Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research




MARCH 2003



CODEN: JSIRAC (62) (3) 149-284 (2003)



An empirical analysis of the inter-industrial spillover effect of information and
communications technology on cost and labor — the case of Korea

Gwangman Park & Yongtae Park

Research employs an empirical data set of Korean industry and examines the spillover impact of diffusion of information and communications (IC) technology on other industrial sectors in terms of labor and cost. To this end, IC industry is divided into machinery and service sectors, the notion of R&D stocks is operationally defined, and the input-output table is used to gauge the inter-industrial flow of technological knowledge. Then the cost function and labor price function are employed to apply a regression model. Amongst others the result of empirical analysis shows that IC machinery and service exhibit quite opposite pattern in terms of labor effect in that IC machinery sector renders labor-substitution effect, whereas service sector exerts labor-creation effect. The cost effect, however, is mixed among industrial sectors and thus unclear to draw a conclusion. In addition, there appears a trade-off between labor effect and cost effect.


Intellectual strength of CSIR — an analysis of manpower

Bhanu Verma, Sukumar Mallick &
 N R Rajagopal

An analysis of the age, qualifications and positions of the 5200 scientists of CSIR reveals that a majority of them possess higher degrees in comparison with those at junior levels. The scientists and engineers are distributed in the ratio 2:1, subscribing to the theory that “Good technology is supported by high science”.


Development of specialty paper is an art:
absorbent grade paper from indigenous raw materials and new double lined kraft corrugated cuttings (NDLKCC) — Part II

Dharm Dutt, J S Upadhyaya, A K Ray,
C H Tyagi & R S Malik

Attempts are made to manufacture the absorbent kraft paper using mill finish and new double lined kraft corrugated cuttings (NDLKCC). A blend of semi-bleached pulp and treated NDLKC pulp gives promising results. The process may encourage the paper manufacturers to use NDLKCC along with indigenous raw materials for the development of absorbent  paper. As no BIS specification for absorbent kraft is available, hence specifications from various decorative laminate manufacturers are collected. These are then compared with the properties laboratory made hand-sheets are made.


Development of specialty paper is an art: bleached absorbent kraft from indigenous raw materials — Part III

Dharm Dutt, J S Upadhyaya, R S Malik,
A K Jindal & C H Tyagi

A furnish ratio of mill pulp having pine, bamboo and eucalyptus in the ratio of 1:2.3:11 and softwood being 1:1 is found to be suitable for manufacturing of bleached absorbent kraft base paper and fulfil all the requirements like water klemn, COP, tear strength, opacity, and brightness. One per cent MF resin dose at pH 6.17 is optimum to get specified value for cross-linking. The paper should be calendered to get a thickness between 280-310 mm and porosity 2300-2700 mL/min. No BIS specification is available; hence specifications from leading decorative laminates and PPCC are collected. The final results of laboratory made hand-sheets are compared with specifications prescribed by leading manufacturers of PPCC and bleached kraft and mill made bleached absorbent paper. The results are promising, which have tempted the Indian paper makers to develop it indigenously.


Phophine retention in new and aged fumigation sheets

S Rajendran, N Gunasekaran &
N Muralidharan

Newly acquired, and naturally- and accelerated-aged fumigation sheets of different types were tested for retention of phosphine under a lab setup. In a 24-h test the decreasing order of retention of the gas by the newly acquired sheets were: carbon impregnated low density polyethylene (LDPE) (225-250m, 0 per cent gas loss) > polyvinyl chloride (PVC, 255m) > PVC coated fabric (310-335m) > high density polyethylene (HDPE, 85m) > LDPE without carbon impregnation (140m) > multilayered cross laminated (280m) > HDPE woven fabric with LDPE coating (260-330m) > LDPE (75m) and HDPE (70m) > multilayered cross laminated (140m) > rubberized fabric painted with aluminium on one side (650m, 16 per cent loss). Sheet samples after accelerated ageing (exposed to 70±1 °C for 7d) showed higher gas retention than the newly acquired sheets. Phosphine retention decreased significantly after natural ageing of sheets by keeping in the open and exposed to sunlight, wind and rain for 5 months. The results indicate that all sheet types tested, except the rubberized fabric, and carbon impregnated LDPE, multilayered cross-laminated and HDPE woven fabric coated with LDPE were suitable for indoor and outdoor fumigation with phosphine, respectively. The accelerated ageing improved the phosphine retention properties of sheets, in general.


Inhibition of corrosion of carbon steel in acid solutions by tetratriethanolamine trioleiate

S T Keera

The inhibition of corrosion of carbon steel by tetratriethanolamine trioloiate in 1 mol/L HCl and 1 mol/L H2SO4 solutions is studied. The study is carried out by weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Polarisation studies reveal that the inhibitor behaves as an anodic inhibitor in both the acids. The inhibitor is more efficient in HCl than in H2SO4 solution. The efficiency of the inhibitor increases with inhibitor concentration up to certain extent and then decreases. Weight loss studies have revealed that the inhibitor efficiency decreases with increase in temperature.


