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrical resistivity measurement and optical transmission spectroscopy. The effect of substrate vibration on film properties was examined and observed that vibrations of small amplitudes do not deteriorate the film qualities much. Films deposited at optimum conditions exhibited a resistivity of 2.1´10-4 Wm and a transmittance of 87 % at 550 nm.

 

Keywords: Indium tin oxide films, Dip-coating, Sol-gel, Substrate vibration

IPC Code: C07B55/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 372-376

 

Crystal growth of some amino acids in gel: Crystallization of DL-serine and its characterization

E Ramachandran1 & S Natarajan2

 

DL-serine (C3H7NO3) a neutral, genetically coded amino acid was crystallized in silica gel under suitable pH conditions by reduction of solubility method. The gel grown DL-serine crystals were characterized by density determination and X-ray powder diffraction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies and thermogravimetric analysis were also made.

 

Keywords: DL-serine, Amino acid, Gel growth, XRD, TGA/DTA

IPC Code: B01D9/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 377-382

 

Effect of parallel electric field on electrostatic ion-cyclotron
instability: A study using loss-cone distribution function

Ruchi Mishra & M S Tiwari

 

Dispersion relation, transfer resonant energy, growth rate and marginal stability of the electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in the presence of parallel electric field using the loss-cone distribution have been presented for the auroral acceleration region. It is found that the effect of parallel electric field is to stabilize the wave and enhance the transverse acceleration of ions whereas the effect of steepness of loss-cone distribution is to enhance the growth rate and decrease the transverse acceleration of ions. The results are interpreted for the space plasma parameters appropriate to the auroral acceleration region.

 

Keywords: Electrostatic ion cyclotron instability, Loss-cone distribution function, Space plasma, Parallel electric field, Auroral acceleration region

IPC Code: H05H13/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

 Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 383-385

 

Magneto-resistance and I-V characteristic studies of AlSb and InSb thin film bilayer structure

M Singh &Y K Vijay

 

The I-V characteristic and magneto-resistance of Al-Sb and In-Sb thin films were measured with Cu electrode as the electrical contact. It was found that I-V characteristics are non-linear in nature and magneto-resistance decreases in case of Al-Sb and increases in case of In-Sb thin film bilayer structure. The Rutherford backscattering measurements also indicate the inter-diffusion and the concentration varies with temperature.

 

Keywords: I-V characteristic, Magneto resistance,Inter-diffusion, Rutherford backscattering measurements, Bilayer

IPC Code: G01R21/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 43, May 2005, pp. 386-389

  

Positive hysteresis of electrodeless discharge in hydrogen in a co-axial cylindrical configuration

S V Salvi & Sushma S Pimpale

If the voltage applied to the system increases from a low initial value to a maximum and then reduces progressively to the initial minimum, the variation in rising and falling fields presents three regions of I-V characteristic (i) rising positive approximately linear characteristic up to the breakdown potential of hydrogen gas (Vg), (ii) sharply inverting to a negative characteristic over the region Vg-VV and (iii) a rising characteristic once again for the potential above valley voltage (VV). The region of interest has been the potential range Vg-VV for which the characteristic is negative. The segments (ii) and (iii) form roughly a parabola. Results show that for increasing and decreasing progress of the applied V, the values of unidirectional current are not identical. The values are comparatively less in the increasing progress of the voltage than those in the portion of the positive hysteresis (anti-hysteresis) corresponding to decreasing voltage. These results are discussed and a mechanism for the anti-hysteresis is proposed.

 

Keywords: Hysteresis, Anti-hysteresis, Discharge current, Electrodeless discharge

IPC Code: G01R33/14