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Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

http://www.niscair.res.in

 

Volume 45                                                                   Number 2                                              FEBRUARY 2007

CODEN: IJOPAU 45 (2) 105-184                                                                                            ISSN: 0019-5596

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Nuclear Physics

 

Experimental investigation of saturation depth of 0.662 MeV gamma rays in copper

111

Gurvinderjit Singh, Manpreet Singh, B S Sandhu* & Bhajan Singh

 

Measurement of radon and its progeny levels in dwellings of Srivaikuntam, Tamilnadu

116

Rajesh Kumar* & Rajendra Prasad

 

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

Lb1 satellites in X-ray emission spectra of 4d transition elements

119

Surendra Poonia*& S N Soni

 

Effect of 50 MeV Li-ion irradiation on thermal and structural characteristics of polymer blends

127

Anita Sharma, Anjum Qureshi, N L Singh*, V Shrinet, D K Avasthi & A K Rakshit

 

Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics

 

Boron isotope distribution in laser deposited thin films of B4C

131

P Manoravi, M Joseph*, A K Balamurugan, S Rajagopalan & P Ramamurthy

 

Comparative study of theoretical ultrasonic velocities of binary mixtures of methanol and pyridine at different temperatures

135

G V Rama Rao, P B Sandhya Sri, A Viswanatha Sarma & C Rambabu*

 

Ultrasonic investigation of ion-solvent interactions in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions of transition and inner transition metal ions

143

V Kannappan* & S Chidambara Vinayagam

 

Thermo-acoustic studies of cobalt(III) complexes in aqueous and binary aqueous media

151

U N Dash, G S Roy*, S Mohanty & M Ray

 

 

 

Condensed Matter: Structure, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

 

Temperature dependence of dielctric constant and loss tangent in layered antiferroelctric squaric acid crystal

157

Trilok Chandra Upadhyay

 

Dielectric relaxation studies of binary mixtures of ethyl alcohol and N, N-dimethylformamide in benzene solution from microwave absorption data

163

Vimal Sharma, Nagesh Thakur*, Dhani Ram Sharma, Nainjeet Singh Negi & Vir Singh Rangra

 

NMR spin-lattice relaxation time and activation energy in some molecular systems

168

Ajay Kumar Singh* & N K Mehrotra

 

Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic  and Optical Properties

 

Effect of three-body interaction in strongly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in isotropic and highly anisotropic magnetic trap

173

Shri Prakash Tewari*, Poonam Silotia, Aditya Saxena & Lokesh Kumar Gupta

 

 

 

__________

*The corresponding author has been indicated by (*) mark in case of papers with more than one author.


Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 111-115

 

Experimental investigation of saturation depth of 0.662 MeV

gamma rays in copper

 

Gurvinderjit Singh, Manpreet Singh, B S Sandhu* & Bhajan Singh

Physics Department, Punjabi University, Patiala 147 002

Received 13 April 2005; revised 22 November 2006; accepted 12 December 2006

The effect of target thickness on 0.662 MeV multiply Compton scattered gamma photon has been studied experimentally. An intense collimated beam, obtained from 6-Ci 137Cs source, is allowed to impinge on a rectangular copper target of varying thickness and the scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, having dimensions 51f mm´51 mm, placed at 90° to the incident beam. The subtraction of events under the analytically reconstructed full energy peak from the events recorded under the observed inelastic peak results in multiply scattered events having energy same as in single scattering. The target thickness at which the number of multiply scattered events saturates has also been determined. The signal-to-noise ratio is found to be decreasing with increasing target thickness. Monte Carlo calculation supports the present experimental results.

Keywords: Compton scattered events, Saturation thickness, Signal-to-noise ratio

IPC Code: G01T

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 116-118

 

 

Measurement of radon and its progeny levels in dwellings of Srivaikuntam, Tamilnadu

Rajesh Kumar* & Rajendra Prasad

Department of Applied Physics, Z H College of Engineering & Technology,
Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002

*E-mail: drrajesh04@rediffmail.com

Received 22 December 2005; revised 2 May 2006; accepted 12 December 2006

Measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in the dwellings in one hundred twenty rooms in the dwellings of Srivaikuntam town of Tamilnadu in Southern India by using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD’s). The SSNTDs were hung in different type of rooms such as office rooms, living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens and laboratories for 120 days exposure time. The indoor radon levels have been measured which are found to be in the range 30-287 Bqm-3. The mean annual radon effective dose equivalent in living rooms was estimated to be mSv. The average life time risk of lung cancer from the chronic radon progeny exposure is estimated to be 6.8 ´ 10-3 (0.68%).

