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Vol 53 No 16,  30 August 2003

ISSN 0409-7467





NBRI develops new varieties of Chrysanthemum


CHRYSANTHEMUM (Asteraceae) is one of the major floral crops in the world. It is cultivated as cut flower on commercial scale as well as for its aesthetic value in gardens. Research programme at National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow, is directed towards enrichment of germplasm of this floral crop by introduction and breeding. Presently, the institute is maintaining more than 250 living collection of chrysanthemum comprising almost all bloom types and colours, which are being used as base line material for further development of new varieties. The Floriculture Division of NBRI has recently devel lopment of new varieties. The Floriculture Division of NBRI has recently developed four new varieties of chrysanthemum through selective crossing and seedling collection. These varieties, are being released as `NBRI Golden Jubilee Year Varieties '.


These varieties are:


New chrysanthemum varieties developed by NBRI (Clockwise from top left):



NBRI INDIANA: It is a small flowered, yellow, pompon type, suitable for mini and pot culture. It is also a very good cut flower and garland variety. It is a profusely branching, long, erect stem, green leaves, uniform bloom, opening in late November, easy to multiply by suckers and cuttings. Plant height 33 to 36 cm, 135 to 150 flower heads/plant, 16 flowers/stem, 148 florets/flower head, floret length 1.5 cm, floret width 0.60 cm, flower head diameter 3.6 cm, floret colour bright yellow [12/A (Fan1)]. It has been developed by crossing `Little Darling' (orange) as female and `Nanako' (yellow) as male parents.


NBRI KUSUM: It is a small flowered, yellow open disc, single Korean type chrysanthemum good for pot culture. It is a bushy compact with profuse blooming habit in late November. The plant habit and shape is most attractive for exhibition. Plant height – 45 to 50 cm, 255 flower heads/plant, 22 flowers/stem, 42 florets/flower head, floret length 2.1 cm, floret width 0.40 cm, flower head diameter 4.2 cm, floret colour bright yellow [09/A (Fan1)]. It has been developed by crossing `Haldighati' (yellow) as female and `Sharad Kanti' (yellow) as male parents.


NBRI LITTLE DARLING: It is a small flowered, terracotta pompon type mini chrysanthemum. It requires neither `Pinching' nor `Staking'. It is a unique genetic strain with dwarf, bushy, compact round shape, profuse blooming habit in early December. The plant habit and shape is most attractive for `mini culture'. Plant height 32.5 cm, 260 flower heads/plant, 26 flowers/stem, 146 florets/flower head, floret length 1.0 cm, floret width 0.50 cm, flower head diameter 2.6 cm, floret colour yellow‑orange [22/B (Fan1)]. It has been developed by crossing `White Charm' (white) as female and `Jubilee' (bronze) as male parents.


NBRI MINI JESSIE: It is a small flowered, cineraria type mini chrysanthemum. It requires neither `Pinching' not `Staking'. It is a unique genetic strain with dwarf, bushy, compact round shape, profuse blooming habit in early December. The plant habit and shape is most attractive for `mini culture'. Plant height 34.4 cm, 267 flower heads/plant, 33 flowers/stem, 215 florets/flower head, floret length 1.4 cm, floret width 0.50 cm, flower head diameter 2.4 cm, floret colour red purple [72/C (Fan2)]. It has been developed by crossing `Cameo' (pink) as female and `Jessie' (purple) as male parents.


For further detail please write to:

    Director, National Botanical Research Institute,

    Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow,




High‑Power Low‑Pressure Gas Discharge Tube Switches: Thyratrons


THE Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani, had undertaken sometime back two sponsored grant‑in‑aid projects for development of (i) 25 kV/1 kA thyratron and (ii) 40 kV/3kA thyratron, for the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore. Development of 25 kV/1 kA hydrogen thyratron has been successfully completed. A prototype of this tube has been under user trial tests at CAT. It is undergoing life‑test and has already clocked 60 h of successful operation. A deuterium filled 40 kV/3kA thyratron is at the advanced stage of development.



Hydrogen Thyratron developed by CEERI


Hydrogen Thyratron Specifications


Peak hold off voltage:                     22 kV
Peak switched current:                    1.0 kA
Average switched current:               1.0A
Time jitter:                                      5 ns (max)
Rate of rise of current:                     1 kA/ms
Average switched power:                2.0kW
Pulse width:                                    600 ns (max)


The associated critical technologies developed are: (i) fabrication of alumina‑OFHC copper (1.5 mm thick) vacuum tight seals for dissipation of heat from thyratron electrodes; these are thermionic emitter‑based hollow cathode systems, capable of providing more than 100 A/cm2 of current density; and (ii) hydrogen reservoirs for maintaining equilibrium pressure of hydrogen/deuterium gas inside the device.


