Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 2009

CODEN:IJOPAU 47(12) 833-904

 

ISSN:0019-5596

 

CONTENTS

 

Nuclear Physics

 

 

Levy index analysis in relativistic and ultrarelativistic nuclear collision – Evidence of non-thermal phase transition

        Dipak Ghosh*, Argha Deb, Subrata Biswas, Pasupati Mandal & Rittika Sarkar

 

839

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

 

Vibrational spectra, normal coordinate analysis and thermodynamics of 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzonitrile

        V K Rastogi*, Surabhi Singhal, A Pavan Kumar, G Ramana Rao, M A Palafox & Irena Kostova

 

844

Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

 

 

Ecological, exergetic efficiency and heating load optimizations for irreversible variable-temperature heat reservoir simple air heat pump cycles

        Yuehong Bi, Lingen Chen* & Fengrui Sun

 

852

Crystal and molecular structure of 2-thiobenzylazobenzene (C19H16N2S)

        Sanjib Karmakar*, K Patowary, S K Bhattacharjee, B Deka & A Chakraborty

 

863

Temperature dependence of bulk modulus of minerals using equation of state

        Gokula Nand & Munish Kumar*

 

867

Effect of sintering time on particle size of rare earth compounds (R = Nd) prepared by wet chemical method

        Surender Duhan*

 

872

Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic and Optical Properties

 

 

Study of tetracene thin film transistors using La2O3 as gate insulator

        R Sarma* & D Saikia

 

876

Dielectric relaxation studies of ternary liquid mixtures of aniline and substituted anilines with acrylonitrile in the microwave region

        T Kalaivani* & S Krishnan

 

880

Temperature and electric field dependence of soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss tangent in rochelle salt crystal

           Trilok Chandra Upadhyay* & Kalika Prasad Semwal

 

883

Note

 

Nuclear Physics

 

 

Alpha spectra and Yukawa potential as static part of the barrier

        S K Agrawal*

 

889

 

 

Authors for correspondence are indicated by (*)

 

 

 

ANNUAL INDEX 2009

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 839-843

 

 

Levy index analysis in relativistic and ultrarelativistic nuclear
collision – Evidence of non-thermal phase transition

 

Dipak Ghosh, Argha Deb, Subrata Biswas, Pasupati Mandal & Rittika Sarkar

Nuclear and Particle Physics Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032

E-mail: deegee111@gmail.com & dipakghosh_in@yahoo.com

Received 10 July 2009; revised 21 August 2009; accepted 31 August 2009

An analysis on Levy index of compound hadrons (pions + protons) emitted from 12C-AgBr and 24Mg-AgBr interactions both at 4.5 AGeV/c and 32S-AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV/c using the results of Takagi moment methodology in emission angle (cosq) space and azimuthal angle (f) space has been presented. The results of our study reveal non-thermal phase transition at both relativistic and ultrarelativistic energy.

           Keywords: Relativistic heavy ion interactions, Compound hadrons, Anomalous fractal dimensions, Levy index

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 844-851

 

 

Vibrational spectra, normal coordinate analysis and thermodynamics of
2-chloro-5-nitrobenzonitrile

 

VK Rastogia, Surabhi Singhala, A Pavan Kumarb, G Ramana Raoc, MA Palafoxd & Irena Kostovae

aPhysics Department, C C S University, Meerut 250 004, India

bPhysics Department, University College, Vidyaranyapuri, Kakatiya University, Warangal, India

cPhysics Department, Eritrea Institute of Technology, Asmara, Eritrea, North East Africa

dDepartamento de Quimica –Fisica I, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain

eFaculty of Pharmacy, Medical University, Sofia 1000, Bulgaria

E-mail: v_krastogi@rediffmail.com

Received 6 May 2009; revised received 31 July 2009; accepted 12 August 2009

The laser Raman (0-3500 cm–1) and FTIR (200-4000 cm–1) spectra (Nujol, KBr, liquid and vapour) of 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzonitrile have been recorded. A zero-order normal coordinate analysis has been made for the molecule using force constants derived earlier. On the basis of potential energy distributions and eigen vectors unambiguous vibrational assignments have been made for all the fundamentals of the molecule. The ideal gas state thermodynamic functions of the molecule are also computed in the temperature range 200-1500 K by utilizing the observed fundamental frequencies assuming rigid–rotor harmonic oscillator approximation.

