Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

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                NUMBER 6

                 NOVEMBER 2005

CODEN: JIPRFG 10(6) 457-540 (2005)


  ISSN: 0971-5544





Role of Intellectual Property in Economic Growth


            Kaushik Laik 


Integrated Circuits and Intellectual Property Rights in India


            Atul Gupta


Passing off and the Law on ‘Trade Dress’ Protection: Reflections on Colgate v Anchor


            Anu Tiwari


Digital Alteration of Photographs and Intellectual Property Rights


            Suvrajyoti Gupta


Nontraditional Areas of Intellectual Property Protection: Colour, Sound, Taste, Smell, Shape, Slogan and Trade Dress


          M M S Karki 



Literature Review 


IPR General




· IP management of biosequence information from a patent searching perspective · IPR indemnities in the open source and proprietary software worlds · Technology transfer in nanotechnology · The nanotech intellectual property landscape · World-wide idea registration in a global idea bank is a sine qua non to protect present IP ideas for posterity · Determinants of high-royalty contracts and the impact of stronger protection of IPRs in Japan · Culture matters to multinationals’ intellectual property businesses · The “Bermuda triangle” of pharmaceutical law—is data protection a lost ship? · Intellectual property strategy in bioinformatics and biochips · Automated silicon IP trade using mobile agent technology
· International trade, economic growth and IPR · Biodiversity, ownership, and indigenous knowledge: Exploring legal frameworks for community, farmers, and IPR in Africa · Do not put too much value on conventional medicines · Knowledge production from an African perspective: International information flows and IP · Intellectual property and genetically modified seeds · Integrating intellectual property concepts into MIS education · Developing countries' need for coordination in international intellectual property standard setting · IPR and innovation in developing countries · Software protection in China—Towards better days?
· Traditional medicines and medicinal plants, and their protection modalities from an intellectual property rights perspective · Inter-firm migration of tacit knowledge: Law and policy · P2P leisure exchange: Net banditry and the policing of intellectual property
· Intellectual property—Rights or privileges? · Japonica rice: Intellectual property, scientific publishing and data sharing · Intellectual property litigation system reform in Japan







· Rapid patenting growth by academic institutes in the People's Republic of China · Reissue patent applications · Patentability and enforcement issues related to nanotechnology inventions · Nanotechnology-related inventions: infringement issues · Does insurance have a patent?
· The challenge of sustaining the research and innovation process · The journey of Indian Patent Law towards TRIPS compliance · Nanotechnology and the best mode
· Nanotechnology in India: Government support, market acceptance and patent profile
· Patents on compatibility standards and open source · How do patent laws influence innovation? Evidence from nineteenth-century world's fairs




Copyright and Trademark 


· Digital copyright and the ‘new’ controversy: Is the law moulding technology and innovation? · Modeling and implementation of digital rights · Should law protect the technologies that protect copyright?· Copyright Licensing Agency (CLA) and its interaction with Higher Education Institutions · The copyright implications of BitTorrent · Contractual and technological approaches for protecting digital works · International copyright law and ‘fair dealing’ as a ‘user right’· Trademarks or copyrights: Which IPR affords its owner the greatest protection of architectural ingenuity? · Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change




IPR News




IPR News—General 


· WIPO begins on-line publication of the WIPO gazette of international marks · Director General of WIPO welcomes signs of progress in recognition of indigenous people’s rights
· Myanmar to enact intellectual property protection law · Intellectual property rights and human rights · US discloses moves to stop piracy of intellectual property


Patent News 


· New ways to fight AIDS in Brazil · Eight-year data protection for brand names would handicap efforts · Court rejects debt-escaping patent · Patent threat looms over dynamic web pages · Gene patents threaten research · Cyberview Technology issued patent to enhance server-based downloadable games system · Apple faces iPod patent challenge · EU assembly votes for drug patent extension · Microsoft patent filings up 5 times in 2004 · Patent infringement exemption · MCX seeks patent for contracts · PERD Centre files patent application for 12 drugs · World IP Body acknowledges Korea as leading innovator



Copyright and Trademark News 


· Claim to copyright Barramundi name fails · Supreme Court backs copyright owners · India decides to join Madrid Protocol on trademarks · China expands list of well-known marks
· European Court of Justice deals blow to Picasso family · WIPO evicts cyber squatter from India’s SBI domain · Basmati patents