The device can also be operated at higher pulse repetition frequencies. The thyratron is a versatile plasma switch. It can be used in a number of pulsed systems, limited by above specifications.


The hydrogen thyratron finds applications in pulse power systems, which deliver pulse power (maximum peak power: 12 MW) up to 1 kHz of repetition rate. The specific design of the thyratron makes it suitable for switching nanosecond pulses in circuits, at even higher repetition rate of switching. Because of very low jitter, it is especially suitable for radar, medical00 linear accelerators, kicker magnets and high power gas lasers.



5 MW Pulsed Power S‑band Klystron


KLYSTRON is an RF source for pre‑injector microtron for Synchrotron Radiation Source facility at CAT, Indore. The Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, sponsored a project to Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani, for the development of a pulsed power S‑band klystron.

The 5 MW pulsed power S‑band klystron tube developed by CEERI produces 5.5 MW RF power, more than 50 dB gain with the rated beam voltage and current. The tube consists of three major assemblies: Electron gun, RF interaction space and collector. The overall length and weight of the tube are 1.2 m and 60 kg respectively. The tube has been completely designed indigenously.



5 MW Pulsed Power S-band Klystron



Important Features:




Output RF power:           5 MW

Frequency:                      2856 MHz

Gain:                               50 dB

Duty ratio:                       0.005

Beam voltage:                  130 kV

Beam current:                  95 A

Pulse width:                     5ms



Certification obtained for NAL Microwave Anechoic Chamber


THE National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bangalore's Microwave Anechoic Chamber (NAL‑MAC) has been certified following extensive chamber validation measurements carried out over last two month. The relevant papers were formally handed over to Dr B. R. Pai, Director, NAL, by Prof. P. R. Mahapatra of IISc‑Bangalore.


NAL‑MAC is contemplated for accurate antenna and radome measurements as well as monostatic and bistatic RCS (stealth) applications. This facility of the Computational Electromagnetics Laboratory (CEM Lab., ALD) has been designed and fabricated in a record time of less than three months. The overall dimensions of the shielded NAL‑MAC are 10.5 m´ 7.3m´ 3.1m, with the large operational quiet zone (QZ) of 3m´3m´1 m (sufficient, for example, for a 2.5m radome).The chamber reflectivity at, better than 60 dB (down) in the operational frequency range of 4 to 40 GHz (extended range: 2 to 4 GHz, 40 to 50 GHz), is of international class. A unique feature of NAL‑MAC is that it is completely indigenous.



New R&D Facilities at NGRI


Absolute Gravimeter


DR Harsh K. Gupta, Secretary, Department of Ocean Development (DOD), Government of India, inaugurated the country's first Absolute Gravity Observatory at the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, on 18 June 2003. This Absolute Gravimeter, procured under joint collaboration with DOD, is one among the four such tools in Asia. It can measure the value of acceleration due to gravity to an accuracy of 2m Gal with a precision of about 1m Gal. The state‑of‑the‑art device costing Rs 1.8 million would be used for studies related to sea level changes, vertical crustal movements in earthquake prone regions and for establishing the primary gravity reference base stations in India and Antarctica as well as in exploration programmes for hydrocarbons and minerals. NGRI is planning to deploy it in Antarctica during the twenty‑third summer expedition (2003‑04).



Dr Harsh K. Gupta, Secretary, DOD, inaugurating the country's first Absolute Gravity Observatory at NGRI
 and holding discussion, with Dr V. P. Dimri, Director, NGRI, Dr P. C. Mandal, DG, GSI; and other scientists



Revision of Gravity Map


Shri P. C. Mandal, Director General, GSI, released the draft copy of gravity map of India, prepared by NGRI in collaboration with GSI, during the CSIR Diamond Jubilee Workshop – V on `Gravity Method for Geodynamic Studies and Resource Exploration – New Trends & Innovations' on 18 June 2003. The map has been prepared on 1:2 million scale with 5 mGal contour interval, improving over the previous one. The new map has revealed several new gravity anomalies which can help in better resource exploration and geodynamic studies and also provide valuable information of subsurface structures and tectonics.



CFTRI: IP & HRD Information



IT is now second time in a row that the Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, has attained number one position in CSIR by filing highest number of Indian patents (more than 120) during 2002‑03; a year before this the institute had filed 100 patents. Foreign filing has also shown an increasing trend with 105 patents filed this year as compared to 60 during the last year.


US Patents granted


The US patents granted to CFTRI in the recent past include:

US Patent No. 6420133: Process for the preparation of high protein hydrolysate, Mrs C. Radha, Dr P. Ramesh Kumar and Dr V. Prakash.


Oilseed proteins are a potentially important source of human dietary proteins throughout the world. Usage of oilseed proteins as such is limited because of their poor solubility in water, presence of antinutritional factors, poor digestibility, etc. Following oil removal, the protein present in defatted cake is heat denatured and therefore directly unextractable.


