Indian Journal of Biotechnology



Total visitors: 5,143  since 18-01-08



CODEN: IJBNAR 7(1)  (2008) 1-150



ISSN: 0972-5849





Biodegradation of polyethylene and polypropylene


J Arutchelvi, M Sudhakar, Ambika Arkatkar, Mukesh Doble, Sumit Bhaduri & Parasu Veera Uppara




Forensics for tracing microbial signatures: Biodefence perspective and preparedness for the unforeseen


Priyabrata Pattnaik & Krisnamurthy Sekhar




Nutrigenomics: Looking to DNA for nutrition advice


Anjana Munshi & V Shanti Duvvuri








Validation of a single tube fluorescent multiplex assay for simultaneous typing of 20 Y-STR loci


Sanghamitra Sahoo & V K Kashyap




Prokaryotic expression of a 750 bp capsid region of bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene and development of a recombinant capsid (p26) protein based immunoassay for seroprevalence studies


Sandeep Bhatia, S S Patil, Richa Sood, Renu Dubey, Ashok K Bhatia, B Pattnaik & H K Pradhan




PCR detection of densonucleosis virus isolates in silkworm (Bombyx mori) from India and their nucleotide variability


A K Awasthi, A R Pradeep, P P Srivastava, K Vijayan, Vineet Kumar &
S Raje Urs




Evaluation of α- and β-glucosidase inhibitory properties of macro-algae using intestinal extracts of marine snail, Thais rudolphi (Lamarck, 1822)


V S Pramitha, A P Lipton & M Thangaraj




Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding HMG CoA reductase from black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.)


Smitha Jose, D Girija & P S Beena




A preliminary study of smelling agents using electrical potential oscillations at liquid-liquid interface


U Roy, R Shalini, S V Vanitha, S K Saha  & R C Srivastava


Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae


K Manikandan, V Saravanan & T Viruthagiri




Effects of ammonium sulphate concentration on growth and glycerol production kinetics of two endogenic wine yeast strains


S Karasu Yalçın & Z Y Özbaş




Optical resolution of (R, S)-ibuprofen in organic solvent by porcine pancreatic lipase catalyzed enantioselective esterification


Ganesh Ramachandran & Laxmi Ananthanarayan




Areca husk: An inexpensive substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation


G Narayanamurthy, Y L Ramachandra, S Padmalatha Rai, Y N Manohara &
B T Kavitha




Genetic variability in production performance of Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using microsatellite polymorphism


P Sikka & R K Sethi




Genetic diversity in Kheri — A pastoralists developed Indian sheep using microsatellite markers


S Bhatia & R Arora




Analysis of microsatellite markers in Ongole breed of cattle


S M K Karthickeyan, P Kumarasamy, S N Sivaselvam, R Saravanan & P Thangaraju




Antibacterial activity and characterization of bacteriocin of Bacillus mycoides isolated from whey


Nivedita Sharma & Neha Gautam




Induction of hairy roots through the mediation of four strains of   Agrobacterium  rhizogenes  on five host plants


R Pratap Chandran & V P Potty




Micropropagation of Ceropegia hirsute Wt. & Arn.—A starchy tuberous asclepid


T D Nikam, R S Savant & R S Pagare




Short Communications




Comparative efficacy of different DNA extraction methods for PCR-based assay in Tectona grandis L.f.


C Narayanan, Swapnil Dubey, Syed Arif Wali, Nidhi Shukla, Randhir Kumar,
A K Mandal & S A Ansari




Studies on differential growth behaviour of two alpine herbs of Western Himalaya from different altitudes under in vitro conditions


Subedar Pandey, Sonia Malik, Sanjeev Sharma & Madhu Sharma




Conference Report — New Horizons in Biotechnology (NHBT-2007)




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Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 7, January 2008, pp 9-22


Biodegradation of polyethylene and polypropylene

J Arutchelvi, M Sudhakar, Ambika Arkatkar, Mukesh Doble*, Sumit Bhaduri1 and Parasu Veera Uppara1

Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036, India

1Polymer Research and Technology Center, Reliance Industries Limited, Swastik Mills Compound,
Chembur, Mumbai 400 071, India