Keywords: Indoor radon, Solid State Nuclear Track Detector, Etching, Alpha tracks

IPC Code: C01B 23/00, G01T, H01L

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 119-126

 

 

Lb1 satellites in X-ray emission spectra of 4d transition elements

Surendra Pooniaa & S N Sonib

aDivision of Natural Resources and Environment, Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur 342 003

E-mail: surendra_1975@yahoo.com, poonia.surendra@gmail.com

bX-Ray Laboratory, Physics Department, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 005

Received 3 January 2006; revised 8 December 2006; accepted 12 December 2006

The X-ray satellite spectra arising due to 2p1/2-13x-1-3x-13d-1 (x º s, p, d) transition array, in elements with Z = 40 to 50, have been calculated. The energies of various transitions of the array have been determined by using available Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) data on 1s-1-2p-13x-1 and 2p1/2-1-3x-1, 3x'-1 Auger transition energies and their relative intensities of all the possible transitions have been estimated by considering cross - sections for the Auger transitions simultaneous to a hole creation and then distributing statistically the total cross-sections for initial two hole states 2p1/2-13x-1 amongst various allowed transitions from these initial states to 3x-13d-1 final states by Coster-Kronig (CK) and shake off processes. In both these processes, initial single hole creation is the prime phenomenon and electron bombardment has been the primary source of energy. Each transition has been assumed to give rise to a Gaussian line and the overall spectrum has been computed as the sum of these Gaussian curves. The calculated spectra have been compared with the measured satellite energies in Lb1 spectra. Their intense peaks have been identified as the observed satellite lines. The peaks in the computed satellite spectra have been compared with the experimentally reported satellites b1I, b1II, b1III and b1IV, which lie on the high-energy side of the Lb1 dipole line.

Keywords: Lb1 satellites, M vacancy Lb1 transitions, X-ray emission spectra

IPC Code: G01J3/28

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 127-130

 

Effect of 50 MeV Li-ion irradiation on thermal and structural characteristics of polymer blends

Anita Sharma, Anjum Qureshi, N L Singh, V Shrinet1, D K Avasthi2 & A K Rakshit3

Physics Department, The M S University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002

1Electrical Research Development Association, Baroda 390 010

2Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067

3Department of Biotechnology, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata700 064

Received 3 May 2005; accepted 14 August 2006

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) investigations of pristine and irradiated blended films were carried out. The experimental observations provide a quantitative evaluation of the IR results on the deterioration of chemical bonding with irradiation fluence. It is found that chemical structure is subjected to alteration in intensity with the fluence. It is revealed from TGA thermogram that blended polymer consisting of PVC and EVA in equal composition exhibits better thermal properties. DSC thermograms indicate that Tg has been shifted to lower temperature with broadening of peak, while no change in Tm has been observed up to the fluence of 1014 ions/cm2.

Keywords: Polymer blends, Li-ion irradiation, FTIR, Thermo gravimetric analysis, Differential scanning calorimetry

IPC Code: G01J 3/28

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 131-134

Boron isotope distribution in laser deposited thin films of B4C

 

P Manoravia, M Josepha, A K Balamuruganb, S Rajagopalanb & P Ramamurthy c

aFuel Chemistry Division, bMaterials Science Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam

cNational Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Chennai

Received 6 April 2005; revised 24 November 2006; accepted 11 December 2006

Isotope enrichment in laser-ablated plume is an interesting phenomenon. In this work, we have compared the boron isotope distribution present in thin films of B4C that are formed by pulsed laser deposition using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) pulse Nd-YAG lasers. With the ns laser beam, in the plume we could observe an isotope ratio of 10B/11B as high as 0.9, but in the film we could hardly see any enrichment. With ps pulsed laser, the maximum value obtained for the 10B/11B ratio is about 0.29 in the film.

Keywords: B4C thin film, Pulsed laser deposition, Isotope enrichment.

