Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

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Volume 46

Number 3

MARCH 2008

CODEN: IJOPAU 46 (3) 149-220

ISSN: 0019-5596

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of structure of procarbazine

155

S Gunasekaran*, S Kumaresan, S Seshadri & S Muthu

 

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis on structure of nitrazepam

162

S Gunasekaran*, R Arunbalaji, S Seshadri & S Muthu

 

Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics

 

 

Study of molecular interactions in binary liquid mixtures

169

R Kumar, S Jayakumar & V Kannappan*

 

Fractional order Fourier transform-based fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator

176

Alpana Bhagatji, Naveen K Nishchal, Arun K Gupta* & B P Tyagi

 

Ultrasonic study of molecular interactions and compressibility behaviour of strontium soaps in chloroform-propylene glycol mixture

187

M K Rawat* & Sangeeta

 

Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

 

Study of surface morphology and characterization of polymethyl ethacrylate: polychlorotrifluoro ethyelene polyblend using SEM, DSC and X-ray diffraction techniques

193

P Agrawal*, P Parmar, R Mallick & R Bajpai

 

Growth and characterization of copper, indium and copper-indium alloy films — Non-aqueous method of electrodeposition

198

S R Kumar* B Prajapati+ S K Tiwari & V K Tiwari

 

Electronic structure of chromium-aluminium alloys

204

S K Verma* & S S Rajput

 

Study of viscosity and refractive index of nylon 6,6 and poly(methyl methacrylate) in formic acid

209

M Mohan Reddy, K John & S Venkata Naidu*

 

Dielectric relaxation studies of binary mixtures of ethyl alcohol and N,N-dimethylacetamide in the benzene solution from microwave absorption data

212

Vimal Sharma, Nagesh Thakur , D R Sharma*, V S Rangra & N S Negi

 

Application of polypyrrole as an electromagnetic interference shielder

215

S S Dandekar & D S Kelkar*

 

 

 

___________

*The corresponding author has been indicated by (*) mark in case of papers with more than one author.

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 155-161

 

 

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of structure of procarbazine

 

S Gunasekaran*, S Kumaresan+, S Seshadri & S Muthuж

*Spectrophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai 600 030

+Department of Physics, Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering, Vadamavandal 604 410

Department of Physics, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya, Enathur, Kanchipuram 631 561

жDepartment of Applied Physics, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur 602 105

E-mail : yeskay72@yahoo.com

Received 25 September 2006; revised 26 December 2007; accepted 11 January 2008

Procarbazine (C12H19N3O) is chemically known as N-(1-methylethyl)-4-[N¢-(methylhydrazino) methyl] benzamide. It is used as an anti-neoplastic agent. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) and Fourier Transform Raman (FTR) spectra of procarbazine have been used for molecular investigation. A detailed vibrational analysis has been made on the fundamental modes of vibration. A normal coordinate analysis (NCA) has been carried out on procarbazine using the Wilson’s F-G matrix method. A set of potential constants has been evaluated using the method of kinetic constants on the basis of CS point group symmetry. The methyl groups are considered as point masses for simplicity. To check whether the chosen set of vibrational frequencies contributes maximum to the potential energy associated with the normal coordinates of the molecule, potential energy distribution (PED) has been evaluated.

Keywords: Fourier transform infrared spectrum, Fourier transform Raman spectrum, Procarbazine, Normal coordinate analysis, Potential energy distribution

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 162-168

 

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis on structure of nitrazepam

S Gunasekaran*, R Arunbalaji*, S Seshadri+ & S Muthu ¥

*Spectrophysics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Pachaiyappa’s College, Chennai 600 030

+Department of Physics, Sri Chandrasekharendra  Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya, Enathur, Kanchipuram 631 561

¥ Department of Applied Physics, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur 602 105

Email: arunbalaji_81@yahoo.com

Received 14 February 2006; revised 18 July 2007; accepted 12 December 2007

A normal coordinate analysis on nitrazepam has been carried out with a set of symmetry co-ordinates following Wilson's F-G matrix method. The potential constants evaluated for the molecule are found to be in good agreement with literature values thereby conforming the vibrational assignments. To check whether the chosen set of vibrational frequencies contributes maximum to the potential energy associated with the normal co-ordinates of the molecule, the potential energy distribution has been evaluated.

Keywords: Fourier Transform infrared spectrum, Fourier Transform Raman spectrum, Nitrazepam, Normal coordinate      analysis, potential energy distribution

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 169-175

 

Study of molecular interactions in binary liquid mixtures

 

R Kumar#, S Jayakumar* & V Kannappan+

#Department of Physics, The New College, Chennai 600 014

*Department of Physics, R K M Vivekananda College, Chennai 600 004

+Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai 600 005

E-mail: jk_5454@yahoo.co.in

Received 20 March 2006; revised 11 April 2007, accepted14 December 2007

The acoustical parameters for two binary liquid mixtures namely, acetone – carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetone – benzene have been determined at three different temperatures. The acoustical parameters such as the adiabatic compressibility k, the free length of interaction Lf, interaction parameter c, Lennard Jones Potential (LJP) and also excess parameters such as excess velocity uE, excess compressibility kE, excess volume VfE and excess free length LfE are computed for the two systems at 303K, 308K and 313K from the measured ultrasonic velocity and density values. The extent of interactions existing between component molecules has been found out. In acetone – CCl4 system, the interaction parameter values have been out to be negative suggesting the presence of weak dipole –induced dipole interactions in this system. However, in acetone – benzene system, there are strong dipole - induced dipole interactions. With increase in temperature, the extent of interaction becomes weak in both the systems due to thermal agitation of the component molecules.