Hence proteolysis is an attractive approach for recovering the protein from cake in soluble form and affords a high protein preparation suitable for protein fortification of a wide variety of foods. Also, enzymatic hydrolysis is an attractive means of obtaining better functional properties of food proteins without impairing their nutritional value.


The novelty of the process lies in the step of producing optimally mixed flour from different oilseed flours by hydrolyzing the protein, using successive and specific enzymatic reaction, to get a product having optimum desired nutritional composition of amino acids and quality protein.


US Patent No. 6503552: Adding flavidin as antioxidant, Dr L. Jaganmohan Rao, Shri G. K. Jayaprakasha and Dr K. K. Sakaraiah


Antioxidants play a crucial role in preventing or delaying autoxidation and have attracted a lot of attention as food additives. The deterioration of food with time results from its biological nature largely and is inevitable.


During the production, processing, distribution, storage preceding and even during actual consumption, food undergoes various modes of deterioration that involve biological changes by microbes as well as chemical changes. The latter is represented by enzymatic and non‑enzymatic oxidation of lipids and phenolic substances, which cause undesirable changes in flavor, appearance, physical character, nutritional value and toxicity.


Deoxygenation, airtight packing, and other techniques have solved some of these problems, but the role of antioxidants as either food constituents or as additives cannot be overlooked. Both synthetic and natural antioxidants are widely used in many food products. The US Patent essentially describes a method of using natural flavidin (2,7‑dihydroxy 9,10‑dihydrophenanthro‑4,5 bcd‑pyran) as an anti‑oxidant in a food composition.


Glimpse of Some Other Patented Inventions of CFTRI

Improved Process for Preparation of Tamarind Paste


Although tamarind is used in different forms for acidifying food products, the most preferred are the paste and powder forms. The drawback of powder form is that it contains as high as 50% diluents such as starch and anti caking agents. Moreover, the powder is highly hygroscopic in nature. CFTRI has developed an improved process for preparation of tamarind paste from good quality tamarind, free from seeds, fibrous and extraneous matter. The cleaned pulp is subjected to heat processing followed by coarse grinding. The ground pulp is reprocessed to reduce the moisture level to obtain optimum quality tamarind paste.


Process for Preparation of Calcium Hydroxycitrate


Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is found to be the principal acid in the fruits of Garcinia. The only known anorectic agent found as a natural constituent of foods is HCA and its derivatives have been incorporated into a wide range of pharmaceutical preparations in combination with other ingredients for the claimed purpose of enhancing weight loss, cardioprotection and endurance in exercise. CFTRI has developed a process for making calcium salt of hydroxycitric acid in a form that is stable and biologically active, and useful as natural appetite suppressant.


Proteolytic Activity Rich Spice Powder for Tenderization of Meat


Tenderization of tough meat enhances its demand for preparation of a number of traditional and comminuted products. Keeping this in view, CFTRI developed a process for tenderization of layer chicken meat using proteolytic activity rich spice powder. The spice is treated with a selected polar organic solvent under optimized conditions to obtain a proteolytic activity rich dry powder. This powder is used for tenderizing tough meat by immersing meat in potable water containing optimized quantity of the spice powder under specified conditions. The advantage of the process is the use of natural ingredient and shorter treatment period to obtain tender and flavour rich meat.


Device for Extraction of Proteins


CFTRI has developed a simple device for the extraction of biologically active proteins after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by a modified electro‑elution apparatus. The electro‑elution device for the quantitative extraction of proteins in a highly concentrated form is an important feature of this device and the advantages are many, i.e. simple and quick results. Cost effective and reproducible, the method does not require prior knowledge of the protein characteristics and the recovery of the protein under optimum conditions is quantitative, Bifunctional pectinase iso‑enzyme from A. niger has been quantitatively separated by this device.


Continuous Lemon Cutting Device


The pickle industry is facing problems in cutting the large quantity of fruits to the required shape and size continuously, particularly lemon. The institute has designed and developed a continuous circular cutting device for lemon and other similar fruits. The lemon flows in to the pockets of the centralizing disc due to the gradient of the inlet chute. The whole lemon is cut into four pieces when the centralizing disc carrying the whole lemon moves against the multi‑edged cutter. The lemons cut to four pieces are dropped on to the outlet chute, when the centralizing disc moves away from the multi‑edged cutter. The outlet chute discharges the cut lemon in to the tray/vessel. The machine can be operated with or  without electric power. It has a capacity of cutting lemon at rate of 100‑150 kg/h.