           Keywords: Vibrational spectra, Normal coordinate analysis, Thermodynamics, Nitrobenzonitrile

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 852-862

 

 

Ecological, exergetic efficiency and heating load optimizations for irreversible variable-temperature heat reservoir simple air heat pump cycles

 

Yuehong Bi1,2, Lingen Chen2* & Fengrui Sun2

1Institute of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100 124, P R China

2Postgraduate School, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033, P R China

*E-mail: lgchenna@yahoo.com ; lingenchen@hotmail.com

 Received 26 February 2009; revised 16 September 2009; accepted 24 September 2009

Thermodynamic optimization of an irreversible air heat pump with variable-temperature heat reservoirs and hot- and cold-side counter-flow heat exchangers has been studied. The expressions of the heating load, the exergetic efficiency and the ecological function of the heat pump cycle are derived. Performance comparisons among exergetic efficiency optimization, ecological optimization and traditional heating load optimization objectives are done. The effect of the pressure ratio of the compressor, the allocation of heat exchanger inventory and the heat capacity rate matching between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs on the optimal performance of the cycle has been investigated by detailed numerical examples. When the performance optimization of the cycle is carried out by selecting the pressure ratio, three optimization objectives give simultaneously attention to the coefficient of performance (COP). The pressure ratio should be the one that is little bigger than the optimum pressure ratio corresponding to maximum COP, however, the results of three optimization objectives are consistent by optimizing the allocation of heat exchanger inventory and optimizing the heat capacity rate matching between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs. The optimum allocations of heat conductance are close to each other, and they are all less than 0.5. The results may provide guidelines for the design and optimization of practical air heat pump plants.

Keywords: Thermodynamic optimization, Irreversible air heat pump, Variable-temperature heat reservoir, Heating load, Exergetic efficiency, Ecological function

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 863-866

 

 

Crystal and molecular structure of 2-thiobenzylazobenzene (C19H16N2S)

 

Sanjib Karmakara* , K Patowaryb, S K Bhattacharjeeb, B Dekac & A Chakrabortyb

aDepartment of Instrumentation & USIC, b Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014

cDimoria College, Sonapur, Assam

E-mail: skarmakar@gauhati.ac.in

Received 30 January 2009;.revised 24 July 2009; accepted 3 September 2009

The title compound (I, W=X=Y=H, Z = CH2Ph) is a divalent organosulphur compound of the type Ar-S-Z belonging to the class of ortho mercaptoazo compounds. The azo group is moved away from the sulphenyl sulphur atom to attain the stable trans azo configuration. The sulphur atom has used hybrid orbitals (sp3) and not pure p-orbitals for the bond formation. The benzyl units attached to the sulphenyl sulphur and the 2-benylazo unit are moved away from each other for steric reason. The molecule is as a whole non-planar but N1 and N2 atoms are coplanar with the respective phenyl rings to which they are attached. The S1 atom is coplanar with the phenyl group to which it is attached. The dihedral angle between the mean planes passing through the atoms of the thiophenyl group and the benzyl group is 75(1)°. There is no intermolecular hydrogen bond and the molecule is stabilised by the network of Van der Waal's interaction in their crystalline assembly.

Keywords: Crystal, Molecular structure, Organosulphur compound

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 867-871

 

 

Temperature dependence of bulk modulus of minerals using equation of state

 

Gokula Nand & Munish Kumar

Department of Physics, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145

E-mail: munish_dixit@yahoo.com

Received 11 November 2008; revised 24 August 2009; accepted 24 September 2009

The unified theory of isobaric equation of state (EOS) has been used to obtain the temperature dependence of V/V0 of ten minerals. The model has been found to give the results in good agreement with the experimental data. The maximum deviations have been found to be less than 1% (except Mg2SiO4). A more critical test is provided by computing the temperature dependence of bulk modulus by using the V/V0 data obtained in the present study. Computed values of bulk modulus present a good agreement with the experimental data. This supports the validity of the simple model for complicated minerals. It is concluded that a simple model is capable to predict the properties of minerals under high temperature conditions.