  Key Patents 


· Mobile Satellite Ventures (MSV) issued US patent · CSIR gets US patent for green mussel extract to treat osteoporosis · US patent awarded to CSIR for antibacterial formulation for drinking water · Arena Pharmaceuticals issued patent for 5-HT2C receptor · Nanobarriers
· Cool platelets



List of Referees




Annual Author Index




Annual Keyword Index








Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 465-473


Role of Intellectual Property in Economic Growth

Kaushik Laik

Received 16 August 2005, revised 4 October 2005

In spite of substantial economic growth of nations, there still persist conflicting views among developed and developing countries in retaining a strong intellectual property regime in the domestic realms. For instance, the debate on competition laws and feasibility of having monopolistic tendencies as emphasized by the jurisprudence of IP laws, still appears to haunt the think-tank of developing nations like India. The fact that developing countries vary widely in the quality and capacity of their scientific and technical infrastructures, poses a major hurdle to the extent of applicability of IP, particularly, patent laws, to each of them. Having a uniform IP standard across the globe undoubtedly seems to be an easy solution, but the issue certainly involves numerous micro and macro considerations which need to be taken heed of.

  The aim of the present paper is to investigate the impact of a strong IP regime in the economic development of a nation. As well known and beyond any doubts, IP protection is an important determinant of economic growth. It helps entrepreneurs to recover costs of their innovative expenses. Undoubtedly, IP systems must be developed so as to bring in socio-economic well-being. However, the incentives for the same need to be analysed critically, as the duplicity of stands of various parties to the WTO and TRIPS are clearly evident. The fact that strong IPR actually provoke IPR infringements in many developing nations also seems to be an issue which needs to be analysed while comprehending the need for the former. The trade-off between unfair competition laws and IP also assumes importance of high magnitude and hence needs to be particularly emphasized.


           Keywords: Intellectual property, traditional knowledge, geographical indications, economic growth, 

                            competition act






Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 474-479


Integrated Circuits and Intellectual Property Rights in India

Atul Gupta

Received 2 May 2005, revised 8 September 2005

The Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Layout-Design Act, 2000, protects original, inherently distinctive layout-designs that have not been previously commercially exploited and registration is a necessary pre-requisite for protection. A layout-design is original if it is not merely a copy of all, or substantial part of another layout-design, and is the result of the creator’s own intellectual effort. Registration of a layout-design shall be available to the registered proprietor irrespective of the fact whether the layout-design is incorporated in an article or not. The Act makes provision for a registry to be headed by a Registrar for the purpose of registration of layout-designs. Protection under the Act extends for ten years and commences from the date of application for registration in case of layout-designs which have not been commercially exploited. For layout-designs, which have been commercially exploited (for less than two years) before the date of application for registration, protection commences retrospectively from date of first commercial exploitation. The registered-proprietor has the exclusive right to reproduce by any means the registered layout-design or any substantial portion of it. But the Act permits ‘reverse-engineering’ of a layout-design for limited purposes. The registered-proprietor also has the exclusive right to import, sell or distribute for commercial purpose any semiconductor chip products in which the registered layout-design is embodied. The Act provides for criminal remedies for the infringement of a layout-design expressly, civil remedies too are available to enforce rights under the Act. A registered layout-design can be assigned or transmitted with or without the goodwill of the business concerned. Registration of assignment or transmission is necessary to establish title to the registered layout-design. The Act also provides for reciprocal arrangements between convention countries. This article endeavours to examine the nature of the intellectual property involved in layout-designs, their use in semiconductor integrated circuits and the other relevant provisions of the Act.

Keywords: Integrated circuits, layout designs, semiconductors, TRIPS







Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 480-490


Passing off and the Law on ‘Trade Dress’ Protection: Reflections on
Colgate v Anchor

Anu Tiwari

Received 20 April 2005, revised 16 August 2005

The trade dress or ‘get-up’ of goods has long been recognized as protected from any form of unauthorised appropriation traditionally under the law of passing off and more recently under the tort of unfair trading. The paper principally relies on case analysis in order to ascertain the approach of the courts with regard to this species of protection. This has been essential because statutory law on trademark lacks express provisions, which could comprehensively bring within its sweep trade dress protection of articles of commerce. This paper assesses impact of a recent judgment of Delhi High Court in Colgate v Anchor, on the course law takes in future on this subject. This ruling has considerably widened the net of protection available to the external appearance and configuration of goods—together constituting the ‘trade dress’ of goods. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the Colgate ruling and assess its merits on the touchstone of the principles extracted from the existing corpus of case laws on trade dress protection, in the process arguing against a liberal protectionist regime.