Received 26 May 2006; revised 21 February 2007; accepted 22 May 2007

Polyethylene and polypropylene are the two polyolefins with wide ranging applications. They are recalcitrant and hence remain inert to degradation and deterioration leading to their accumulation in the environment, and, therefore creating serious environmental problems. In this review, biodegradation of these two polymers under in vitro conditions is reported. An attempt has been made to cover the mechanism of biodegradation, the various bacterial and fungal organisms that have been reported for the same, methods adopted for the studies and different characterization techniques followed to measure the extent of degradation

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, biodegradation, in vitro



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 23-31


Forensics for tracing microbial signatures: Biodefence perspective and preparedness for the unforeseen

Priyabrata Pattnaik* and Krisnamurthy Sekhar

Defence Research and Development Establishment, DRDO, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002, India

Received 11 October 2006; revised 10 April 2007; accepted 21 May 2007

Biological weapons are assigned high priority in homeland security, defence, counterproliferation, nonproliferation, intelligence, and counterterrorist programmes. In order to strengthen active defense against development and use of these weapons, several comprehensive technological and forensic capabilities have been developed world over for investigative, intelligence, prosecutive, diplomatic and policy purposes. Microbial forensics is one of such strategies. It is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Microbial forensics associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group by measuring molecular variations between related microbial strains. In this context, several advanced molecular techniques and practices including molecular phylogeny, whole genome sequencing, microarray analysis, DNA finger printing, etc., can be extremely valuable and effective analytical tools in a microbial forensic investigation. Results from such analyses may be related to the intentional use of microbial agents for bioterrorism or the accidental release of any offensive microorganisms or toxins of public health significance, specifically for the purpose of determining the origin. The new discipline of microbial forensics is an integration of an array of well established fields, such as microbial genomics, phylogenetics, forensic informatics and classical microbiology.

Keywords: Biological evidence, biological warfare, forensic microbiology, molecular phylogeny, molecular signature



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 32-40


Nutrigenomics: Looking to DNA for nutrition advice

Anjana Munshi* and V Shanti Duvvuri

Department of Genetics, Shadan P G Centre for Biosciences, Hyderabad 500 004, India

Received 19 February 2006; revised 6 March 2007; accepted 5 June 2007

With the success of ‘Human Genome Project’ and the powerful tools of molecular biology, we have entered the era of genetic nutrition. The publication of the human ‘blue print’ has triggered an explosion in pharmaceutical research to utilize this knowledge in prescription of drugs to be tailored according to the genetic make up of susceptible individuals or in other words personalized medicine. Propelled by the recent unraveling of human genome; nutritional sciences are discovering the application of the so-called “omics” sciences. This has the potential of identifying and validating targets to improve personalized nutritional health and thus serves to define the added value for the next generation of foods and the crops. The first new term to emerge in this area was “Nutrigenomics.” Today, the term nutrigenomics generally refers to the study of how dietary components interact with the genome and modify subsequent gene expression1. It is envisaged that nutrigenomics will lead to evidence-based dietary interventions for prevention of diet related common diseases.

Keywords:   nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, single nucleotide polymorphism, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transgenics




Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 41-49


Validation of a single tube fluorescent multiplex assay for simultaneous typing of 20 Y-STR loci

Sanghamitra Sahoo1, 2 and V K Kashyap1, 2*

1National DNA Analysis Centre, Central Forensic Science Laboratory, 30 Gorachand Road, Kolkata, India

Received 12 June 2006; revised 27 April 2007; accepted 23 July 2007

This paper describes a single tube assay for 20 fluorescent labelled Y-STR loci, which is rapid and robust state-of-art multiplex system. Reaction conditions, including annealing temperature, concentration of primers, magnesium and template DNA, DNA polymerase and reaction volume, were optimised to yield robust amplification. The assay could withstand moderate fluctuations in reaction parameters with no affect on haplotype analysis. Sensitivity and robustness of the multiplex system is revealed from the examination of different matrices and environmental conditions wherein complete haplotypes could be obtained in all the samples with no failures except those exposed to severe environmental stresses. Genotyping of the 20 Y-STR loci showed that all loci included in the multiplex are highly polymorphic in the Indian populations and its inclusion increases the discriminatory power of the marker system. It could be summarized that the developed Y-STR multiplex assay is a simple, sensitive and robust system highly suitable for concurrent analysis of 20 polymorphic Y-STR loci.