           Keywords: Equation of state, Bulk modulus, Minerals

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 872-875

 

 

Effect of sintering time on particle size of rare earth compounds (R = Nd) prepared by wet chemical method

 

Surender Duhan

Materials Science Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics,
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001

E-mail: surender6561@yahoo.co.in

Received 22 October 2008; revised 21 April 2009; accepted 6 August 2009

Microstructure of nanocrystalline Nd2O3 supported on amorphous SiO2 upon heat treatment in air at 700°C for 8-32 h has been studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It has been found that the annealing time and sintering temperature played a pivotal role to obtain hexagonal and cubic neodymium oxide. The sample calcined at constant sintering temperature 700°C for 32 h was cubic Nd2O3 nanocrystallites with average size ~10 nm.

           Keywords: Oxides, Nanostructures, Metals, Glasses, Elements, FTIR, Scanning electron microscopy

 

 

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 876-879

 

 

Study of tetracene thin film transistors using La2O3 as gate insulator

 

R Sarma* & D Saikia

Thin Film Lab, Department of Physics, J B College, Jorhat, Assam

*E-mail: sarmamax2000@yahoo.com

Received 8 June 2009; revised 28 August 2009; accepted 30 September 2009

Tetracene organic field-effect transistors (OFET) have been fabricated and investigated with La2O3 as gate insulator. The fabricated organic thin film transistors exhibit p-type conductivity with field effect mobility 1.04´10-4 cm2/V.s,
ON-OFF ratio 3.465, sub-threshold swing 17.8 mV/decade and hole concentration 1.25
´1019 cm-3. The SEM and XRD analysis on the semiconductor film were have also been reported.

Keywords: Organic thin film transistors, Tetracene, Gate insulator, Hole concentration, Interface traps

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 880-882

 

 

Dielectric relaxation studies of ternary liquid mixtures of aniline and substituted anilines with acrylonitrile in the microwave region

 

T Kalaivani* & S Krishnan**

*Department of Physics, S R M University, Kattankulathur 603 203

**Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002

*E-mail: tkv_p@ryahoo.com

Received 26 December 2008; revised 20 February 2009; accepted 7 September 2009

Dielectric behaviour of three amines and their mixtures: N-methyl aniline + acrylonitrile, aniline + acrylonitrile and
N,N-dimethyl aniline + acrylonitrile at microwave frequency 9.36 GHz has been studied at temperature 303 K. Different dielectric quantities like dielectric constant (
e˘), dielectric loss (e˘˘), static dielectric constant (eo), and dielectric constant at optical frequency (e) have been determined. The relaxation time (τ) has been calculated by both Higasi’s method and Cole-Cole method. The molar free energy of activation (ΔFτ) and (ΔFη) have also been calculated. The complex systems studied show the maximum relaxation time values at 1:1 complex ratio by both Higasi’s method and Cole-Cole plot method.

Keywords: Dielectric relaxation, Aniline, Acrylonitrile, Frequency domain technique

 

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 883-888

 

 

Temperature and electric field dependence of soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss tangent in rochelle salt crystal

 

Trilok Chandra Upadhyay* & Kalika Prasad Semwal

Physics Department, H N B Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), Uttarakhand 246 174

*E-mail: trilokphys@yahoo.co.in

Received 11 August 2008; revised 14 May 2009 ; accepted 4 September 2009

A two-sublattice pseudospin lattice coupled mode model of Chaudhuri et al. [J Phys Soc Japan, 49 (1980) 609.]
along with third-and fourth-order phonon anharmonic interaction terms and electric field term, has been considered.
By using double-time temperature dependent Green's function method, expressions for shift, width, soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss tangent are obtained for rochelle salt crystal. By fitting model values of physical quantities, temperature dependence of soft mode frequency, dielectric constant and loss tangent have been calculated for different
fields for rochelle salt. Theoretical results are seen to compare well with the experimental results of Sandy and Jones
[Phys Rev, 168 (1968) 481].

           Keywords: Ferroelectrics, Green's function, Soft mode, Anharmonic interaction

 

 


 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, December 2009, pp. 889-891

 

 

Alpha spectra and Yukawa potential as static part of the barrier

 

S K Agrawal

Department of Mathematics, R S P College Jharia Dhanbad, Jharkhand

Received 7 October 2008; revised 8 September 2009;
 accepted 16 October 2009

Yukawa potential has been applied as static part in the non - local α-nucleus potential to calculate the relative intensities of the α-spectra of some rare earth and heavy nuclei. The results are found to be in good agreement with the observed values.

Keywords: Alpha spectra, Yukawa potential