           Keywords: Passing off, trade dress







Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10, November 2005, pp 491-498


Digital Alteration of Photographs and Intellectual Property Rights

Suvrajyoti Gupta

Received 10 August 2005, revised 28 September 2005

Advancement in technology has made it easier to digitally alter a photograph. This along with faster dissemination of text and images through the Internet has elevated morphing or digital alteration of images to the status of a cottage industry. This paper discusses how such alteration interferes variously with the intellectual property rights of the author, owner, or the subject of the photograph. Digital alteration of photograph has consequences in copyright law, passing off, celebrity’s right to publicity as well as areas like criminal law, law of defamation, etc., where the injured party needs to have proper remedy. The paper also discusses law in USA and UK as well as the relevant laws in India.

           Keywords: Digital alteration, morphing, image, fake photograph, right to publicity, passing off







Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 10 November 2005, pp 499-506



Nontraditional Areas of Intellectual Property Protection: Colour, Sound, Taste, Smell, Shape, Slogan and Trade Dress

M M S Karki

Received 6 December 2004, revised 14 October 2005

In the recent years, the industry is registering more and more trademarks in unconventional areas like colour, sound and smell. Specially, sounds and colours are commonly trademarked today. Smell, shape and slogan are also gaining grounds slowly and gradually. Besides unconventional trademarks, copyright protection in areas like smell has also been reported. This paper reviews the developments in such nontraditional areas of intellectual property protection.

          Keywords: Nontraditional marks, unconventional trademarks, colour marks, sound marks, scent marks,

                             smell trademarks, olfactory trademarks, shape marks, slogans, trade dress













Author Index


Laik Kaushik


Gupta Atul


Tiwari Anu


Gupta Suvrajyoti


Karki M M S














Keyword Index


Competition act


Economic growth


Geographical indications


Intellectual property


Traditional knowledge


Integrated circuits


Layout designs






Passing off


Trade dress


Digital alteration


Fake photograph






Passing off


Right to publicity


Colour marks


Nontraditional marks


Olfactory trademarks


Scent marks


Shape marks




Smell trademarks


Sound marks


Trade dress


Unconventional trademarks


Intellectual property management




Open source


Technology transfer




Data protection


Global idea bank




Indigenous knowledge


Software protection


Traditional medicines


Digital copyright


Digital rights




International marks


Gene patents


Well-known marks




List of Referees



  The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2005.


Balaravi S

M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), 3rd Cross Street,
Institutional Area, Taramani,Chennai

Birnhack Michael

Haifa Center of Law & Technology, Faculty of Law, University of Haifa,
Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel

Bloch Edouard

Denton Wilde Sapte, 43 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré - 27 rue de Surène, 75008 Paris France

Bhadbhade Nilima

ILS Law College, Pune

Burrone Esteban

SMEs Division, WIPO, 34, Chemin des Colombettes, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Chari K S

Ministry of Communications & Information Technology, Department of Information Technology, Electronics Niketan, 6 CGO Complex, Lodi Road, New Delhi

Chawla H S 

Patent Information Centre, Deptt. of Genetics & Plant Breeding College of  Agriculture, G B Pant University of Agric. & Tech., Pantnagar, UP  

Field Thomas G

Franklin Pierce Law Center, 2 White Street, Concord NH, UK

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin

Gupta V K

NISTADS, New Delhi

Hauser Hans

Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Industrial Electronics & Material Science, Gusshausstrasse 27-29/3667, A-1040 Vienna, Austria, EU

Hirwani R R

R&D Planning & Business Division, NCL, Pune

Iyer Chid S

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA

James T C

Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20- D, Examiner Press, Building, Dalal Street, Fort, Mumbai

Justice D Y Chandrachud

Bombay High Court, Mumbai

Kochhar Sudhir 

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Lindquist Leigh Ann

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington DC 20037, USA

Mahoney Richard T

Biodesign Institute,Arizona State University,PO Box 874501, Tempe,
AZ 85287, USA

Mazumder Anirban 

The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, NUJS Bhavan,
12 Lb Block, Salt Lake City, Calcutta

Mitra N L

Former Vice Chancellor, National Law University, Jodhpur, Flat # 512, Block III, Skyline Apartment, Nagarbhavi First Stage, Bangalore

Mukherjee Santanu

South Centre, 17 Ch. du Champ-d'Anier, Post Box 228, Geneva 19,
Switzerland 1211.