Keywords: multiplex PCR, Y-STR, DNA profiling, validation



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, October 2008, pp 50-55


Prokaryotic expression of a 750 bp capsid region of bovine immunodeficiency virus gag gene and development of a recombinant capsid (p26) protein based immunoassay for seroprevalence studies

Sandeep Bhatia1*, S S Patil2, Richa Sood1, Renu Dubey1, Ashok K Bhatia3, B Pattnaik4 and H K Pradhan1

1High Security Animal Disease Laboratory (HSADL), Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bhopal 462 021, India

2Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance (PD-ADMAS), Indian Veterinary Research Institute Campus

Hebbal, Bangalore 560 024, India

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Mathura Campus, Mathura 281 001, India

4Project Directorate on Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Indian Veterinary Research Institute Campus
Mukteswar-Kumaon, Nainital 263 138, India

Received 17 December 2006; revised 8 March 2007; accepted 13 April 2007

A 750 bp DNA fragment of the gag gene, coding for capsid (p26) protein of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), was cloned in pQE32 vector and expressed as 6´ His tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The concentration of affinity purified His tagged capsid protein was 5 mg/mL and its yield was 3.5 g/L of induced culture (E. coli). The recombinant capsid protein of BIV was found to be immunologically reactive with a reference positive serum. Using the purified capsid protein, an indirect ELISA was standardized to test sera of cattle and buffalo for carrying out sero-surveillance of BIV. Of 672 animals tested by capsid based ELISA, 162 were positive and 510 were negative, giving an overall prevalence of 24% in India. In conclusion, the recombinant capsid based indirect ELISA was found suitable to study BIV antibody status. To our knowledge, this is the first seroprevalence study of BIV infection in India.

Keywords: BIV, capsid, ELISA, gag, p26, seroprevalence



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, October 2008, pp 56-60


PCR detection of densonucleosis virus isolates in silkworm (Bombyx mori) from India and their nucleotide variability

A K Awasthi*, A R Pradeep, P P Srivastava, K Vijayan, Vineet Kumar1 and S Raje Urs

Seribiotech Research Laboratory, Central Silk Board, Carmelaram Post, Kodathi, Bangalore 560 035, India

1Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute, Central Silk Board, Srirampura, Mysore 570 008, India

Received 17 August 2006; revised 16 March 2007; accepted 19 April 2007

Densonucleosis virus (DNV) is one of the pathogenic viruses of the commercially valuable silkworm, Bombyx mori. It causes flacherie disease, mostly as combined infection with other pathogens like bacteria, which accounts for the significant loss of cocoons in sericulture. Two isolates of DNV from B. mori, DNV1 and DNV2 have been previously identified on the basis of their sequences. After infection with purified isolates of DNV in some commonly used silkworm strains, viz. Nistari, C’nichi, NB1 and Guangnnong Marked, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using DNV1 and DNV2 primers. DNV1 primers generated a distinct profile in the B. mori strains, whereas DNV2 produced single monomorphic band in all the screened strains. Sequence of one of the prominent fragments generated by the DNV1 primer exhibited very high degree of nucleotide variability from that of Japanese DNV1 isolate, but the sequence of DNV2 showed near to complete similarity. Besides, the study demonstrates that PCR technique could be used to diagnose the DNV presence/absence in silkworm strains without sacrificing the larvae and the results could be used in breeding programmes.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, densonucleosis virus, nucleotide variability, PCR detection



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 61-65


Evaluation of α- and β-glucosidase inhibitory properties of macro-algae using intestinal extracts of marine snail, Thais rudolphi (Lamarck, 1822)

V S Pramitha, A P Lipton* and M Thangaraj

Marine Biotechnology Laboratory, Vizhinjam Research Centre of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute
Vizhinjam 695 521, Kerala, India

Received 7 March 2006; revised 21 March 2007; accepted 30 April 2007

Glucosidase-inhibitory activity of marine macro-algae, Ulva fasciata and Hypnea musciformis in different solvents was detected using enzyme-agar plate method. Eenzyme-agar plate containing α- or β-D-glucosidase was used in combination with substrate-agar plate containing p-nitro phenyl α- and β-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG). Discs impregnated with algal extracts placed on the enzyme agar, followed by pre-incubation up to 2.5 h at 25°C, resulted in the characteristic inhibitory circle around the inhibitor. Extracts of red algae, H. musciformis had higher glucosidase-inhibition than the extracts of
U. fasciata. The intestine of Thais rudolphi contained both α- and β-glucosidase enzymes and their inhibition was comparable with the commercial enzymes, suggesting the possible alternate method for assessing the glucosidase-inhibitory activity of the marine macro-algae.

