Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics

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VOLUME 47

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2009

CODEN:IJOPAU 47(10) 687-756

 

ISSN:0019-5596

 

CONTENTS

 

Atomic and Molecular Physics

 

 

Spectral properties of cadmium malonate crystals grown in hydrosilica gel

        Varghese Mathew, Jochan Joseph, Sabu Jacob, P A Varughese & K E Abraham*

 

691

Vibrational analysis of 1,8-dichlorooctane

        Devinder Singh*, Neena Jaggi & Nafa Singh

 

696

Estimation of spectral response of a consumer grade digital still camera and its application for temperature measurement

        Anagha M Panditrao*& Priti P Rege

 

703

Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics

 

 

Automatic inspection system for measurement of lens field curvature by means of computer vision

        Chern-Sheng Lin*, Jung-Ming Wu, Chen-Wei Ho ,Chieh-Jen Lee & Mau-Shiun Yeh

 

708

Condensed Matter: Structural, Mechanical and Thermal Properties

 

 

Microcrystalline parameters of Cu-Zn ferrites using X-ray line profile analysis

        Ashok R Lamani, H S Jayanna, P Parameswara & R Somashekar*

 

715

Preparation and characterization of ceramic samples of Ag1-xKxNbO3

        Om Prakash Nautiyal, S C Bhatt* & B S Semwal

 

719

Estimation of thermodynamical quantities of tin chalcogenides from spectroscopic data

        Pavitra Tandon & K N Uttam*

 

725

Nanoscale relaxation near twin-interfaces of palladium and platinum

        Sardar Sikandar Hayat*, Muhammad A Choudhry, Altaf Hussain, Shabana Alam,
Sheikh A Ahmad & Iftikhar Ahmad

 

730

Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic and Optical Properties

 

 

Electrode effect on electrical conduction in thin film of polyvinyl pyrrolidone

        Ashutosh Verma*, P K Khare & Rudra Kant Srivastava

 

737

Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology

 

 

State space representation for log domain filtering synthesis

        Remzi Arslanalp & Abdullah T Tola*

745

 

Authors for correspondence are indicated by (*)


Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 691-695

 

 

 

Spectral properties of cadmium malonate crystals grown in hydrosilica gel

 

Varghese Mathew1, Jochan Joseph1, Sabu Jacob1, P A Varughese2 & K E Abraham3*

1St Aloysius’ College, Edathua, Alappuzha, Kerala

2St Michael’s College, Cherthala, Alappuzha, Kerala

3S B College, Changanacherry, Kottayam, Kerala

*E-mail: abrahamke@gmail.com

Received 19 February 2009; revised 18 July 2009; accepted 24 August 2009

Cadmium malonate crystals have been grown by gel aided solution technique employing sodium metasilicate. X-ray diffractogram of the compound gives well defined peaks. FTIR and FT Raman spectral studies confirm the presence of water molecules and functional groups. Metal-metal bonding is also identified. Using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) studies, the band gap of the sample is estimated.

 

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 696-702

 

 

 

Vibrational analysis of 1,8-dichlorooctane

 

Devinder Singh1*, Neena Jaggi2 & Nafa Singh3

1Department of Physics, D S College, Karnal 132 001

2Department of Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136 119

3Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119

* E-mail: ds_kuk@yahoo.com

Received 27 February 2009; revised 28 July 2009; accepted 28 August 2009

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectra of the organic compound 1,8-dichlorooctane (1,8-DCO) have been recorded in the range 4000-400cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. A detailed vibrational analysis in terms of assignment of observed frequencies of this molecule for its four most probable conformations in liquid state, having all its carbon atoms in the same plane, with symmetries C2h, Ci, C2 and C1 has been done. A systematic set of symmetry coordinates has been constructed for this molecule and normal coordinate calculations are carried out using the computer program MOLVIB. The force-field transferred from already studied lower chain chloro-alkanes is subjected to refinement so as to fit the observed frequencies with that of calculated ones. The potential energy distribution (PED) has been calculated for each mode of vibration of the molecule for the assumed conformations.