IPC Code: G01N13/00

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 135-142

 

Comparative study of theoretical ultrasonic velocities of binary mixtures of methanol and pyridine at different temperatures

 

G V Rama Raoa, P B Sandhya Sria, A Viswanatha Sarmab & C Rambabuc

aDepartment of Physics, Dharma Appa Rao College, Nuzvid 521 201, Andhra Pradesh

bUltrasonic Research Laboratories, Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, Andrha Pradesh

cDepartment of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University PG Center, Nuzvid 521 201, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh

Received 12 June 2006; revised 19 October 2006; accepted 11 December 2006

Theoretical velocities of binary liquid mixtures of methanol with piperidine and morpholine and pyridine with piperidine and morpholine at 303.15,308.15,313.15 and 318.15K have been evaluated by using theoretical models of liquid mixtures such as Nomoto, Van Dael-Vangeal, impedance dependence, Rao’s specific velocity method and Junjie’s relations. Ultrasonic velocity and density of these mixtures have also been measured as a function of concentration and temperature and the experimental values are compared with theoretical values. A good agreement has been found between experimental and Nomoto’s ultrasonic velocities. U2exp/U2imx has also been evaluated for non-ideality in the mixtures. The relative applicability of these theories to the present systems have been investigated. The results are explained in terms of intermolecular interactions occurring in these binary liquid mixtures.

Keywords: Ultrasonic velocities, Binary mixtures, Methanol, Pyridine

IPC Code: B01J 19/10

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 143-150

 

Ultrasonic investigation of ion-solvent interactions in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions of transition and inner transition metal ions

V Kannappan* & S Chidambara Vinayagam

Postgraduate Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005

Received 20 February 2006; revised 5 May 2006; accepted 8 December 2006

Ultrasonic velocities (u) and densities (ρ) have been measured for aqueous and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions of manganous(II) sulphate, cobalt(II) chloride, nickel(II) sulphate, ferrous sulphate, copper(II) sulphate, zinc(II) sulphate, lanthanum(III) nitrate, cerium(IV) nitrate, uranyl nitrate and thorium(IV) nitrate in a wide range of concentrations at 303 K. Acoustical parameters, such as, adiabatic compressibility (b), free length (Lf) and solvation number (Sn) have been computed to assess the ion-solvent interaction in these solutions. It is found that the ion-solvent interactions depend on concentration, ionic size and nature of metal ion. The transition and inner transition metal ions behave as structure breaker for the associated clusters of water molecules, especially in dilute solution, as evidenced from the trend in the solvation number with molarity. The strength of ion-dipole interaction in aqueous solution of the metal ion is also concentration dependent, which is also investigated in the present work.

Keywords: Ultrasonics, Inner transition metal ions, Ultrasonic velocity, Solvation number, Molarity

IPC Code:  B01J19/10

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 151-156

 

 

Thermo-acoustic study of cobalt (III) complexes in aqueous and
binary aqueous media

U N Dasha, G S Royb, S Mohantyc & M Rayd

aDepartment of Chemistry, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751 004

bDirector, Pathani Samanta Planetarium, Bhubaneswar 751 003

cDepartment of Physics, S V M College, Jagatsinghpur 754 103

dDepartment of Physics, CET, Bhubaneswar

Received 23 November 2005; revised 7 August 2006; accepted 12 December 2006

The acoustic response of the solutions of trans-bis (1,2-diaminoethane) (amino-carboxylato) halogeno cobalt-III complexes containing the carboxylato-bonded aminoacids e.g glycine, α-alanine and β-alanine in aqueous and aquo-organic solvent systems has been investigated at 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15K. From the measured ultrasonic velocities, acoustic parameters like intermolecular free length, free volume, internal pressure etc. have been determined and interpreted to study the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and various structural effects of the solvent in the solution.

Keywords: Cobalt (III) complex, Thermo-acoustic, Ultrasonic velocity

IPC Code: B01J19/10

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 157-162

Temperature dependence of dielectric constant and loss tangent in layered antiferroelectric squaric acid crystal

Trilok Chandra Upadhyay

Physics Department, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttaranchal 246 174

E-mail: trilokphys@yahoo.co.in

Received 13 October 2005; revised 23 January 2006; accepted 1 August 2006

A model of pseudospin for layer type 1 and type 2 for squaric acid crystal proposed by Li and Qin, Ferroelectrics, 82 (1988) 69, has been modified to include pseudospin-phonon interaction and cubic and quartic phonon anharmonic interactions. With the help of double-time temperature dependent Green's function method and modified Hamiltonian, expressions for antiferroelectric soft mode frequency, dielectric constant, loss and transition temperature have been evaluated. By fitting model values of physical quantities in the theoretical expressions, temperature dependence of soft mode, dielectric constant and loss has been calculated in the vicinity of transition temperature. Theoretical results have been compared with experimental results of Muser (Ref. 6), Maier et al.5 and Samara and Semmingsen (Ref. 9), which show a good agreement.