Keywords: Glucosidases, Hypnea musciformis, macro-algal inhibitors, rapid assay, Thais rudolphi, Ulva fasciata



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 66-72


Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding HMG CoA reductase from black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.)

Smitha Jose, D Girija* and P S Beena

Centre for Plant Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, College of Horticulture
Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680 656, India

Received 5 July 2006; revised 3 May 2007; accepted 7 June 2007

The first committed step in the pathway for biosynthesis of isoprenoids in plants is catalyzed by 3-hydroxy 3- methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR; EC: Here we report for the first time, the cloning of a partial genomic DNA sequence encoding HMGR from a medicinal herb, Solanum nigrum L. This plant is associated with resistance against potato cyst nematode and the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. The clone Snhmgr (GenBank Acc.No. DQ 229901) had 582 base pairs (bp) with a 462 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 142 amino acid polypeptide. The in-silico analysis of Snhmgr sequence revealed about 85% identity with hmgr genes in other solanaceous plants. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Snhmgr was more identical with tomato hmgr on evolutionary basis and belonged to the solanaceous cluster, including hmgr genes from tomato, potato, tobacco and capsicum. Functional analysis of conserved domains of Snhmgr showed CoA reductase, NAD binding and substrate binding activities.

Keywords: HMGR, in-silico analysis, mevalonate pathway, polymerase chain reaction



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 73-82


A preliminary study of smelling agents using electrical potential oscillations at liquid-liquid interface

U Roy1*, R Shalini2, S V Vanitha2, S K Saha3 and R C Srivastava4

1Biological Sciences Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Goa Campus, Goa 403 726, India

2Biological Sciences Group and 3Chemistry Group, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India

4ICFAI University, Workstation at Central Electronic Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333 031, India

Received 16 January 2006; revised 3 May 2007; accepted 8 June 2007

The present paper aims to study the complex oscillations at liquid-liquid interface while mimicking sensing mechanisms of smell-oscillations of electrical potential differences across a bipolar liquid membrane induced by different classes of olfactory agents, e.g. amines, alcohols, acids, aldehydes and esters, in vitro. A preliminary attempt was made to classify and quantify various smelling agents and thereby developing a smell sensor. The bipolarity was induced by introducing a cationic (cetyl pyridinium chloride) and anionic surfactant (sodium lauryl sulphate) along with the electrolytes like sodium and potassium chloride in the experimental set-up. The data obtained indicate that olfactory agents of different groups exhibit characteristically different frequency and amplitude.

Keywords: Amplitude, electrical potential oscillations, fast fourier transform, olfactory agents and olfaction



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 83-88


Kinetics studies on ethanol production from banana peel waste using mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

K Manikandan, V Saravanan* and T Viruthagiri

Department of Chemical Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, India

Received 25 July 2006; revised 17 October 2006; accepted 12 October 2007

Five different mutant strains were developed from the wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTCC No.287) using UV irradiation technique by varying the exposure timings. All the mutant cultures were used for ethanol production using banana peel as a substrate in a batch fermenter. The effect of temperature, pH and initial substrate concentration on ethanol production were studied and optimized. The mutant strain 4 gave a maximum ethanol production of 9 g/L under identical conditions. The conditions were optimized for mutant strain 4 and a temperature of 33°C, pH 4.5 and initial substrate concentration 10%(w/v) were found to be optimum. The kinetics of ethanol production using mutant strain 4 under optimum conditions was studied and modeling was attempted using different models. Monod model for growth kinetics and Leudeking-Piret model for product formation kinetics were found to represent the experimental data very well.

