Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

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CODEN: JIPRFG 12(6) 547-634 (2007)


ISSN: 0971-5544







Liability of Internet Service Providers for Third Party Online Copyright Infringement: A Study of the US and Indian Laws



        Thilini Kahandawaarachchi



Modern Patenting — Quantity and Quality


        Gwilym Roberts



A Critique of the Indian Law and Approach towards Protection of Geographical Indications with Specific Reference to Genericide



            J Adithya Reddy & Siladitya Chatterjee



Keeping Cashmere in Kashmir- The Interface between GI and TK


            Raguvaran Gopalan and Sindhu Sivakumar



IP Case Law Developments


            Zakir Thomas



Literature Review






● Intellectual property rights Will the TRIPS Agreement foster appropriate biotechnologies for developing countries? ● Industry-university IP relations ● IPR protection and unemployment in a North South model ● IP as property ●IPR and quality improvement The interplay between IPR and competition law in the context of standardization ● Gender dimensions of IP and traditional medicinal knowledge ● Do formal IPR hinder the free flow of scientific knowledge? ● Reconfiguring the innovation policy portfolios for Taiwan's SIP Mall industry ● Business enterprise R&D, technological change, and IP protection ● The dynamics of bilateral IP: Taiwan and the US The protection of IPR and endogenous growth ● IP issues in joint ventures and collaborations







Harmonization through condemnation ● Will longer antimicrobial patents improve global public health?Automatic patent classificationPatent disclosure requirements and benefit sharingUsing AHP in patent valuation Patents and access to antiretroviral medicines in Vietnam ● A comparative study of different tasks for Japanese patent document retrieval ● Maximizing patent term in the USA ● Cluster-based patent retrieval ● Text mining techniques for patent analysis ● The impact of Canadian Patent Policy and IT on CPO operations ● A primer on US antitrust claims against patentees under Walker Process IPR abuses in the patent licensing of technology standards from developed countries to developing countries ● The Iranian patenting system ● Patenting, IPR and sectoral outputs in industrial revolution in Britain ● Patent activity and technical change ● The role of patents for bridging the science to market gap ● Patently obvious: IPR and nanotechnology ● The influence of patent protection on firm innovation investment in manufacturing industries ● Patentability of living organisms



Copyright and Trademark



Econometric analysis of copyrights The lifecycle of balance under the Canadian copyright law ● Digital library IPR evaluation and method ● The copyright reform process in Australia ● Parallel imports: More CD than WOW? ● Protection of trademarks and GI for agricultural products and foodstuffs disputeJapan digs its claws into biodiversity through FTAs ● The UK's new trademark notification regime ● Plant variety protection in developing countries ● The relationship of GI with real property valuation and management



IPR News



IPR News—General



WTO probes Chinese industry subsidies ● US discussed 301 watch lists with Pakistan ● WIPO recognizes developing world rights USPTO offered free program on protecting IP in China WIPO organizes retreat for OIC member states ● MDA launches IP manifesto for museums ● Votes against declaration of rights of indigenous peoples Opening of the Kosovo IPO ● Chinese firms learn IPR protection ● Ugandan inventors condemn ideas pirates ● IP: Violations and damages ● IP in China: Record fine for French company ● Centre offering courses in IPR ● Australia: WTO investigation into China's trade ● WIPO faces crisis ● UN patent agency adopts development agenda



Patent News



Patent highway between UK and USA open ● Patently lagging ● TVS Motor protests Bajaj’s allegations on patents



Copyright and Trademark News



● Nigeria: Yar'Adua lauds Copyright Commission ● Copyright trade center launched
● Philippines making progress on software piracy ● Rugby World Cup photo copyright victory ●
US economy being hit hard by theft ‘pandemic’ ● Pirates of the African screen ● Australian copyright infringement plan ● Kindergarten class: Antipiracy education ● China cuts import tax on CDs ● Copyright protection in the Internet ● Practical help on new trademark legislation ● Brand Excellence Award ● Farmers' rights: Global regime on IPR ● Cambodia: Establishing geographical rights of goods




Key Patents



Patent for color label printing ● Metered dose spray device ● Wound therapy method
● Behavioral targeting