Keywords: Dielectric constant, Pseudospin-phonon interaction, Antiferroelectric

IPC Code: C30B

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 163-167

 

 

Dielectric relaxation study of binary mixtures of ethyl alcohol and N, N-dimethylformamide in benzene solution from microwave absorption data

Vimal Sharma, Nagesh Thakur*, Dhani Ram Sharma, Nainjeet Singh Negi & Vir Singh Rangra

Department of Physics, H P University, Shimla 171005, Himachal Pradesh

E-mail: ntb668@yahoo.co.in

Received 16 December 2005; revised 27 November 2006; accepted 28 December 2006

Dielectric constant (e′) and dielectric loss (e″) of ethanol (C2H5OH) and binary mixtures of ethanol and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in benzene solutions have been measured at microwave frequency 9.883 GHz at different temperatures 25, 30, 35 and 40°C. Standing microwave techniques and Gopala Krishna’s [Trans Faraday Soc, 33 (1957)767.] single frequency concentration variation method have been used for above measurements. The measured values of e′ and e″ have been used to evaluate dipole moment (m) and relaxation time (t). Various thermodynamic parameters (DHe, DFe, and DSe) for the dielectric relaxation process of binary mixtures containing 50% mole fraction of OH have been calculated using Eyring’s rate equations. Comparison has been made with the corresponding energy parameters for viscous flow process. It is found that the dielectric relaxation process can be treated as the rate process like the viscous flow process. Non-linear variation of relaxation time with molar concentration of ethanol in the whole concentration range of the binary mixture indicates the existence of solute-solute type of molecular association.

Keywords: Dielectric relaxation, Binary mixtures, Ethanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, Microwave absorption

IPC Code: G01R 27/26

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp 168-172

NMR spin-lattice relaxation time and activation energy in some molecular systems

Ajay Kumar Singh* & N K Mehrotra @

* Physics Department, Bareilly College, Bareilly 243 005

@ Physics Department, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226 007

*E-mail: ajaykumar301@rediffmail.com

Received 20 June 2006; revised 8 November 2006; accepted 12 December 2006

The experimental values of NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of N-butylamine, di-isopropylamine, N, N, N- tributylamine, N, N- dimethylformamide, N, N- dimethylacetamide have been reported. The experimental values of T1 have been correlated with the calculated values of T1 obtained using various equations of the dielectric relaxation time (t). It has been concluded that Murty’s equation is a better representations of the dielectric relaxation phenomenon. The values of activation energy (DEA) obtained using dielectric relaxation time have been correlated with calculated values obtained using Arrhenius equation of NMR spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for these compounds.

Keywords: NMR, Spin-lattice relaxation time, Activation energy

IPC Code: G01J 3/28

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 45, February 2007, pp. 173-179

 

 

Effect of three-body interaction in strongly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in isotropic and highly anisotropic magnetic trap

Shri Prakash Tewari, Poonam Silotia, Aditya Saxena & Lokesh Kumar Gupta

Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007

Received1 November 2006; accepted18 December 2006

Ground state properties of Bose-Einstein condensate of 20000 23Na atoms confined in isotropic and highly anisotropic magnetic traps in the presence of three-body interaction, in addition to the two-body and hard-core interactions, have been theoretically studied by solving modified highly non-linear Gross-Pitaevskii-Ginzburg (GPG) equation. There is increasingly significant change in the chemical potential, total and differential energies per particle as the aspect ratio,
l, is increased from 0.1 to 1.0, with respect to the corresponding values when only two-body and hard-core interactions
are considered. The condensate order parameter changes drastically and becomes quasi 1-dimensional, as
l is varied
from 1 to 0.1.

Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensate, Magnetic trap, Three-body interaction