Keywords: Banana peel waste, ethanol, mutant, fermentation, optimization, kinetics, Saccharomyces cerevisiae



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 89-93


Effects of ammonium sulphate concentration on growth and glycerol production kinetics of two endogenic wine yeast strains

S Karasu Yalçın and Z Y Özbaş*

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe 06532, Ankara, Turkey

Received 17 July 2006; revised 4 April 2007; accepted 9 May 2007

Effects of initial ammonium sulphate concentration on growth and glycerol production kinetics of two endogenic wine yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kalecik 1 and Narince 3, were investigated in a batch system. Maximum specific growth rates for Kalecik 1 and Narince 3 were obtained at initial concentrations of 1.0 g/L, and 0.8 g/L ammonium sulphate, respectively. Further, maximum specific glycerol production rates and glycerol concentrations, for both of the strains, were obtained in the medium containing 0.3 g/L ammonium sulphate. In this medium, maximum glycerol concentrations were
6.4 g/L for the strain Kalecik 1, and 6.5 g/L for Narince 3.

Keywords: Fermentation, glycerol, growth kinetics, production kinetics, wine, yeast


Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 94-98


Optical resolution of (R, S)-ibuprofen in organic solvent by porcine pancreatic lipase catalyzed enantioselective esterification

Ganesh Ramachandran and Laxmi Ananthanarayan*

Food Engineering and Technology Department, Institute of Chemical Technology (Formerly UDCT)
University of Mumbai, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India.

Received 19 April 2006; revised 4 April 2007; accepted 10 May 2007

Porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL), a comparatively inexpensive enzyme, was used in the optical resolution of (R, S)-ibuprofen in methanol through enantioselective esterification. The different reaction parameters during the esterification of (R, S)-ibuprofen using PPL was studied with respect to temperature, time, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration and water content. The percentage conversion initially was 13%, which increased to 33% after optimization of the different reaction conditions. Surfactant coating of PPL resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in the hydrolytic activity of PPL. Surfactant coated PPL, when used in the esterification reaction slightly increased the percentage conversion from 21 to 22.5%. In all the reactions, PPL showed preference for catalyzing the esterification of S-(+)-ibuprofen.

Keywords: Enantioselectivity, esterification, ibuprofen, NSAIDS, optical resolution, porcine pancreatic lipase, racemates



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 99-102


Areca husk: An inexpensive substrate for citric acid production by
Aspergillus niger under solid state fermentation

G Narayanamurthy, Y L Ramachandra*, S Padmalatha Rai1, Y N Manohara and B T Kavitha

Department of Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shimoga 577 451, India

1Department of Biotechnology, Kasturba Medical College, Life Science Centre, MAHE, Manipal 576 104, India

Received 20 March 2006; revised 28 March 2007; accepted 15 June 2007

Areca husk was used as a substrate for the production of citric acid under solid state fermentation (SSF) using a new local soil isolate of Aspergillus niger. A. niger produced 119.42+2.5 g citric acid/kg dry areca husk fermented in the presence of 3% w/w methanol at optimum pH 5.0, 50 % moisture content and 30oC incubation temperature in 3 d. The citric acid yield was 66.7+1% based on the amount of fermentable sugars consumed during fermentation.

Keywords: areca husk, Areca catechu, Aspergillus niger, SSF, citric acid



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 103-107


Genetic variability in production performance of Murrah buffaloes
(Bubalus bubalis) using microsatellite polymorphism

P Sikka*and R K Sethi

Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Sirsa Road, Hisar, 125 001, India

Received 12 September 2006; revised 19 February 2007; accepted 10 May 2007

Sequence specific primers for microsattelite ETH131 from cattle were used to polymerise DNA using buffaloes’ genomic DNA as the template. In light of the reported sequence similarity of 78-95% between cattle and buffalo, this anonymous repeat sequence, isolated from cattle cDNA library and associated to milk, was analysed in Murrah buffaloes. The extent of polymorphism revealed in buffaloes was less than that previously reported in cattle, in terms of number of alleles. Cluster analysis performed on the basis of sharing of specific lengths of repeated nucleotides (NTSysPC) showed DNA similarities of the order of over 91% in animals of alike performance as per production data records. A 17% DNA dissimilarity was observed in buffalo’s DNA band length patterns of low and high production sub-groups in this study. Attempts have been made to associate the distinctive amplification profile identified genotypic variation with the high and low milk producing Murrah buffaloes. Inferences suggest that ETH131 amplification mediated genotyping has scope of differentiating characteristics of individual animals and utilization of this genomic sequence for early selection of better performing buffaloes.