Toluene degradation in biofilter — sequencing the nutrient addition

Ajit Haridas, A S Baby & S Majumdar

The biological degradation of toluene is studied in a bench scale biofilter where coir pith is used as filter media. Nutrients play a crucial role in facilitating the degradation efficiency. Nutrient level in the biofilter media is to be maintained at a particular level, below which, the efficiency of the biofilter reduces. Under optimized condition, depletion of nutrients becomes slower and infrequent replacement of nutrient laden pith at the topmost layer of biofilter is enough for maintaining the good removal efficiency. The pH of the media is maintained slightly above neutral without any further addition of buffer except during start-up.


Studies on Leucaena leucocephala seed gum: emulsifying properties

P R P Verma & Balkishen Razdan

Leucaena gum derived from seeds to Leucaena leucocephala is evaluated as an emulsifying agent. Liquid paraffin emulsions (o/w) containing 30 per cent liquid paraffin in water is formulated using leucaena seed gum between concentration range of 1 to 4 per cent w/v. Emulsion containing equivalent concentration of acacia are also prepared for comparison. All the emulsions prepared are stored at room temperature and studied for stability at various time intervals for 8 weeks. In assessing the emulsifying properties of leucaena seed gum the creaming rate, globule size analysis, and rate of coalescence are evaluated. The effects of centrifugation, pH, temperature changes, and electrolytes on the stability of emulsion are investigated. The results of these investigations show that leucaena seed gum possesses better emulsifying properties as compared to gum acacia can be used to formulate pharmaceutical preparation requiring this property.


Impact of wastewater discharge on soil and ground water — a case study

R Das & S N Das

The paper reports the analysis of effluents released from different sources and characteristics of soil/ground water nearer to the source of contamination. In a case study the areas selected for investigation comprise a food processing industry and a septic tank in Mysore, Karnataka. The collected samples of effluents and ground water are analysed for parameters like, pH, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, phosphate, BOD, and COD. Ground water samples are also analysed for faecal coliform. The soil samples are analysed for pH, EC, nitrate, chloride, sulphate, and phosphate. Results show that discharge of wastewater onto the land, effectively reduces the contaminants due to adsorption/chemical reaction in the soil media. Thus, to prevent pollution of ground water, septic effluents should be disposed off through properly managed underground drainage system and the efficiency of the treatment  plant should be good enough to take care of the pollutants.



Third international cotton genome initiative workshop

Annamalai Muthusamy, Narayanasamy
Jayabalan & Tian-zhen Zhang


Conference Reports


Second national conference on thermophysical properties (NCTP - 02)

R S Beniwal



Thirtyfifth international conference on coordination chemistry

K Natarajan


Book Review


·         Management control and reporting systems — harmonising design and implementation

         Reviewer: S Mohan

Sci-Tech Update


·         Drug industry told to stop gifts to doctors and healthcare professionals in the US


·         PC makers hit speed humps — being faster may not matter


·         New pastures for Linux wonder boys


·         Reality check for web design


·         Lightning rods for nanoelectronics


·         Mechanism underlying formation of possible food carcinogen revealed


·         Report calls for palm of sharing data to prevent terror


·         Smallpox vaccine backed for public in the US


·         Trials halted on a gene therapy


·         An economic plan proposal


·         Proofreading the human genome — a firm compiles extensive list of genetic variations


·         Codebusters crack encryption key


·         Internet topology — and tackling AIDS


·         On scientific fakery and the systems to catch it


·         Judge voids rules on pharmaceutical tests on children in the US


·         Stop the patent process madness


·         Milky way’s super massive black hole


·         Lemon juice is HIV-killing spermicide


·         Free software hurts the US


·         RBI wants banks to step into project financing


·         First light for attophysics


·         Flying blind


·         Powerful collider — goal of physicists worldwide


·         Moon-based solar power on earth


·         Breakthrough mass spectroscopy technology for a better proteoma analysis in days


·         A clearer view of crystal growing


·         New light on advanced materials


·         Bran filters chlorinated hydrocarbons and arsenic out of wastewater


·         Stanford researchers sharply cut risks of gene therapy


·         Use computer WIT to win structural genome race


·         Electrons defeat anthrax


·         Bloodworm’s way with copper likely to provide paradigm for new materials


·         Global warming increases disease risk


·         Polymerization reactions using pressure and laser light


·         Noble gases bond to uranium


·         Automated machine for uniform surface finishing of moulds


·         Surface finish gauge speeds up crankshaft measurements


·         3-D features within photogenic features


·         Metal patterns from polymer composites


·         Diesel exhaust linked to cancer


·         Parents confused about specifics of vaccines


·         Developing bodies and brain


·         A soft drink from waste dairy whey developed


·         Milk adulteration test kit developed


Additions and Corrections