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Journal of Intellectual Property Rights




ISSN: 0971-5544  

CODEN : JIPRFG 10(1) 1-88 (2005)









Testing for Copyright Protection and Infringement in Non-Literal Elements of Computer Programs

Arjun Krishnan




Photocopying of Copyrighted Works for Educational Purposes: Does it Constitute Fair Use?


Dharam Veer Singh and Pankaj Kumar




Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in SMEs in OECD Countries


Esteban Burrone




Patenting of Biological Material and Biotechnology


H S Chawla




Intellectual Property Rights in Fisheries Sector


Sunitha Ninan, Arpita Sharma, Ananthan P S and S N Ojha




Technical Notes



Personal Data Privacy and Intellectual Property


M M S Karki




Literature Review




 · Currents and crosscurrents in the international IP regime · Protecting traditional knowledge—is a sui generis system an answer? · Enclosure, intellectual property and life-sciences research

· Economic perspectives on a multilateral agreement on open access to basic science and technology · Commodifying the ‘information age’: IPR, the state and the Internet · Valuing new product development and analysing licence agreements for IP · The ‘outsourcing offshore’ conundrum: An IP perspective · Access, benefit-sharing and IPR · Compulsory licences of IP rights: Easier to get after the IMS health decision · Intellectual property strategy in bioinformatics and biochips · Using IP data to analyse China’s growing technological capabilities






· Benchmarking R&D and companies through patent analysis using free databases and special software · Patenting for the research scientist · A formulation for patenting content-based retrieval processes in digital libraries · The impact of metadata on the accuracy of automated patent classification · Valuation of patents: a primer · Interrelation between patenting and standardization strategies · The magic of patent information · The scope of patentability related to human embryonic stem cell research · Developments on business method patents




Copyright and Trademarks


· The impact of free and open source licensing on operating system software markets · P2P technology: Challenges faced by copyright · The escalating copyright wars · P2P and the future of private copying · Digital copyright and the new creative dynamics · DRMS, TCP and the EUCD: technology and law · File-sharing—fight, ignore or compete · Movie piracy on peer-to-peer networks · Data Protection and the retention of personal data · Data security in life sciences research · Searching for trouble – keyword advertising and trademark infringement

· Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change · Keywords, trademarks, and the gray market · Searching for trouble – keyword advertising and trademark infringement  


IPR News  



IPR News—General



· Updating IP rights of broadcasters · China may soon make IPR violations a crime · India, Ukraine to sign intellectual property rights pact · Traditional knowledge and folklore · Ministerial declaration on IP for LDCs · IPR awareness exhibition by Chinese children




Patent News 


· Trilateral memorandum of understanding · India should adhere to 01 January 2005 deadline for product patent · Patents extended to pharma, chemicals & food · Embedded software to get patents · Infringement reversed in Astra Zeneca versus Mutual · Stem cell patent challenged

· PDP patents infringement trial against Panasonic Korea · Korean patents: non-examination registration in Singapore · Ranbaxy tops third world patents list · Patent fights rumble in China · Petty patents to check drug price rise · Sony and Samsung to share patents · Apple aims to patent drop-resistant iPod




Copyright and Trademark News 



· Tech groups fight copyright infringement bill · Honda wins payout over trademark misuse




Key Patents 



· CSIR bags US patent for 4th generation herbal antibiotic drug · Pageflex’s flexible template technology patented · New patent filed for multiple signal transmitter ·@Road awarded two new patents · Patent for techniques for dynamically adjusting caching · DNA probes technology patented · Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN) technology patented · Unique mobile licence plate reading technology patented · Cycore granted geographic web search patent · Geron gets new US stem cell patent · Process for the preparation of calcium hydroxycitrate patented ·Device for evaluating corrosion inhibitors patented · Pressco Technology Inc granted US patent · Nanomix granted two US patents in alternative energy


Author Index
Keyword Index




Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, pp 9-20


 Testing for Copyright Protection and Infringement in Non-Literal Elements of Computer Programs

Arjun Krishnan

Computer software is one field in which India enjoys a competitive edge over other countries due to a fast growing industry and skilled manpower. One of the forms of protection of intellectual property in software is copyright protection. It has long been recognized that non-literal infringement of a work is also possible. Despite the importance of the software industry, no test has been enunciated in relation to non-literal infringement of computer programs. This article examines US and UK case law relating to non-literal infringement of computer software and the different tests laid down by the courts in these countries. Divergence of judicial opinion as to what is the most appropriate test for non-literal infringement has raised several doubts relating to some of the fundamental tenets of copyright jurisprudence. This article examines applicability of these tests to the Indian context in order to locate an appropriate test for India, in the light of Indian copyright jurisprudence.

Keywords: Copyright, computer software programs, non-literal infringement, idea – expression dichotomy, abstraction.


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, pp 21-33

 Photocopying of Copyrighted Works for Educational Purposes: Does it
Constitute Fair Use?

Dharam Veer Singh and Pankaj Kumar

The paper analyses whether photocopying of copyrighted works for an educational purpose constitutes fair use. The statutory provisions on the issue in different countries have been enlisted. The provisions of the US law have been exhaustively dealt with followed by the guidelines as prescribed by the government body under the US congressional mandate. A case analysis has been done in order to ascertain the approach of the courts in applying the statutory provisions to the instances of making multiple copies of copyrighted works for educational purposes. Fair use under the US statute depends on the four factors of purpose, nature, amount, and effect. The guidelines, however, make fair use dependent on brevity, spontaneity, and cumulative effect. In the last part of the paper, the prevalent US law is compared with the prevalent Indian law.