Ready‑to‑serve Beverage from Custard Apple


Custard apple is a tropical fruit. It is liked for its sweet pulp with pleasant aroma. Thermal processing of pulp leads to many problems such as development of off‑flavour, bitterness and discoloration. Beverage made out of the thermally processed pulp also develops the same problems during storage. To overcome these complex problems, CFTRI has developed a process using microfiltration to yield clear juice of extended shelf life without off‑flavour, bitterness and discoloration. The conditions necessary for enzymatic liquefaction of pulp and microfiltration using different concentrations of pulp, pasteurization in relation to the microbiological quality are entailed in this invention.



HRD Activities at CFTRI


THE Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore, has been laying considerable emphasis on education and training to meet the country's manpower requirements in the area of food engineering, in addition to pioneering the development of indigenous technologies for conservation and processing of foods with value‑addition, minimization of wastes and utilization of byproducts. The courses/training programmes conducted by the institute include:


Postgraduate degree course in Food Technology:More than 800 professionals have been trained so far. Indian and foreign nationals have attended this course and they occupy important positions in food industries, R&D institutions, universities and government departments.


International Course in Flour Milling Technology: Since 1978, the International School of Milling Technology has trained 427 students, including 120 from abroad.


Advanced Training in R&D Through Doctoral Programme:Around 250 students, both from India and abroad, have completed their Ph.D degrees and presently more than 100 students are working for the Ph.D in eight different areas of Food Sciences.


Short Term Courses:The beneficiaries estimated through these courses, during the last 10 years are around 15,000 Indian and foreign nationals from various industries/institutions.


Customized Training Courses for Individuals, Organizations and Industries:A total of 400 such programmes have been conducted for Indian and foreign nationals.


Short Projects for Students of Master and Bachelor Degrees for meeting dissertation and investigational requirements.


Postgraduate and Post‑doctoral Training in Post‑harvest Technology: CFTRI is an Associated Institute of UN University. A total of 150 UNU fellows from different countries have been trained so far and currently three students from Nigeria and Sudan are undergoing the advanced training programme.


CSIR signs MoU with Tezpur University for mutual cooperation


THE Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) has signed an MoU with the Tezpur University (TU) on 17 July 2003 to create a framework for a platform for broad‑based collaboration between the CSIR laboratories and the Tezpur University. The specific objectives of this MoU are:


a.     To establish a close linkage and functional coordination between TU and the constituent        

        laboratories of CSIR.

b.     To recognize the CSIR laboratories as accredited research centres for research and directed

        study by TU.

c.     To facilitate CSIR professionals to pursue higher studies, research and need‑based training

        programmes in TU through the teaching programmes of TU.

d.     To assess and accredit the skill based training/professional programmes offered by the CSIR

        laboratories leading ultimately to acquiring degrees and diplomas in TU.

e.     To consider the qualified CSIR professionals as accredited instructors/guides for the TU's

        teaching and research programmes.

f.     To facilitate joint seeking of funds and conduct of research, training and consultancy with

        industries/institutions in India/abroad.

g.    To facilitate creation/development of new experimental/computational facilities through 

        mutual co‑operation of CSIR and TU through exchange of experts, etc. An Executive

        Committee has been constituted to review the functioning of the collaborative research

        programmes conducted through various CSIR laboratories. It comprises Vice Chancellor,

        Tezpur University (Chairman); Director General, CSIR (Co‑Chairman), and three nominees

        each from Tezpur University and CSIR as members.

h.     The Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) generated through the collaborative research    

        programmes will be jointly and equally owned by CSIR and Tezpur University.


The MoU was signed by Scientist‑in‑Charge, CSIR Centre for Mathematical Modelling and Computer Simulation (C‑MMACS), Bangalore, on behalf of CSIR, and by the Vice Chancellor of Tezpur University, in the presence of Dr R. A. Mashelkar, Director General, CSIR.



National Workshop on Ayurveda Research Scenario — Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects for Excellence

AROGYADHAM, Deendayal Research Institute (DRI), Chitrakoot, in association with National Botanical Research Institute (NBRI), Lucknow, organized a three‑day National Workshop on `Ayurveda Research Scenario — Challenges, Opportunities and Prospects for Excellence' at DRI from 24 to 26 May 2003. The main objective of the workshop was to develop implementable strategies to revive and revitalize Ayurveda by integrating its concepts and philosophies with cutting edge areas of modern science and modern medicine.



Dr Joshi lauded the commendable work that Arogyadham is currently executing in 80 selected villages in and around Chitrakoot, with the mission to uplift the rural people and improve their quality of life. He touched upon various issues concerned with S&T integration of Ayurvedic health care system with modern medicine and desired that the participants of the workshop should address these issues and come out with workable/implementable, scientifically sound and sustainable strategies to take forward the legacy, wisdom and heritage of Ayurveda, and, thereby, realize the vision and mission of Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya and Nanaji.