Keywords:      Binary mixtures, Free length of interaction, Dipole–induced dipole interaction

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 176-186

 

Fractional order Fourier transform-based fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator

 

Alpana Bhagatji, Naveen K Nishchal1, Arun K Gupta*& B P Tyagi2

Photonics Division, Instruments Research & Development Establishment, Raipur Road, Dehradun 248 008

1Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati

2Department of Physics, D B S (PG) College, Dehradun

*E-mail: akgupta@irde.res.in

Received 22 August 2007; accepted 4 January 2008

An extended fractional Fourier transform (FRT) based fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator (JTC) for real-time target recognition applications has been implemented. In real-time situation, the input scene is captured using a charge-coupled device camera. The joint input images are fractional Fourier transformed and the joint power spectrum (JPS) has been recorded. Thus obtained JPS is multiplied by a pre-synthesized fringe-adjusted filter (FAF) to yield fractional fringe-adjusted JPS (FrFJPS). The FRT based fringe-adjusted JTC (FrFJTC) has been found to yield better results in comparison to the conventional fringe-adjusted JTC (FJTC). Three performance measure parameters; correlation peak intensity, peak-to-correlation energy and peak-to-sidelobe ratio have been calculated. Computer simulation and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: Joint transform correlator, Fringe-adjusted filter, Fractional Fourier transform

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 187-192

 

Ultrasonic study of molecular interactions and compressibility behaviour of strontium soaps in chloroform-propylene glycol mixture

 

M K Rawat & Sangeeta

Department of Chemistry, Agra College, Agra 282 002

Received 14 July 2007; revised 3 January 2008; accepted 14 January 2008

Ultrasonic measurements of strontium soaps (caprate, laurate and myristate) have been carried out in a mixture of chloroform and propylene glycol (70%-30% v/v) to determine the critical micellar concentration (CMC), soap-solvent interaction and various acoustic parameters. The results show that ultrasonic velocity, intermolecular free length, adiabatic compressibility, adiabatic molar volume and apparent molar compressibility decrease while specific acoustic impedance, relative association and solvation number increase with increase in soap concentration. The results of ultrasonic measurements have also been explained in terms of well known equations.

Keywords: Ultrasonic studies, Molecular interactions, Compressibilty, Strontium soaps, Chloroform-propylene-glycol

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp 193-197

 

 

Study of surface morphology and characterization of polymethyl methacrylate:polychlorotrifluoro ethyelene polyblend using SEM, DSC and
X-ray diffraction techniques

P Agrawal+, P Parmar, R Mallick & R Bajpai*

Department of Electronics, St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Jabalpur 482 001

+E-mail: dr_p_agrawal@hotmail.com

*Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482 001

Received 3 July 2007; revised 30 December 2007; accepted 10 January 2008

The effect of varying wt % ratio of PMMA:PCTFE polyblends on its surface morphology and structure has been reported. The value of intermediate glass transition temperature of the blend shows a homogeneous blending of the two polymers. The scanning electron micrographs also confirm the homogeneous blending of the two polymers for very low concentration of polychlorotrifluoro ethyelene (PCTFE) in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix. The role of PCTFE as plasticizer is confirmed by the decreasing glass transition temperature of the polyblend material with increasing concentration of PCTFE in PMMA matrix. At and after 5 wt % of PCTFE the blend shows heterogeneous surface morphology. Crystallinity of the blends is found to decrease with increasing PCTFE, concentration. X-ray diffractograms and SEM micrographs also show great amount of heterogeneity of the two constituents of PMMA:PCTFE polyblend at
95:5 wt% composition ratio. Appreciable blending and fascinating set of properties are found to be for lower wt% ratio of PCTFE in PMMA matrix.