 

 

  

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 703-707

 

 

Estimation of spectral response of a consumer grade digital still camera and its application for temperature measurement

 

Anagha M Panditrao*& Priti P Rege**

*Cummins College of Engineering for Women, **College of Engineering, Pune, 411 052

E-mail: anagha.panditrao@gmail.com

Received 26 November 2008; revised 28 July 2009; accepted 27 August 2009

Consumer grade digital still camera has been used for image acquisition of various heat sources and the spectral response of camera has been obtained. Different sources are used to cover the bandwidth ranging from IR to UV. From the results, it has been observed that the response of the digital camera used to capture source images is adequate to cover visible range (400-700 nm). The images of various visible known heat sources are captured using the mentioned camera. From the captured images, various zones of the source are identified using image-processing algorithms. The actual temperature is measured by placing a miniature k type thermocouple in each zone. The measured temperature values are correlated with the respective colours and features computed from the images. The colour temperature correlation is established by applying various analytical techniques. Calibration of the image-based measurement with contact measurement using an established sensor is performed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 708-714

 

Automatic inspection system for measurement of lens field curvature
by means of computer vision

 

Chern-Sheng Lin1, Jung-Ming Wu1, Chen-Wei Ho1 ,Chieh-Jen Lee2 & Mau-Shiun Yeh3

1Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng Chia University. Taichung, Taiwan

2Department of Electrical Engineering, Feng Chia University. Taichung, Taiwan

3Chung-Shan Institute of Science & Technology, Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan

Received 3 November 2008; revised 26 June 2009; accepted 29 July 2009

This paper proposed an automatic inspection system for field curvature in order to replace the present lens measurement device for curvature of field and manual adjusting of screen distance. The system utilizes a screen equipped with automatic driving system and computer vision technique, along with DLP projection and computer software to capture data from image area by scanning, and then obtains the average and threshold values of its pixels. The analysis is based on 8 adjoining points to conduct contractive algorithm between bright spot and dark spot, and automatically measure the figure projected on a screen and provide real-time measuring results. The drawbacks of traditional manual measurement can be completely avoided by this system. When comparing the measured result with that of the optics emulating software, the accuracy and time effect of this automatic inspection measurement for the lens aberration of field curvature are significant.

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 715-718

 

 

Microcrystalline parameters of Cu-Zn ferrites using X-ray line profile analysis

 

Ashok R Lamani1, H S Jayanna1, P Parameswara2 & R Somashekar2*

1Department of Studies in Physics, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta 577 451

2Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore 570 006

E-mail: rs@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in

Received 28 January 2009; revised 25 June 2009; accepted 27 July 2009

Cu-Zn ferrites are synthesized by double sintering ceramic method. X-ray analysis of Cu-Zn ferrite shows the single phase spinel structure. The structural and microstructural parameters have been computed using X-ray diffraction data. Using CheckCell program, the Bragg reflections have been indexed. The estimated microstructural parameters have been correlated with the reported physical parameters. In the present paper, an analytical asymmetric function like exponential distribution function was used to describe the paracrystalline statistics of column length distribution in Cu-Zn ferrites and a good convergence was observed with this function.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 719-724

 

 

Preparation and characterization of ceramic samples of Ag1-xKxNbO3

 

Om Prakash Nautiyal, S C Bhatt & B S Semwal

Department of Physics, H N B Garhwal University, Srinagar, Srinagar Garhwal, Uttarakhand

E-mail: nautiyal_omprakash@yahoo.co.in

Received 29 September 2008; revised 29 July 2009; accepted 28 August 2009

Ceramic pellets of silver potassium niobate (Ag1-xKxNbO3) system have been prepared by conventional sintering method. The prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) techniques. Lattice parameters have been calculated by XRD pattern and grain size has been calculated by SEM. It has been observed that all the prepared samples show orthorhombic structure at room temperature.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 725-729

 

 

Estimation of thermodynamical quantities of tin chalcogenides
from spectroscopic data

 