Book Review



Economic and Legal Issues in Intellectual Property


            edited by Michael McAleer and Les Oxley



Intellectual Property


            William T Gallagher



List of Referees



Annual Author Index



Annual Keyword Index





Adithya Reddy J                                         572

Chatterjee Siladitya                                     572

Gopalan Raguvaran                                     581

Kahandawaarachchi Thilini                         553

Roberts Gwilym                                          562

Sivakumar Sindhu                                        581

Thomas Zakir                                              589



Claims                                                          562

Concurrent user                                           589

Copyright                                                    553 

Design                                                          589

Digital Millennium Copyright Act              553

Drafting                                                       562

Future works                                               589

Genericide                                                    572

Geographical indication                       572, 581

Information Technology Act                       553

Infringement copyright                                589

Infringement                                                553

Injunction                                                    589

Internet Service Provider (ISP)                    553

Internet                                                        553

Passing off                                                   589

Patent application                                       562

Patents                                                         589

Prior art                                                       562

Safe harbour                                                 553

Specific description                                     562

Subscriber                                                    553

Sui generis                                                   581 

Third party                                                  553

Trademark                                                   589

Traditional cultural expressions                  581

Traditional knowledge                                 581

TRIPS Agreement                                       572


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 12, November 2007, pp 553-561              


Liability of Internet Service Providers for Third Party Online Copyright Infringement: A Study of the US and Indian Laws


Thilini Kahandawaarachchi

Received 21 May 2007, revised 5 September 2007

During the past decade or so there have been numerous efforts to bring in a suitable legal framework which deals with the protection of intellectual property on the Internet. There have been heated debates among many stakeholders such as owners of various intellectual properties, particularly, copyright and trademark right holders, consumers and intermediate service providers. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) were at the heart of this debate since there was a tendency to hold them responsible for the infringing actions of their customers and this would prove to be an adverse impact not only on the ISPs but also on the Internet per se. This paper examines liability of ISPs for copyright infringements by their subscribers.

A number of research questions like, what amounts to violation of copyright and rights available under copyright, have been addressed in this paper. The analysis of arguments for holding ISPs liable for copyright violation has also been done. The United States of America having most comprehensive law on the issue as of now, applying traditional intellectual property law to cases of copyright infringements on the Internet, is also examined. Later on USA drafted a new law, The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 1998, which deals with the Internet related crimes and provides detailed ‘safe harbours’ to limit liability of the ISPs in cases of copyright infringement by their subscribers. The paper further examines the case laws prior to DMCA and post DMCA to examine the manner in which court has looked at the ISPs liability for third party copyright infringement. The position in the Asia Pacific region is also examined with special reference to Singapore since it is believed to be a jurisdiction with a well developed system of law dealing with ISP liability. Since, India is developing rapidly and becoming more and more dependent on Internet, the Indian law and the Information Technology Act, 2000 with reference to ISPs has also been dealt with. The paper concludes with the suggestion on the improvement of the law relating to ISP liability in India.

Keywords: Internet Service Provider (ISP), Internet, subscriber, third party, copyright, infringement, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, safe harbour, Information Technology Act

Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 12, November 2007, pp 562-571


Modern Patenting – Quantity and Quality

Gwilym Roberts

Received 20 September 2007, revised 30 October 2007

This paper discusses the current debate on ‘quality patents’ against the backdrop of a practical assessment of the considerations that go into drafting patent applications together with an example of how the drafting process might go forward, demonstrating the amount of care that needs to go into these documents and attempting to undermine the suggestion that there is a problem with the quality of patents. It also highlights the delicate balance that needs to be struck between commercial and legal requirements in a patent application, stresses that although numerous considerations need to be taken into account simultaneously, those considerations are manageable, and clearly shows the skill that the attorney must demonstrate.

Keywords: Drafting, patent application, specific description, prior art, claims


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 12, November 2007, pp 572-580


A Critique of the Indian Law and Approach towards Protection of Geographical Indications with Specific Reference to Genericide

J Adithya Reddy & Siladitya Chatterjee

Received 27 June 2007, revised 3 October 2007

The TRIPS Agreement prescribes minimum standard of protection for geographical indications (GIs) and additional protection for wines and spirits. The lack of uniform international protection, along with inability to reach global consensus to remedy this, has placed many GIs under the threat of becoming generic. Especially, the ones produced by backward, rural communities in developing countries like India, have been vulnerable to exploitation by large commercial enterprises through patenting. The Indian statute along with its rules has adapted a strong scheme of GI protection, mostly on the lines of the European Regulations. However, certain features of the Act merit serious consideration, the most important being the broad criteria given to determine genericide. The requirement to consider the situation outside the country of origin to determine such genericide, is avoidable and potentially harmful.