Keywords: Copyright law, fair use, classroom guidelines


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, p 34-43

 Intellectual Property Rights and Innovation in SMEs in OECD Countries

 Esteban Burrone

The increasing importance of intangible assets as a source of competitive advantage for firms, has made the intellectual property (IP) system increasingly attractive and, in many cases, indispensable for all economic agents. As small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for approximately 95% of the business population and play a significant role in the national economy in terms of their sizeable contribution to GDP, employment generation, export performance, and achieving sustainable national economic development, most governments have placed increasing emphasis on facilitating the creation and development of the national SMEs sector. Nevertheless, empirical evidence suggests that SMEs face significant barriers in making effective use of the IP system and this may have an impact on their ability to exploit their innovative and creative capabilities. This paper explores some of these barriers and analyses some of the policies enacted, primarily in OECD countries, to try and over come them. The paper also suggests that it is crucial that initiatives seeking to make a real impact in increasing awareness and encouraging a more effective use of the IP system by entrepreneurs and SMEs manage to incorporate IP within the broader development framework of support for SMEs.

Keywords: SMEs, intellectual property rights, IP system, new technology-based firms


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, pp 44-51

 Patenting of Biological Material and Biotechnology

H S Chawla

One of the major challenges faced by developing countries due to globalization and TRIPS regulations is understanding of intellectual property rights (IPR) laws of different countries in context of recent innovations in biotechnology and bioinformatics. While biotechnology involves application of technology on biological organisms, viz., microorganisms, plant and animals and biological material of DNA, RNA and proteins, patenting laws of different countries are solely based on non-biological objects and inventions. Hence biotechnological inventions and their interpretations are discussed in context of laws of different countries for granting patent claims although basic criteria are the same. Patenting and protection of plants, animals, cloning, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been discussed in the context of TRIPS regulations, EPO directive and USPTO guidelines. With the large scale sequencing of genomes of various species, a new scientific discipline of bioinformatics has emerged that encompasses biological information, acquisition, processing, storage and distribution, analysis and interpretation of data. Thus inventions relating to tools of bioinformatics, methodology and interpretation as business methods are analysed with regard to patenting.

Key words: Bioinformatics, biotechnology, cloning, DNA, intellectual property rights, TRIPS, WTO


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, pp 52-58

 Intellectual Property Rights in Fisheries Sector

Sunitha Ninan, Arpita Sharma, Ananthan P S and S N Ojha

 Patenting activity in fisheries sector in India was analysed at two levels, i.e., trends in growth of patenting activity during different time periods, 1913-1947, 1947-1970, 1971-1995 and 1996-2000. Patents were also examined to study the nature of technology. This study revealed that there is a steady increase in the average number of patents/year after independence (1947-1970). It was also found that there are on an average, three patents per year after introduction of Indian Patents Act, 1970,and in post WTO era (1996-2000) six patents per year. The analysis of patents documented since 1913 to 2000 revealed a steady increase in patenting activity in the field of fish processing technology (83 patents) and aquaculture (31 patents), whereas, patenting activity in fishing technology (37 patents) has steadily declined. These results indicate an aspect of less innovation in fisheries sector as reflected by patent statistics. However, there has been a shift towards increased patenting activity in post TRIPS era particularly by domestic applicants.

Keywords: Fisheries sector, patenting activity, fishing technology, processing technology, aquaculture


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, January 2005, pp 59-63

 Personal Data Privacy and Intellectual Property

M M S Karki

The growing market value of personal data and the difficulty of maintaining information privacy in cyberspace have prompted the legal experts to devise an alternative legal framework for effective data protection. This paper discusses some such alternatives available in the literature under intellectual property rights regime. Tensions between data protection and intellectual property rights enforcement are also mentioned briefly.

Keywords: Personal data, data privacy, information privacy, data protection, intellectual property, moral rights, trade secrecy.


Author Index

Ananthan P S


Krishnan Arjun 


Burrone Esteban


Ninan Sunitha


Chawla H S            


Ojha S N


Dharam Veer Singh


Pankaj Kumar 


Karki M M S


Sharma Arpita



Keyword Index


Abstraction                                                         9

Aquaculture                                                      52

Automated patent classification                    67


Benefit-sharing                                                 65

Bioinformatics                                              44,66

Biotechnology                                                  44

Business method patents                                68


Classroom guidelines                                       21

Cloning                                                              44

Computer software programs                           9

Copyright infringement                                   80

Copyright law                                                    21

Copyright wars                                                 69

Copyright                                                            9


Data privacy                                                     59

Data protection                                                59

Data protection                                                71

Digital copyright                                              70

Digital libraries                                                 67

DNA probes                                                     82

DNA                                                                  44

DPN technology                                              83


Embedded software                                        76


Fair use                                                             21

Fishing sector                                                 52

Fishing technology                                        52

Free databases                                                66


Herbal antibiotic drug                                    81


Idea–expression dichotomy                              9

Informationage                                                  65

Information privacy                                          59

Intellectua property rights                         34,44

Intellectual property                                        59

IP system                                                          34


Metadata                                                           67

Moral rights                                                      59


New technology-based firms                         34

Non-literal infringement                                    9


Open access                                                     65

Open source                                                     69


Patent analysis                                                 66

Patenting activity                                             52

Personal data                                                    59

Petty patents                                                    79

Processing technology                                   52


SMEs                                                                34

Stem cell                                                           77


Trade secrecy                                                  59

Trademark infringement                                 72

Trademark misuse                                           80

Traditional knowledge                             64, 74

TRIPS                                                               44


WTO                                                                44