Nair M D

A-11, Sagarica, 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmikinagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Pillai Manoj

Lex Orbis, Intellectual Property Practice, Solicitors & Advocates, 709/710,
Tolstoy House, 15-17, Tolstoy Marg, New Delhi

Rajan Mira

Faculty of Law, The University of British Columbia, 1822 East Mall, Vancouver, BC,Canada V6T 1Z1

Saha Alok M

Trade Mark Registration Bureau, 1, Netaji Subhash Road, Calcutta

Smith Simon

Managing Partner,Schillings,Royalty House,72-74 Dean Street, London,W1D 3TL

Srivastava Sonali

Madison, Godfrey & Kahn, 780 North Water Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Suthersanen Uma

Intellectual Property Law Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ,UK

Thomas Zakir

Income Tax Department, Directorate of Systems, ARA Center, Jhandevalan Extn, New Delhi

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet,
R.R. District Andhra Pradesh

Verma S K

Law Faculty, University of Delhi, Delhi






Annual Author Index


Ananthan P S


Aoki Reiko


Baechtold Philippe


Bawa Raj


Bawa S R


Bhattacharjee Sudipta


Bhattacharya Partha


Bhuvaneshwar G S


Burrone Esteban


Chandran Sajeev 


Chawla H S 


Dharam Veer Singh


Domingo Represa-Sánchez


Dwivedi Anurag


Elena Castro-Martínez  


Ganley Paul 


Geller Paul Edward


Goddar Heinz


Gruskin Steven M


Gupta Atul


Gupta R K


Gupta Suvrajyoti 


Hirwani R R


Hyndman Kelly G


Ignacio Fernández-de-Lucio 


Jain Lokesh 


Kalyan Chakravarthy Kankanala 


Karki M M S


Karki M M S


Krishnan Arjun


Kumar Harsh


Laik Kaushik


Madhukar A


Maebius Stephen B


Mehlwal Geetanjali


Mendonça Sandro


Mitra A


Mittal Rekha 


Miyamoto Tomoko


Narasani Arun Kishore


Narayanan Nair K


Ninan Sunitha  


Ojha S N


Pal S K


Pankaj Kumar


Park Yongtae      


Peters Ruud


Phadnis Rashmi


Pillai Manoj


Prakash V  


Praveen Raj R S


Pushpangadan P 


Ramesh Kumar P


Ranjit D


Rao Ganesh


Roy Archna 


Saha R 


Saroha Monika 


Sharma Arpita 


Shin Juneseuk 


Singh Gian


Swenson David W


Tansinsin Lydia G 


Tiwari Anu


Torremans Paul Leo Carl


Tulzapurkar Veerendra


Wang Benjamin


Zekos Georgios I







Annual Keyword Index




Abstraction    9
Academic publishing 246
Access and benefit-sharing  441



Agri-resources                  434


Agro biodiversity  321


Amateurs     188


Aquaculture   52


Automated patent classification  67




Bayh-Dole Act                  399


Benefit-sharing             65, 323


Berlin contract                  389


Berne Convention  308


Best mode requirement 287


Biodiversity 441, 509


Bioinformatics       44, 66, 508


Bioprospecting                  441


Biotechnology patents        287


Biotechnology                    44


Building designs                  119


Business method patents                    68




Capacity building       369


CBD           441


Catechin biosynthesis pathway      221


Chemical patenting     287


Classroom guidelines      21


Cloning         44


Club merchandise 119


Colour marks           127, 499


Competition act                  465


Competitor  198


Computer programs     300


Computer software programs         9


Conflicts of laws            133


Conventions 133


Copyright Act                  106


Copyright infringement  80


Copyright law             21, 148


Copyright wars                    69


Copyright       9, 188, 308


Counterfeiters             255


Counterfeiting           149, 239


Creativity    188


Cyber squatting                  162




Data privacy  59


Data protection       59, 71, 508


Database protection    329


Developing countries     141


Digital alteration                  491


Digital copyright             70, 515


Digital libraries                    67


Digital rights management 188


Digital rights 516


Digital watermarking                  149


DNA probes  82


DNA             44


DPN technology                    83




Economic growth        465


Economics of remix          106


Embedded software        76


Employees’ copyright     112


Employees’ inventions    389


Endangered species        141


European trademark    127




Fair use 21, 246


Fake photograph  491


Fishing sector 52


Fishing technology     52


Flux gate sensor                    99


Folklore       308


Food processing                  434


Food safety 434


Form - function – test           300


Free databases                    66


Free rider problems     206


Freelancer’s copyright     112




Gene patents           325, 522


Geographical Indication    163


Geographical indications   465


German law 389


Giant magneto-resistance sensor           99


Global idea bank           508


Global market system        361


Globall aspect                  214


Gold-rush mentality     426




Hall magnetic sensor           99


Herbal antibiotic drug              81