Keywords: microsatellite DNA, Bubalus bubalis, Murrah buffalo polymorphism, genetic similarities, milk production



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 108-112


Genetic diversity in Kheri—A pastoralists developed Indian sheep using microsatellite markers

S Bhatia* and R Arora

Animal Genetics Division, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal 132 001, India

Received 1 June 2006; revised 18 January 2007; accepted 5 April 2007

The Kheri sheep were analyzed using 25 ovine microsatellite markers proposed by Food and Agriculture Organization, International Society for Animal Genetics (FAO-ISAG). All the used microsatellite markers amplified well and exhibited polymorphism. Wide range of variability depicted by number of observed alleles from 2 (BM6506, CSSM47 and OarCP20) to 10 (CSSM31 and OarJMP29), observed heterozygosity from 0.087 (OarCP20) to 1.000 (OarHH35), expected heterozygosity from 0.083 (OarCP20) to 0.828 (BM1314) and Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) from 0.079 (OarCP20) to 0.806 (BM1314) supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in Indian sheep too. The mean number of observed and effective alleles was 5.3 and 3.3, respectively. The average observed heterozygosity values (0.582) compared to the average expected heterozygosity values (0.651) did not show significant differences in the selected population (p>0.05), which suggested random mating in Kheri. The allele diversity (average number of alleles per locus) and gene diversity (average expected heterozygosity) reflected high levels of genetic variability in Kheri sheep. Within population inbreeding estimate (Fis) was significant (p<0.05) and equal to 12.8%. The deficit of heterozygotes may be partly explained by Wahlhund effects at level of sampling (i.e. sampling at random from the whole population), although the main factor that appears to have provoked this lack of heterozygotes may be attributed to consanguinity that has resulted in accumulation of inbreeding in the breeding groups. This study contributes to the knowledge of genetic diversity of Kheri-the black brown faced meat, carpet wool sheep developed by migratory pastoralists in India.

Keywords: sheep, Indian indigenous sheep, Kheri, microsatellite, genetic diversity



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 113-116


Analysis of microsatellite markers in Ongole breed of cattle

S M K Karthickeyan*, P Kumarasamy, S N Sivaselvam, R Saravanan and P Thangaraju

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, Madras Veterinary College, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chennai 600 007, India

Received 17 July 2006; revised 6 March 2007; accepted 8 June 2007

Evaluation of genetic variability was carried out in Ongole cattle using 25 microsatellite markers, recommended by FAO. All the screened loci were polymorphic and a total of 97 alleles were observed across the analyzed loci. The mean number of alleles was found to be 3.88±0.25 with a range of 2 to 7. The allele size ranged from 94 to 300 bp. The frequency distribution of microsatellite alleles in the breed was from 0.0119 to 0.9375. The estimated expected heterozygosity value was 0.6079±0.04 and the PIC was 0.5584±0.04. Microsatellite analysis revealed high allele and gene diversity in the investigated cattle and overall mean FIS value (–0.0615) suggested the excess of heterozygosity in the population. In addition, the high information of the polymorphic loci throw light on the scope for maintaining variation in the population and strategies to formulate conservation and further improvement measures.

Keywords: cattle, Ongole, microsatellites, PIC, heterozygosity



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 117-121


Antibacterial activity and characterization of bacteriocin of Bacillus mycoides isolated from whey

Nivedita Sharma* and Neha Gautam

Department of Basic Science, Dr YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230, India

Received 10 August 2006 ; revised 2 April 2007 ; accepted 17 May 2007

Bacteriocin produced by Bacillus mycoides isolated from whey showed strong inhibition against food borne serious pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Antibacterial substance was partially purified by salt saturation method. Partially purified bacteriocin withstood temperature up to 100°C, found active at wider pH range (4 to 11) and was sensitive to trypsin. This inhibitory substance showed bactericidal effect against bacteriocin-sensitive indicators. Thus, on the basis of above mentioned characters, the antibacterial substance produced by B. mycoides is most probably a potent bacteriocin and can be used for biological preservation of food.