Shri Nanaji Deshmukh in his presidential address explained the mission and various developmental activities initiated by Arogyadham, DRI and desired that the workshop at the end should come out with appropriate R&D strategies for production of quality Ayurvedic drugs for meeting the health care needs of the people of our country, particularly the rural people living in 500 villages that Arogyadham has selected for its development projects and programmes.


Shri Bharat Pathak, General Secretary, DRI, welcomed the distinguished guests and participants of the workshop. Shri Vasant Pandit, Secretary, DRI, gave a brief background and purpose of establishing the Deendayal Research Institute.


Dr Pushpangadan presented the genesis and objectives of the workshop. He explained the importance of undertaking R&D for integrating the best of knowledge, wisdom and practices available in Ayurveda, with the latest scientific tools and technologies.


The inaugural session was followed by a brief presentation of the background and research programmes of DRI by Smt. Nandita Pathak, Dr Vijaysheel Upadhyaya and Dr (Smt.) Archna Chaturvedi. Thereafter special addresses/theme lectures were delivered by distinguished scientists academicians, doctors and professionals from industry and commerce. The lead speakers included Dr R. A. Mashelkar, Dr Ashok Vaidya, Dr B. N. Dhawan, Dr V. Prakash, Dr C. K. Katiyar, Dr P. Pushpangadan, Dr B. N. Mehrotra, Dr N. N. Mehrotra, Dr (Smt.) S. Mehrotra, Dr K. D. Sharma, Dr N. D. Prajapati and other experts.


Dr R. A. Mashelkar in his special lecture titled 'On building a golden triangle between traditional medicine, modern medicine and modern science', emphasized that research on traditional medicine should be backed up with cutting edge modern science and technology, if India has to become a global leader in herbal drugs/technologies.


A group of around 50 scientists, physicians of Ayurveda and Western Medicine, students, social workers and scientists, bureaucrats and farmers engaged in cultivation of medicinal plants and manufacturers of Ayurvedic medicines, had extensive discussions for three days — not only to evolve a strategy for lifelong health, utilizing Ayurvedic knowledge, but also identify challenges, opportunities and prospects for excellence in Ayurvedic Research.


The points emerged from the deliberations were placed before a panel of experts under the chairmanship of Dr R. A. Mashelkar with Shri Vasant Pandit, Dr Ashok Vaidya, Dr B. N. Dhawan, Dr P. Pushpangadan, Dr Narayan Das Prajapati, and Dr N. N. Mehrotra as members. The panel discussed the issues and also took inputs from the participants and came out with the following declaration known as the 'The Chitrakoot Declaration'.





Recognizing that,


Recommendations for the National Ayurvedic Network & Healthcare Initiative


Primary Health Care


Medicinal Plants Availability


Development of Ayurveda and Traditional Health Systems


Science‑based Products


Workshop on Intellectual Property Assets in Business Development


THE National Metallurgical Laboratory (NML), Jamshedpur, as a part of CSIR Diamond Jubilee celebrations, recently organized a workshop on 'Intellectual Property Assets in Business Development (IPABD'03). The workshop set its objective and derived direction from the pioneering visions of Dr Murli Manohar Joshi, Minister for Human Resource Development and Science & Technology and Vice President, CSIR: "The protection of intellectual property and its appropriate exploitation assumes crucial importance. It therefore becomes very important for us to ensure countrywide patent literacy, appropriate manpower planning in IPR, and judicious management of patent information. For this, we must not only involve those who innovate and those who exploit but also those members of the society who ultimately get affected"; and Dr R. A. Mashelkar, FRS, Director General, CSIR and Secretary, Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, and the Patron of the workshop IPABD'03: "Today, the generation of intellectual property, its capture, documentation, protection, evaluation and its exploitation has assumed a crucial importance. Indeed, a sea change is required in our ability to manage our country's valuable resources —  our intellectual property".



Dr T. Mukherjee, Dy Managing Director, Tata Steel, inaugurating the workshop on Intellectual Property Assets in Business Development (IPABD' 03) by lighting the ceremonial lamp; and Prof. K. L. Chopra,
former Director, IIT-Kharagpur delivering the keynote address at IPABD'03



The workshop, held under the Chairmanship of Prof. S. P. Mehrotra, Director, NML, was designed to address the issues related to Intellectual Property Rights and their applicability and compatibility with the scientific and technological innovation for commercial exploitation. Meant for scientists, technologists and managers in R&D institutions and industries interested in IPR protection for business development, the workshop had four sessions: IPR Basics, IP Protection and Policy, IP Valuation and IP Commercialization. The faculty comprised IPR professionals and users.