Heterogeneity                  206




Idea – expression dichotomy       9


IIT              413


Image          491


Indian Patent Act             269


Indian patent                  315


Indigenous knowledge  241, 509


Indigenous people         308


Information age                    65


Information privacy          59


Infringement           106, 133


Innovation economy     361


Innovation   434


Intangible assets                  322


Integrated circuits        474


Intellectual assets          240


Intellectual economy     421


Intellectual property licence agreements  214


Intellectual property management           376, 507


Intellectual property rights               34, 44


Intellectual property       59, 133, 239, 413, 434, 465


International harmonization                  177


International marks          519


International public policy 133


Internet patents                  147


Internet       188


Inventive step                  235


IP code       394


IP management                  144


IP ownership                  399


IP system      34


IPR management 382


IPR 394, 434, 441




Large firms  281


Layout designs                  474


Licensing policies        417


Licensing     507




Magneto-resistance sensor           99


Management of intellectual property rights                  369


Metadata       67


Micromagnetic sensor           99


Moral rights  59, 106


Morphing    491


Munich contract                  389




Nanotechnology                  426


Network analysis       198


New inventions                  235


New patent regime         269


New technology-based firms    34


Non-literal infringement    9


Non-obviousness 232


Nontraditional marks          499




Olfactory marks                  127


Olfactory trademarks  499


Open access  65


Open innovation                  421


Open source 69, 507


Open source licensing      327


Open source software      149


Ordre public international 133




P2P technology                  188


Passing off 480, 491


Patent activity                  315


Patent analysis             66, 221


Patent archives                  242


Patent claim 198


Patent infringement            157, 245


Patent law   177


Patent licensing                  421


Patent mechanics   145


Patent Ordinance 2004 ,                 154


Patent pools 206


Patent thicket                  426


Patentability 300


Patenting activity          52


Patents        281


Personal data 59


Petty patents 79


Pharmaceutical industry      269


Private international law                  133


Processing technology     52


Product patent                  269


Public research                  382


Publicly funded institutions   369


Publicly funded organizations                  406


Public-private partnerships 406




Remedies    133


Remix of an old song            106


Research tool patents        244


Revenue generation ability          214


Right to publicity      491




Scent marks 499


Science and Technology Policy 2003, 369


Semiconductors                  474


Shape marks 499


Skilled person                  232


Slogans       499


 Smell trademarks  499


SMEs           34


Software patent                  326


Software patents        235


Software piracy                  324


Software protection    511


Software     300


Sound marks           127, 499


Spine patents                  254


Stem cell       77


Strategic IP management 281


Substantive Patent Law Treaty (SPLT)                  177


Swiss-type ‘new use’ claims  235




Tasini          112


Tea phytochemicals                  221


Technological diversification                  281


Technology business incubation    413


Technology development 417


Technology licensing agreements  394


Technology licensing     413, 421


Technology Transfer Centre (TTC)         376


Technology transfer offices                  382


Technology transfer      394, 399, 413,417, 441, 507


Techno-prove facility         417


Territoriality 133


Text mining 198


Trade dress 480, 499


Trade secrecy 59


Trade secret 145


Trademark databases     249


Trademark dispute        249


Trademark infringement  72


Trademark law           119, 150


Trademark misuse          80


Trademark  518


Trademarkability                 127


Traditional foods          434


Traditional knowledge    64, 74, 142, 323, 441, 465


Traditional medicines    511


TRIPS Agreement  127, 269


TRIPS compliant    235


TRIPS 44, 441, 474


Types of licenses       214




Unconventional trademarks  499


UNESCO    308


Unregistered trademarks  119




Valorization of IP               406


Valuation     198


Value addition            434,441


Value-added strategy       376




Well-known marks          526


Well-known trademarks  330


WIPO         308


Written description   287


WTO            44