Keywords: Plasticization, Morphology, DSC, SEM, X-ray diffraction

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 198-203

 

 

Growth and characterization of copper, indium and copper-indium alloy films
non-aqueous method of electrodeposition

 

S R Kumar*, B Prajapati, S K Tiwari & V K Tiwari

Department of Applied Sciences & Humanities, National Institute of Foundry & Forge Technology, Ranchi 834 003

Department of Physics, Gossner College, Ranchi 834 001

*E-mail:srkumar20052923@rediffmail.com

Received 26 October 2006; revised 16 August 2007; accepted 14 January 2008

A new non-aqueous method for electrodeposition of copper, indium and copper indium alloy films, ethylene glycol has been used as the solvent which is non-toxic and non-hazard bath. All the source materials are readily soluble in this bath and they have higher working temperature (≥160°C). The copper films prepared in ethylene glycol based bath are preferred (111) oriented with grains well connected to each other indicates the epitaxial growth. The indium film has been observed in semi-molten state with intense (101) reflection. The Cu-In alloy film prepares at -1.1 V (Pt) is copper rich but the ratio tends to be1.0 in the bulk of the film. Multiphase deposits are observed with grains which are spherical and well connected to each other. The resistivity and carrier concentration of the as-deposited copper and copper indium alloy films are found to be 0.2 Ω-cm, 9.9´1015 per cm3 and 2.5 Ω-cm and 5.5´1017 per cm3, respectively. The as-deposited films are found to be resistive but the resistance decreases when the films are annealed at moderate temperature.

Keywords: Non-aqueous medium, Electrodeposition, Cathodic polarization, Stoichiometry, Survey scans, Sputtering

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 204-208

 

 

Electronic structure of chromium-aluminium alloys

 

S K Verma1 & S S Rajput2

1Department of Physics, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi 248 128

2Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering and Technology, Jhansi 248 128

Received 3 January 2007; accepted 21 January 2008

The electronic structure of Cr-Al alloys has been studied by using the charge self-consistent Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Coherent Potential Approximation method. Results for density of states are presented and found to be in very good agreement with reflected X-ray photo spectra results. It has been found that half width of density of states band of these alloys increases approximately 5 per cent at 85 atomic percentage of Cr with respect to 95 and 75 percentage of Cr, which explains the change in shape and half width of experimental X-ray photo spectra results.

Keywords: Electronic structure, Chromium-aluminum alloys, Alloys

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 209-211

 

Study of viscosity and refractive index of nylon 6,6 and poly(methyl methacrylate)
in formic acid

M Mohan Reddy, K John & S Venkata Naidu*

Department of Polymer science & Technology, Srikrishna devaraya University, Anantapur 515 003

Received 3 January 2007; revised 24 July 2007; accepted 8 January 2008

Polymer blends of nylon 6,6 with poly methyl methacrylate(PMMA) have been prepared by solution blending and their miscibility has been investigated using physical techniques. Viscosity and refractive index for blend solutions at different percentages of the blend composition have been measured at 30oC. The results are discussed.

Keywords: Nylon6,6, Polymethylmethacrylate, Viscosity, Refractive index, Miscibility

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 212-214

 

 

Dielectric relaxation studies of binary mixtures of ethyl alcohol and
N,N-dimethylacetamide in the benzene solution from microwave absorption data

Vimal Sharma, Nagesh Thakur# , D R Sharma, V S Rangra & N S Negi

Department of Physics, H P University, Shimla 171 005, Himachal Pradesh

#E-mail: ntb668@yahoo.co.in

Received 8 January 2007; revised 31 July 2007, accepted 2 January 2008

The dielectric relaxation studies of different molar concentrations of ethanol in the binary mixtures of ethanol and
N, N-dimethylacetamide in benzene solutions have been studied at 9.883 GHz by using standard standing microwave techniques and Gopala Krishna’s [Trans Faraday Soc, 33 (1957) 767] single frequency concentration variation method at different temperatures (25, 30, 35 and 40
°C). It is found that dielectric relaxation time varies non-linearly with the variation in molar concentration of ethanol in the whole concentration range of the binary mixture. The solute-solute and solute-solvent types of molecular associations have been proposed. The energy parameters (ΔHε, ΔFε, ΔSε) for the dielectric relaxation process of binary mixtures containing 50% molar concentration of ethanol have been calculated at the respective given temperatures. Comparison has been made with the corresponding energy parameters for viscous flow process. It is found that the dielectric relaxation process can be treated as the rate process like the viscous flow process.

Keywords: Dielectric relaxation, N, N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), Benzene, Energy parameters, Microwave absorption

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 46, March 2008, pp. 215-216

Application of polypyrrole as an electromagnetic interference shielder

S S Dandekar & D S Kelkar

Physics Department, Institute of Science, Nagpur

E-mail : sushama_3sep@yahoo.co.in

Received 20 June 2007; accepted 21 January 2008

Pyrrole has been polymerized chemically using FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent on the substrate of nylon-6 film. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) studies are conducted on polypyrrole film (10 ´ 10 cm size; 35-40 mm thick) which was fabricated into the square shape. The EMI test is conducted in the frequency range 100-10000 MHz as per MIL STD-285. Attenuation values(db) obtained at various frequencies are recorded. The results indicate that the attenuation values are reaching a maximum of about 3 db at 200 and 3000 MHz. EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) has also been found to be a function of thickness of polypyrrole film. The values of EMI SE are calculated and found to be 2.1 db for 0.004 cm thick film of polypyrrole.

Keywords: Polypyrrole, Electromagnetic interference shielding, Shielding efficiency, Attenuation(db)