 Pavitra Tandon & K N Uttam

Saha’s Spectroscopy Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002

E-mail: pavitraofau@rediffmail.com; kailash.uttam@rediffmail.com

Received 16 March 2009; revised 11 June 2009; accepted 30 July 2009

Statistical thermodynamics and spectroscopy have been combined to evaluate thermodynamical quantities of tin chalcogenides (SnO, SnS, SnSe and SnTe). Their temperature dependence has been studied in the temperature range 100-2200K. The authenticity of data is established by the comparison of reported values. Discrepancies between calculated values and observed values can mainly be attributed to contributions from excited electronic states.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 730-736

 

 

Nanoscale relaxation near twin-interfaces of palladium and platinum

 

Sardar Sikandar Hayat1*, Muhammad A Choudhry2, Altaf Hussain2, Shabana Alam1,
Sheikh A Ahmad2 & Iftikhar Ahmad1

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan

2Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63120, Pakistan

*E-mail: sikandariub@yahoo.com

Received 14 April 2009; revised 15 July 2009; accepted 12 August 2009

Molecular dynamics simulation technique with many-body and semi-empirical potentials, based on the embedded atom method is employed to calculate some low index (111), (311), (211) and (210) twin-boundaries at various temperatures. Multilayer relaxation near these twin interfaces for Pd and Pt has also been investigated. For all interfaces except (111), due to high atomic density of (111) plane, considerable relaxation is found on both sides of the interfaces with the same magnitude. The interlayer relaxation near (311) and (211) interfaces is in oscillatory order while near (210) interface is of random nature. Maximum contraction 84.16% and 83.18% for 2nd interplanar spacing is found for Pd and Pt, respectively. This shows partial coalescence of the planes near (211) twin interface. Furthermore, percentage registry relaxation is calculated for the planes in the vicinity near the interfaces.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 737-744

 

 

 

Electrode effect on electrical conduction in thin film of polyvinyl pyrrolidone

 

Ashutosh Verma1, P K Khare2 & Rudra Kant Srivastava1

1Department of Physics, Bipin Behari P.G. College, Jhansi 284 001

2Department of PG Studies and Research in Physics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482 001

Received 18 September 2008; revised 7 January 2009; accepted 9 March 2009

Electrical conduction behaviour in ployvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) has been investigated in both transient and steady state conditions in the temperature range 40-80°C at different dc electric fields from 05 to 100 kV/cm using similar and dissimilar, both types of electrode systems. The nature of transient currents has mainly been attributed to the dipolar nature of PVP in the lower temperature region where slope value n of the Curie Von Schweidler law is found to vary from 0.43 to 0.62 for similar electrode system and from 0.78 to 0.98 for dissimilar electrode system. The low field steady state conduction is found to be ohmic in nature. The high field non-linear nature of conduction currents is found to be strongly temperature dependent and an attempt has been made to explain these curves taking into account various conduction processes. A strong temperature dependence of the conduction current rules out tunnelling as the possible conduction mechanism. The Poole-Frankel and Richardson-Schottky coefficients estimation shows that Richardson-Schottky conduction mechanism is operative in controlling the transport of charges in PVP foil electrets. This result is, further, confirmed using different electrodes systems of Jonscher and Ansari.

  

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Pure & Applied Physics

Vol. 47, October 2009, pp. 745-752

 

 

State space representation for log domain filtering synthesis

Remzi Arslanalp1 & Abdullah T Tola2

Pamukkale University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 20070,
Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey

E-mail: 1rarslanalp@pau.edu.tr; 2attola@pau.edu.tr

Received 3 February 2009; revised 10 July 2009; accepted 26 August 2009

New method for the state space representation of filters based on the companion form technique has been proposed. It is useful for synthesis of log domain filters. For state space representation of a log domain filter, it is very important to have almost equal coefficients of the state space equations since these coefficients are proportional to currents or voltages of the designed device. The method allows selection of two arbitrary parameters (a, b) to adjust these coefficients. By using this technique, more balanced state space equations can be obtained. This method offers an option to obtain desired adjustable coefficients. It is particularly useful for synthesizing high order log domain circuits using state space methods. The proposed method is applied to second and fifth order log domain filter designs to show the application. Simulation results demonstrated that different system equations which are determined by the proposed method affect the performance of the filter.