Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research


VOLUME
69

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2010 

CONTENTS


Review


411

Applications
of phytase of thermophilic mould, Sporotrichum thermophile: A review

This study presents a review on applications of phytase from
thermophilic fungal isolate, Sporotrichum
thermophile. Under optimization, improvement in phytase production can be
achieved in both solid state (2fold) and submerged (2.6fold) fermentations.
Phytase could also be produced by alginateimmobilized S. thermophile, and enzyme production was sustainable over 5
repeated cycles. Purified phytase is a homopentameric glycoprotein (mol mass,
456 kD) and is optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60°C with a T_{1/2 }of
16 h at 60°C and 90 min at 80°C. It is insensitive to trypsin and pepsin, and
unaffected by EDTA. Phytase has all requisite properties for application as a
feed and food additive, dephytinization of soymilk and wheat flour and soil
conditioner for plant growth promotion.


Management & Information Technology 

415 
Determination of system frequencies in mechanical systems during
shutdown transient 
This study proposed a methodology for system frequency detection of mechanical systems with variable load conditions. Vibration signals from shuttingdown transient were analyzed in combined timefrequency domain using wavelet and FFT analyses. Effectiveness of proposed methodology was validated by experimental case study and found that this methodology can be applied to any rotating mechanical system. 




422 
Determination
of suitable permutation numbers in comparing independent group means: a monte
carlo simulation study 
In this study, suitable number of permutations were tried to be determined empirically for permutation test, one of which alternatively used in analysis of variance (ANOVA). Random numbers were generated from _{} distribution by simulation technique, and type I error rates were calculated with their standard errors. For k=2, 3 and 4, data were dealt with what is commonly faced in practice. Number of observation (n) in each group were taken to be 5, 10 and 15 (except for k = 2). Number of permutation changes with respect to k and n. For k=2, 3 and 4, required number of permutation was determined to be 15,000, 25,000 and 30,000 respectively. In general, there is great advantage of not allowing number of permutation under 10,000, if permutation tests are to be used in testing significance of differences of means of groups. 

Management & Information Technology 

426 
Intuitionistic
fuzzy set approach for color region extraction 
An improvised technique is proposed in detecting and extracting color regions of an image using intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) theory. This will be very useful especially for remotely sensed images where different types of regions (agricultural, watery, or volcanic) are to be extracted. Comparing with nonfuzzy and fuzzy method, results of an extracted image were found better due to consideration of uncertainty in the form of a hesitation degree while defining membership function in IFS. 

S & T and Industrial Research 

433 
Voltage rise due to
interconnection of embedded generators to distribution network 
This study presents voltage control method to increase embedded generation (EG) transfer capability and to ensure distribution network voltage within statutory limits. A typical EG plant and generic 11 KV distribution network was developed. Various scenarios assessed impact of embedded generator on voltage profiles of a network with light and peak load conditions. 

439 
Optimisation
of heat affected zone by partial swarm optimisation in air plasma cutting
operation 
This paper presents development of mathematical model for prediction of heat affected zone (HAZ) and optimised parameters for air plasma cutting operation on AISI 6061 aluminium alloy. Experimental and predictive values from RSM are found of same trend. Partial swarm optimisation (PSO) was employed to optimise cutting parameters. Deviation of HAZ obtained by optimised HAZ model is 2.72%. Optimum cutting parameters for minimum HAZ are: output current, 100 A; standoff gap, 1 mm and pressure, 620.52 kPa.


S & T and Industrial Research 

444 
Low cost prototype
development of electronic knee 
This study presents design and development of an electronic knee, which uses attached sensors, microcontrollers and electro pneumatic valve arrangement to emulate near natural walk. Being all sensors and mechanical assembly developed indigenously, prototype would be a low cost electronic knee.


449 
Removal of heavy
metal ions from aqueous solutions using chemically (Na_{2}S) treated
granular activated carbon as an adsorbent 
Removal of Cd(II), Pb(II),
Hg(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) by chemically (Na_{2}S) treated granular activated carbon (GAC) has
been found to be concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and
temperature dependent. Adsorption isotherm studies indicated that adsorptive behaviour
of metal ions on chemically treated GAC satisfies Langmuir assumptions. Proposed method had potential application
for effluent treatment in industries.


454 
Production and
optimization of cellulase from Fusarium oxysporum by submerged fermentation 
Fusarium oxysporum, isolated from infected tomato plant parts, produced maximum cellulase at optimum parameters (pH, 6.0; temp., 50°C; and incubation period, 12 d) in cellulase enzyme production broth having 1% CMC (carboxy methyl cellulose) as a cellulose substrate. Activities of purified cellulases (mol wt, 24, 29 and 45 kDa) were stimulated by concentrations (070 mM) of Na^{+} and Mg^{++}, while EDTA inhibited enzyme activity at all concentrations. 