Around 55 delegates from R&D laboratories, industrial outfits, academic institutions and business houses participated in the workshop. Dr T. Mukherjee, Dy MD, Tata Steel; Prof. K. L. Chopra, former Director, IIT‑Kharagpur; Prof. S. P. Mehrotra, Director NML; Prof. S. K. Verma, Director, Indian Law Institute; Shri N. K. Sharma, MD, NRDC; Shri R. K. Gupta, Head, IPMD, CSIR; Dr Amit Chatterjee, Director, Tata Steel; Ms R. Hariharan, Kumaran and Sagar; Ms S. Thawani, Tata Steel; Dr (Ms) Rupa Mohanty, R.M. Associates; Shri M. K. Chakraborty, Davar & Co. and many other experts addressed several issues related to IP management and discussed IP laws, conventions and treaties, IP protection and policies, IP valuation, and IP commercialization. A special session on IP Clinic was organized to demonstrate and demystify the IPR‑related issues by leading IPR professionals.


In his welcome address, Prof. S. P. Mehrotra expressed concern over the Indian contribution to the pool of international patents, which is presently negligible. He further envisioned that it is now imperative to enhance the value of this underlined commercial products, goods and services to maximize the profit from research and innovation. Manpower planning of IPR protection in this context has to be handled on a priority basis, he emphasized. NML, in its scientific pursuit, has developed many know‑how and has acquired several intellectual property rights, including a few international patents, he added.


Dr T. Mukherjee in his inaugural address, while eulogising the efforts of acquiring a large number of patents and intellectual properties, emphasized the need for learning the art and science of marketing our knowledge and our technologies. One can buy as many tangible assets as one likes. What really matters are the intangible assets. These are now normally 40‑50% of value of the total assets of any progressive industrial organization, he explained.


Prof. K. L. Chopra in his keynote address wondered whether acquiring large number of patents is a right strategy. He compared the large number of patents filed in the country like USA, close to 300,000 or more with less than 1000 patents filed in our country in a year. Of the total world patents, 98% are not utilized and there is a lot of money spent in filing these. So while there is a long way to go, there is a need to be aware of lot more things about IPR, Prof. Chopra invited in this context the people and the professionals evincing their keen interest in research and innovation. Nevertheless there is a need for more patents. But besides quantity, quality is also important, he emphasized, the excellence brings excellence. Knowledge is the currency of economy of the world. Knowledge is our new God, Institutions like IITs are the temples. You and I, the knowledge workers, are the worshippers and innovations are our offerings. So let's all work towards innovations and more and more offerings to this God. This is the only way this country can enhance its Intellectual Property Rights and Assets".


The foregoing thought provoking messages and the addresses set the tone of the proceedings of the workshop. These pioneering views and visions would keep echoing in formulating the strategies of IP‑savvy business systems in our respective organizations.


A souvenir on IPABD'03 was also brought out. It was released by the Chief Guest Dr T. Mukherjee. It provides some background material on: IPR Basics and Definitions; in the Quest of IPR and the Answers to the Quests Thereof. It presents additional reading material on TRIPS: Tips on TRIPS. A glossary of selected IPR terms.


The session, 'IP Clinic', facilitated the group discussion and interaction with the IPABD expert panelists from the leading IPR practising and consulting organizations, including NCL‑Pune; IPMD (CSIR), NRDC and Kumaran & Sagar, all from New Delhi; Tata Steel and NML from Jamshedpur; Davar & Co., Kolkata; and Law College, BHU, Varanasi, based on the points that emanated during the group discussions or while practising IPR. The workshop stressed that while IPR, WTO, TRIPS, GATT convention and treaties in Paris, Bern, USA and the like have been  the buzzword in defining, formulating and organising the IP Policy, there is a need to create awareness about IPR, and inculcate and promote IP culture to exploit the value and potential of IPR.



Training Course on Determination of Impact on
Health and Vegetation due to Air Pollution


THE Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC), Lucknow, organized a five‑day training course for the Ministry of Environment & Forests, and with the support of World Bank, on Determination of Impact on Health and Vegetation due to Air Pollution, during 10‑14 March 2003. Sixteen participants from various pollution control boards participated in this programme, the aim of which was to strengthen the ambient air quality monitoring and enforcement capacity through training of concerned officers and staff members of various pollution control boards/committees. Welcoming the participants and guests, Dr P.K. Seth, Director, ITRC, highlighted the significance of such training programmes. To impart knowledge regarding the newer chemicals, their monitoring and impact assessment on human health and vegetation to the personnel of pollution control boards and regulatory agencies through these programmes is a regular feature of the ITRC activities. The programme comprised lectures on the related field by experts, field visits and presentation of some case studies.