Keywords: Geographical indications, genericide, TRIPS Agreement


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 12, November 2007, pp 581-588


Keeping Cashmere in Kashmir- The Interface between GI and TK

Raguvaran Gopalan and Sindhu Sivakumar

Received 16 July 2007, revised 3 October 2007

This paper focuses on the legal issues involved in one source of wealth in Kashmir- the famous ‘pashmina’, one of the most refined forms of cashmere. Problems and possibilities involved in the protection of traditional knowledge accumulated over the ages which goes into the manufacture of the ‘pashmina’ fabric to understand how the common man in Kashmir may be secured from detriment that might be caused due to the possible unjustified exploitation of such traditional knowledge are also discussed. In this process, the broader argument of whether geographical indication is effective as the sole means of protection of traditional knowledge is also examined.

Keywords: Traditional knowledge, geographical indication, sui generis, traditional cultural expressions


Journal of Intellectual Property Rights

Vol 12, November 2007, pp 589-597


IP Case Law Developments*

Zakir Thomas

Received 21 October 2007

This article attempts to summarize some of the recently reported cases on intellectual property law to enable the readers to understand how the courts have applied the principles of intellectual property law to actual IP disputes. The cases are chosen from the cases reported in May and July 2007 issues of the Patents and Trade Marks Cases (PTC), a leading case law reporter on intellectual property laws. The June issue of PTC contains only index of cases.

Keywords: Patents, injunction, trademark, concurrent user, design, passing off, infringement copyright, future works


*The feedback regarding this column can be sent to the editor, Madhu Sahni (email: or to the author:




List of Referees


  The editorial team of the Journal of Intellectual Property Rights is most grateful to the following referees for their services rendered for the journal during the year 2007.


Basheer Shamnad

George Washington University Law School, 2000 H Street,
, Washington DC 20052

Bhadbhade Nilima

ILS Law College, Pune

Chawla H S

Patent Information Centre, Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding,
College of Agriculture, G B Pant University of Agric. & Tech, Pantnagar

Cook Trevor

Bird& Bird, 90 Fetter Lane, London,EC4A 1JP,UK

Ganguli Prabuddha

VISION-IPR,101-201 Sunview Heights, Plot No. 262, Sher-e-Punjab,
Andheri East Mumbai 400 093

Gopakumar K M

Centre for Trade & Development (CENTAD), A1/304 Safdarjung Enclave, New Delhi 110029

Gopalakrishnan N S

School of Legal Studies, Cochin University of Science and Technology,
Cochin 682 022, Kerala

Iyer Chid S

Sughrue Mion PLLC 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

James T C

Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion, Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Udyog Bhawan, New Delhi

Jamsandekar Amit

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20-D, Examiner Press Building, Dalal Street,
Fort, Mumbai

Kankanala Kalyan C

“Nurturing Genius”, Brain League IP Services, No. 18, 2nd Floor, 5A Cross,
24th Main, J P Nagar 2nd Phase, Bangalore

Kardam K S

Delhi Patent Office, Boudhik Sampada Bhawan, Plot No 32, Sector 14,
Dwarka, New Delhi 110075

Karjala Dennis S

College of Law, Arizona State University-ASU, Tempe, Arizona 85287-7906

Kochhar Sudhir

Plant Breeding/IPR, Crop Science Division, ICAR, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Lindquist Leigh Ann

Sughrue Mion PLLC, 2100 Pennsylvania Ave, NW Washington DC 20037, USA

Mitra N L

Flat # 512, Block III, Skyline Apartment,Nagarbhavi First Stage,
Bangalore 560 072

Nair M D

A 11, Sagarica 15, 3rd Seaward Road, Valmiki Nagar, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai

Nair R Latha

K&S Partners, 84-C, C-6 Street, Sainik Farms, New Delhi

Narayanan Lalitha

Gujarat Institute of Development Research, Gota, Ahmedabad

Pugatch Meir

University of Haifa, IP Policy and Commercialisation of Knowledge Assets
80 Achad Haam St.,Tel-Aviv 65206, Israel