S & T and Industrial Research 

460 
Studies on Ipomea carnea and Cannabis
sativa as an alternative pulp blend for softwood: Optimization of soda
pulping process 
This study presents a blend
of Cannabis sativa and Ipomea carnea as a substitute to
softwood for soda pulping. Optimized soda pulping conditions are: active
alkali, 16% (as Na_{2}O); max. temp., 165°C; time (at 165°C) 180 min;
and liquor to wood ratio, C. sativa,
3.5:1 & I. carnea, 4.0:1. Screened pulp yields were:
I. carnea, 47.86% (kappa number 34); and C. sativa, 49.50% (kappa number 33). Anthraquinone (AQ, 0.1%)
also improves pulp yield and reduces kappa number, respectively, for: I. carnea, 0.24%, 8 units; and C.
sativa, 0.24%, 4 units. At same chlorine demand (5.80%), pulp brightness
improved of I. carnea (87.1%) and C. sativa (84%) by CEHH bleaching
sequence. Therefore, I. carnea
fibers may be used as brightness improver of pulp. 

468 
Enhanced yield and
nutritional quality in green gram (Phaseolus radiata L) treated
with seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)
extract 
This study presents foliar application effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii (515%) extract on yield and seed quality of green gram at flowering stage. Application of K. alvarezii (conc. 10.0%) significantly increased seed yield (30.11%) compared to control, due to increase in yield of pods, weight of pods as well as seed yield per plant and 100 seed weight. This treatment also improved nutritional quality of seed with increase in contents of seed as follows: protein, 19.43; carbohydrate, 5.17; P, 3.61; and Mo, 52.63%. Cooking conditions: Active alkali = 16% (as Na_{2}O), Maximum cooking time = 3 h at 165^{0}C, Liquor to wood ratio = 3.5:1 for C. sativa and 4.0:1 for I. carnea, Digester pressure = 6.5 kg/cm^{2} 

Energy and Environment 

472 
Comparative study of
bioethanol production from mahula (Madhuca
latifolia L.) flowers by immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas
mobilis in calcium alginate beads 
This study presents ethanol production from mahula flowers in submerged fermentation (SmF) using immobilized cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CTCRI strain) and Zymomonas mobilis (MTCC 92) in calcium alginate as beads. Maximum ethanol concentrations were 154.5 and 134.55 g kg^{1} flowers using immobilized cells of S. cerevisiae and Z. mobilis, respectively. Immobilized cells of S. cerevisiae in calcium alginate beads were more effective (14.83% more yield) for ethanol production than immobilized cells of Z. mobilis. 




AuthorReader Platform 

476 
Announcement


479 
Instructions to contributors


Abirami D 
454 
AboueElHossein K A 
439 
Akkartal E 
422 
AmezquitaSanchez J P 
415 


Banupriya^{ }S 
454 
Behera S 
472 


CabalYepez E 
415 
Chaira T 
426 
Chard T R 
433 
Chikara J 
468 


Dutt D 
460 


Eswaran K 
468 


GarciaPerez A 
415 


Harun W S W 
439 


Kadirgama K 
439 
Kiran 
449 
Kumar A 
444 
Kumar N 
444 


Meena A K 
449 
Mekhilef S 
433 
Mendeş E 
422 
Mendeş M 
422 
Mishra G K 
449 
Mohanty R C 
472 
Mukhopadhyay S 
468 


Noor M M 
439 


OsornioRios R A 
415 


Rajagopal C 
449 
Ramachandramurthy V K 
433 
Ramanathan G 
454 
Ray R C 
472 
Reddy M P 
468 
RomeroTroncoso R J 
415 


Satyanarayana T 
411 
Singh B 
411 
Sohi B S 
444 
Soni S 
444 


Tyagi C H 
460 


Zodape S T 
468 
Adsorbent 
449 
Adsorption 
449 
Air plasma cutting 
439 
ANOVA 
422 


Bioethanol 
472 
Black liquor 
460 
Bleaching 
460 


Cannabis sativa 
460 
Cellulose 
454 
CMC 
454 


Distribution network 
433 


Embedded generators 
433 
Embedded system 
444 


Fermentation 
454, 472 
FFT 
415 
Fusarium oxysporum 
454 


Glucosidase 
454 
Granular activated carbon (GAC) 
449 
Green gram 
468 


Heat affected zone 
439 
Hesitation degree 
426 
Histogram back projection 
426 
Hormones 
468 


Intuitionistic fuzzy set 
426 
Ipomea carnea 
460 


Liquid
seaweed extract 
468 


Madhuca
latifolia 
472 
Mechanical strength properties 
460 
Membership function 
426 
Metal ions 
449 
Microcontroller 
444 


Natural frequency 
415 
Nutritional
quality 
468 


Partial swarm optimization (PSO) 
439 
Permutation test 
422 
Phytase 
411 
Phytic acid 
411 
Plant growth promotion 
411 
Prosthetic 
444 


Region extraction 
426 
Resampling 
422 


Saccharomyces
cerevisiae 
472 
Shuttingdown transient 
415 
Soda pulping 
460 
Sporotrichum thermophile 
411 


Thermophilic mould 
411 
Type I error 
422 


Vibration analysis 
415 
Voltage rise 
433 


Wastewater 
449 
Wavelet 
415 


Yield 
468 


Zymomonas
mobilis 
472 