Training Course on Determination of Impact on Health and Vegetation
 due to Air Pollution in progress



In his inaugural lecture, Dr T. K. Joshi, Project Director, Centre for Occupational & Environmental Health, New Delhi, spoke on `Determination of impact on health and vegetation due to air pollution'. This was followed by a lecture of Prof. Shally Awasthi, Department of Pediatrics, CSM Medical University, Lucknow, on `Growing incidence of asthma among children living in metropolitan cities: Role of air pollution'.  Dr Qamar Rahman, Dy Director, ITRC, spoke on `Growing problem of respirable fibres/particulates with special reference to ultra‑fine particles. Other lectures during this course included: Impact assessment of toxic substances on humans, plants and animals: Ecological and eco‑epidemiological approach; Effects of air pollution on vegetation; Acute and chronic effects of air pollutants, dose response curve; Epidemiological aspects of air pollutants and human health; Suspended particulate matter, its sources and level in cities in India; Plant indicators of air quality and biomonitoring; Effect of particulate air pollutants on eco‑system; Identification and analysis of asbestos fibres; Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and assessment of their impact on human health; Occupational exposure in industrial environment with hazardous and public health: bysinosis, silicosis, asbestosis; Effect of toxic gases in air on human health; Pollution and cancer; and Effect of PAH on human health. Field visits were organized, e.g. for monitoring of air quality on busy intersections of Lucknow; Asbestos factory for demonstration of asbestos monitoring; ENVIS Centre/Toxicology Data Unit/Library/ Laboratori. es. On the fifth day, participants discussed air pollution‑related case studies. Also, a session was held on regulatory strategies to prevent air pollution.



NAL celebrates Foundation Day


THE National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bangalore, celebrated its Foundation Day on 29 July 2003 (NALwas founded on 1 June 1959). Shri N. Vedachalam, Director, Liquid Propulsion System Centre (LPSC), Thiruvananthapuram, delivered the seventeenth NAL Foundation Day lecture on Challenges in cryogenic rocket propulsion. Ms Padma Madhuranath, Flight Mechanics and Control Division, delivered the NAL Technology Lecture on Air traffic management and simulation.


Dr R. V. Krishnan, Adviser (M&A) and Head, Materials Science Division, welcomed the gathering and paid a rich tribute to NAL's former Directors (“the foundations that they laid have stood the test of time”). Dr Krishnan also mentioned that teams at NAL's Flight Mechanics and Control Division have won the 2003 CSIR Technology Shield in Engineering Sciences.


Shri Vedachalam's hour‑long lecture proved to be a richly deserved tribute to ISRO's GSLV programme. It covered: the merits of liquid propulsion systems (higher specific impulse, longer burning duration, multiple start and stop capability, precise guidance termination, etc.), the design concepts in GSLV development, the critical materials, the test facilities and the future challenges. Shri Vedachalam's presentation also contained some remarkable video clips: GSLV Mk2's flawless lift‑off and the dramatic moments when the engine successfully completed a 1000‑second run.


In his presidential remarks, Dr B. R. Pai, Director, NAL, thanked Shri Vedachalam for his “delightful lecture” that explained liquid propulsion systems so lucidly (“we weren't aware of all these intricacies”). Dr Pai also briefly described NAL's R&D highlights during 2002‑03. The NAL Director then invited his LPSC counterpart to release NAL's annual report for 2002‑03, and give away the NAL Foundation Day awards in various categories.


Ms Padma Madhuranath's talk was an introduction to air traffic management (ATM). She traced the history of air traffic control, developments  in America and Europe and the challenges that lie ahead for ATM R&D teams in India. The lecture also described a modelling and simulation experiment conducted at Bangalore airport (“the airport is capable of handling today's traffic densities; however problems could start if traffic increases by over 50%”).


Dr S. Ramamurthy, Head, Technical Secretariat, NAL, proposed the vote of thanks.



CLRI organizes Book Exhibition on Its Foundation Day


AS part of its Foundation Day (24 April 2003) celebrations, the Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), Chennai, organized an exhibition of books during 23‑28 April 2003. The theme of the exhibition, which began on World Book Day on (23 April), was `History of Leather/Leather in History'. The exhibition showcased books describing the history of leather in India as well as elsewhere and the use of leather in every day life and in times of war and peace. Some of these books had been published more than 75 years ago, a few even as early as 1903.

The exhibition had a good response, particularly, the students of leather technology took keen interest in the leather making processes of yesteryears depicted in the books.



Book exhibition at CLRI



CSIR Diamond Jubilee Special Issue of IJEB


Bioremediation & Biodegradation

The September 2003 issue of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) has been brought out as a Diamond Jubilee Special issue on Bioremediation & Biodegradation. The issue is Guest Edited by Prof. P. Gunasekaran, Centre for Advanced Studies in Functional Genomics, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai.