Randhawa Gurinder Jit

NRC on DNA Fingerprinting, NBPGR, Pusa Campus, New Delhi

Saha Alok M

Trade Mark Registration Bureau, 1, Netaji Subhash Road, Calcutta 700 001 

Sastry Kalpana

National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM), ICAR, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad 500407, Andhra Pradesh

Shiju M V

The WB National University of Juridical Sciences, NUJS Bhavan, 12 LB Block, Sector – III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098

Srivastava Sonali

Patents & Trademarks, Abbott Laboratories, D-377, AP6A/1,
100 Abbott Park Road, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6008, SA

Story Alan

Kent Law School, University of Kent, Canterbury Kent,
United Kingdom CT2 7NS

Suthersanen Uma

Queen Mary Intellectual Property Research Institute, John Vane Science Building, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK

Thomas Zakir

Income Tax Department, Directorate of Systems, ARA Center,
Jhandevalan Extn, New Delhi

Torremans Paul

School of Law, University of Nottingham, University Park,
Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK

Tulzapurkar Veereendra

Tulzapurkar’s Chambers, 20-D, Examiner Press Building, Dalal Street,
Fort, Mumbai.

Unni V K

NALSAR University of Law, Hyderabad, Justice City, Shameerpet,
R R District, Andhra Pradesh 500 078

Wendland Wend

Traditional Creativity, Cultural Expressions and Cultural Heritage Section,
World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland


Annual Author Index


 Adithya Reddy J                               572

Bennett Alan                                      86

 Bhadra Souvik                                   488

Boettiger Sara                                     86

Cannady Cynthia                             142

Chatterjee Siladitya                           572

Chawla H S                                       330

Das Sandip                                          57

 Field Thomas G, Jr                            129

Ganguly Nirmalya                             303

 Ghosh Abhimanyu                               293

Ghosh Rishab Aiyer                           176

Gibson Johanna                                     38

Gopalan Raguvaran                              581

Guennif Samira                                     471

Gupta Apar                                           422

Harmon Shawn H E                                 72

Hennessey William O                             118

Jain Shashank                                 224, 314

Kabir Deep Chaim                                  293

Kahandawaarachchi Thilini             236, 553

Kankanala Kalyan C                               104

Kardam K S                                               15

Kochupillai Mrinalini                               154

Kowalski Stanley                                        92

Laik Kaushik                                             244

Lakshmikumaran Malathi                           45

Lalitha N                                                   471

Lukose Lisa P                                           212

Majumdar Arka                                        488

Marsoof Althaf                                         497

Mathur Tarun                                           410

Patodia Divya                                           314

Raj Rohit                                                   244

Raju K D                                                   199

Rines Robert H                                         183

Roberts Gwilym                                       562

Sengupta Arghya                                      400

Shand Hope                                              111

Shukla Uphar                                            314

Singh Anandita                                            57

Singh Harbir                                              391

Sivakumar Sindhu                                    581

Smith Matthew A                                     154

Suresh Kumar K                                       341

Thomas Zakir           251, 349, 428, 507, 589

Tripathy Sunita                                        224

Unni V K                                                  165

Vega Marisol Iglesias                                142

Venkataraman Abishek                             480

Vibhaw Nawneet                                      480

Wetter Kathy Jo                                       111

Whittaker Peter                                           30

Wilson Neeti                                               57

Annual Keyword Index


                                                               Abuse of dominance                                   224

Access to medicines                                    471

Adaptation                                                  480

Agricultural biotechnology            86, 330, 341

All-limitations rule                                      410

Antitrust law                                               224

Anton Piller order                                        488

Asset commercialization                             142

Asset development                                      142

Asset management                                       142

Asset protection                                          142

Assignment                                                  507

Bioengineering                                               72

Bioinformatics                                               15

Biotech innovation                                        72

Biotechnological inventions                           15

Biotechnology                                         38, 92

Broad patent                                                244

Citation analyses                                         154

Claim infringement                                      410

Claims                                                          562

Commercialization                                       330

Comparative roles of judge and juror          129

Competition law                                  224, 293

Compulsory licence                                     471

Concurrent user                                           589

Copyleft                                                      303

Copyright                       176,303,480, 507,553

Creative Commons Organization                303

Data mining                                                 154

Data protection                                           471

Database protection                                    422

Deadwood                                                   236

Design                                                          589

Development                                                 38

Diagnostic methods                                     104

Digital Millennium Copyright Act              553

DNA sequencing                                           57

Doctrine of colourable imitation                  244

Doctrine of Equivalence                              244

Doctrine of equivalents               129, 314, 410

Drafting                                                       562

Embryos                                                        30

Enabling technology                                      86

Equivalents                                                  165

Essential Facilities Doctrine                        224

ESTs                                                        45, 57

Ever greening                                               507

Evidence                                                      488

Ex parte                                                       488

Exhaustion of rights                                     400

Feist doctrine                                               422

Fence post                                                   244

File wrapper estoppel                                 410

Floss community                                         176

Free Art License                                          303

Free Software Foundation                           303

FTAs                                                           471

Function-way-result test                             410

Future works                                               589

General Public License (GPL)                     303

Genericide                                                    572

Genetic engineering                                        92

Genetically modified crops                           92

Genetics and gene sequence                           38

Genomics                                                       57

Geographical indication               212, 572, 581

GM crop                                                       72

GNU project                                               303

Graphical representation                             497

Incentive to invent theory                           244

Informatics                                                  154

Information Technology Act                       553

Infringement copyright                                589

Infringement                                                553

Injunction                                            488, 589

Innovation law                                             118

Innovation                                                   129

Intellectual assets                                        118

Intellectual property regime                        293

Intellectual property rights         176, 199, 224

Intellectual property                             15, 111

International Depository Authority             15

Internet Service Provider (ISP)                    553

Internet                                                        553

Invalid patents                                             129

Invention                                                     507

IP hub                                                          142

IP management in agriculture                         86

IP policy                                                      142

IP protection                                                 57

IP regime                                                      224

IP strategy                                                   142

Isomer                                                          507

Legal framework                                          176

License agreement                                        118

License                                                         176

Licensing                                                      330

Lisbon Agreement                                       212

Literary titles                                               507

Madrid Agreement                                      212

Mailbox provisions                                     341

Mergers                                                       224

Microarrays                                                   57

Microorganism                                              45

Mosaicing                                                    428

Musical work                                              480

Nanotechnology                                          111

Narrow patent                                             244

Non-literal infringement                              154

Non-use                                                       236

Novartis                                                       507

Novelty                                                       428

Obviousness                                                129

Open Source Initiative                                 303

Open Source Software                                 199

Parallel imports                                   400, 471

Paris Convention                                         212

Passing off                                                   589

Patent application                                       562

Patent breadth                                             244

Patent courts                                               129

Patent critics                                                129

Patent examination cost                               129

Patent examination                                      154

Patent infringement                         2, 129, 165

Patent litigation cost                                    129

Patent model                                                104

Patent reform                                               129

Patent regime                                               244

Patent remedies                                           129

Patent thicket                                              129

Patent troll                                                   129

Patent valuation                                           154

Patent                                      30, 38, 104, 400

Patentability                                          341, 38

Patenting                                                      330

Patents                                                  507,589

Pharmaceutical industry                              293

Pharmaceuticals                                           400

PIPRA                                                           86

Pith and marrow                                          165

Plant breeders’ rights (PBRs)                      391

Plant breeding                                                92

Plant Variety Protection (PVP)                   391

Precautionary principle                                 92

Prior art                                                       589

Proprietary software                          199, 303

Prosecution history estoppel              165, 314

Prosecution history                                     410

Recombinant DNA technology                     45

Recombinant vectors                                     45

Regulation                                                      92

Risk analysis                                                 92

Royalty                                                       507

Safe harbour                                                 553

Scent marks                                                 497

Seed patenting                                             330

Self incrimination                                         488

SNPs                                                              45

Software patents                                         165

Sound marks                                                497

Source code                                                  303

Specific description                                     562

Stem cells                                                       30

Subscriber                                                    553

Substantiality of difference test                  410

Sui generis system                                      391

Sui generis                                           422, 581

Sweat of the brow                                       422

Technology valuation                                  330

Telecommunication                                       15

Third party                                                  553

Trade slogan                                                428

Trademark                                   236, 507, 589

Traditional cultural expressions                  581

Traditional knowledge                                 581

Trait technology                                            86

TRIPS                                                          391

TRIPS Agreement                       212, 341, 572

TRIPS compliant                                         497

TRIPS Plus                                                  471

TRIPS                                3, 72, 111, 118, 471

Unconventional trademarks                         497

Use                                                              236

Version recording                                         480

Wines and spirits                                         212