Bioremediation, the most effective innovative technology in this century uses biological systems for treatment of hazardous contaminants. This technology includes biodegradation, biostimulation, bioaugumentation, bioaccumulation, biosorption and phytoremediation. The bioremediation technology is cost effective, eco‑friendly and an alternative to conventional treatment methods. This technology is applied for removal or degradation and recovery of agrochemicals, petrochemicals, oil spills, heavy metals and dyes in wastewater and environment. The IJEB issue on `Bioremediation & Biodegradation' is specially designed to provide current information on the global environmental issues. Bioremediation and Biodegradation experts in this issue highlight the importance of affordable bioremediation strategies in their respective areas. This special issue will serve as a current reference material to the scientist and research students.


Request for the issue [single copy: Rs. 150; $ 45.00 by draft payable to NISCAIR at New Delhi] may be sent to:


Sales & Distribution Officer,

National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources,

Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012

E‑mail :;

Fax : 011‑25847062



National Seminar on Geomechanics and Ground Control in Mining


IN India, there are more than 600 opencast and underground coal mines. In non‑coal sector, there are more than 7000 mines on record, excluding many mines working seasonally. Problems of ground control and related geomechanics in mines (underground or opencast) have been the greatest challenge to mining technology for several decades. Indian coal and non‑coal mining industry has played effective role while accepting this challenge in true spirit, in collaboration with research institutes, primarily Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), Dhanbad; academic institutes and Directorate General of Mines Safety.


As a part of Diamond Jubilee celebrations of CSIR, CMRI is organizing a National Seminar on Geomechanics and Ground Control in Mining, during 24‑25 September 2003, to provide a forum for interaction and discussion among policy makers, managers, entrepreneurs, administrators, practicing mining engineers, engineers associated with mining, geo‑environmentalists, scientists, academicians and technologists. Some case‑studies, which are likely to be discussed in detail in this seminar, may be viewed with the principle of technical auditing. That is, study of case‑histories can be used `before the event' to guide rock mechanics modelling and rock engineering design. Alternatively, it can be used `after the event' to check that a model, or a design, or an approach to solve the problems of geomechanics and ground control has indeed addressed the technical objectives.


Since coal will continue to remain the mainstay in energy sector in India in foreseeable future as in present, this seminar will also aim to put emphasis on the facets of ground control and geomechanics related to coal (underground and opencast) mines, especially the dissemination of the new/innovative trends that are taking place worldwide.


The seminar will cover:



Further details regarding the seminar can be had from:

Prof. D. D. Misra, Chairman, Organizing Committee,

GGCM – 2003 and Director,

Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI),

Barwa Road, Dhanbad‑826001

Phone: 0326‑2202326/2203043
FAX: 0326‑2202429/2205028

Dr Satyendra K Singh, Convener & Organizing Secretary,

GGCM – 2003 and Head,

Board & Pillar Mining and Numerical Modeling Department,

CMRI, Dhanbad

Phone: 0326‑2200916
FAX: 0326‑2204339/2202429/2205028



CorrigendumTraining Course on ICP-MS


IN the announcement on the above training course, published in the 30 June issue of CSIR News (p.192), please read the names of the organizers as Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi and National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, in place of DST and Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad.



International Seminar on Testing & Certification of Ex Equipment in Hazardous Areas — A Global Approach, and Exhibition


THE Flame & Explosion Laboratory of the Central Mining Research Institute (CMRI), Dhanbad, has been functioning since the early 60's. The laboratory is well equipped with modern equipment received from UK under INDO‑UK collaboration programme, for testing and certification of intrinsically safe, flameproof and other Ex equipment used in mining, oil and gas and allied industry of hazardous nature as per Indian/International Standards. The functions of this laboratory include:



These functions are carried out in close co‑operation with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS), office of the Chief Controller of Explosives (CCE) and Director General of Factory Advise Services and Labour Institute (DGFASALI).


However, with the rapid advances in technology and advent of automation in the mining, oil & gas, fertilizers, petrochemicals and defence industries, it appears that time has come to review the testing and certification procedures, introduction of new test facilities and harmonisation of testing procedures for continued global acceptance. With this in view, CMRI, with co‑sponsorship of the Indian Flameproof Manufacturers Association (IFMA), India and Instrumentation Systems & Automation (ISA), USA‑Asia Pacific District, is organizing an International Seminar on `Testing & Certification of Ex Equipment in Hazardous Areas — A Global Approach', at CMRI during 4‑5 December 2003. The aim of this seminar is to invite delegates, exhibitors and visitors from all national/international manufacturers, consultants, construction companies, users, testing laboratories, third party certifiers and statutory authorities to attend this seminar and exhibition for interaction on latest developments in the area with a view to making this laboratory in line with international standards.


The concurrent exhibition will offer an excellent opportunity for manufacturers to display their products and services. User industry is specifically invited to exhibit and discuss their requirement of Ex equipment and services.


The event will cover:



Further details can be had from:

Prof. D. D. Misra, Director,

CMRI, Dhanbad 826 001