Keywords : Bacteriocins, food biopreservation, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Listeria monocytogenes



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 122-128


Induction of hairy roots through the mediation of four strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes on five host plants+

R Pratap Chandran* and V P Potty

Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram 695 017, India

Received 3 July 2006; revised 9 March 2007; accepted 30 May 2007

Induction of hairy roots by four strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes- ATCC 15834, A4, WC and WR were studied in five plants, Ipomoea batatas, Solenostemon rotundifolius, Vigna vexillata, Pachyrrhizus erosus and Canavalia species. Among the five plants selected for transformation and induction of hairy roots, P. erosus was found resistant to all the four bacterial strains. Similarly, one strain, WR also failed to induce hairy roots in all the plants. However, all the strains exhibited good growth dominated by 15834 grown in YEB medium. Hairy roots were induced from the cotyledons, hypocotyls, stem cuttings and in vitro plants of I. batatas through the transformation of 15834 and A4 strains.
S. rotundifolius and V. vexillata were susceptible to the strains of A4, 15834 and WC. Canavalia sp. was resistant to WR and WC strains, but was susceptible to A4 and 15834. It was for the first time that hairy roots were initiated from
S. rotundifolius, V. vexillata and Canavalia sp. The variation observed in the time of induction of hairy roots (incubation period) by a single strain (15834) in different plant species, suggests that the plant has also a definite role in determining the incubation period. Among the four strains of A. rhizogenes, 15834 was found to be the most efficient in transformation and initiation of hairy roots, with the shortest minimum incubation period and dominant growth in YEB medium. A. rhizogenes is a well known plant pathogen, which produces “hairy root disease” in susceptible plants. On modified MS medium, cotyledon explants were superior to hypocotyls. The hairy roots transformed by A. rhizogenes strain 15834 on I. batatas,
V. vexillata and Canavalia sp. were also morphologically different.

Keywords: Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Ipomoea batatas, Pachyrrhizzus erosus, Solenostemon rotundisolius, Vigna vexillata, Canavalia sp., hairy roots



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 129-132


Micropropagation of Ceropegia hirsute Wt. & Arn.—A starchy tuberous asclepid

T D Nikam*, R S Savant and R S Pagare

Department of Botany, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India

Received 19 December 2006; revised 30 April 2007; accepted 21 May 2007

A protocol is described for micropropagation of the starchy, tuberous, herbaceous twinner, Ceropegia hirsute Wt. & Arm. by in vitro culture of nodal segments. Of the cytokinins (BAP and Kn) and auxins (IAA, NAA, 2,4-D) evaluated as supplements individually and in combinations to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, BAP (7.5 µM) was the most effective in inducing axillary multiple shoots (5.7±0.7 shoots/culture). Root were induced to in vitro derived shoots on half-strength MS medium supplemented with IAA (2 µM) and sucrose (5%). in vitro plants were acclimatized and were successfully established in the soil.

Keywords: BAP, Ceropegia hirsute, micropropagation, nodal explants

Short Communications


Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 133-136





Comparative efficacy of different DNA extraction methods for PCR-based assay
in Tectona grandis L.f.

C Narayanan, Swapnil Dubey, Syed Arif Wali, Nidhi Shukla, Randhir Kumar, A K Mandal and S A Ansari*

Genetics and Plant Propagation Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur 482 021, India

Received 28 June 2006; revised 26 March 2007;
accepted 20 June 2007

Four extraction methods and sample types were evaluated for yield, quality and suitability of genomic DNA for ISSR (inter simple sequence repeats) marker amplification by PCR in teak (Tectona grandis). Both CTAB (hexadecyltrimetylammonium bromide) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) procedures extracted large amounts of high purity genomic DNA. Leaves of trees, bud grafts and seedlings yielded better DNA than seeds. Using identical PCR conditions, DNA extraction methods and sample types affected amplifications of ISSR markers with a pattern: seedling > graft > tree leaves. Genomic DNA of seed samples contained high amount of protein and showed no ISSR amplifications, which were overcome by inclusion of proteinase K in SDS based extraction method. In conclusion, DNA extraction method and sample types are very important for reproducible ISSR-based molecular marker analysis in teak.

Keywords: DNA extraction, ISSR, CTAB, SDS, teak, Tectona grandis



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 137-140


Studies on differential growth behaviour of two alpine herbs of Western Himalaya from different altitudes under in vitro conditions

Subedar Pandey, Sonia Malik, Sanjeev Sharma and
Madhu Sharma*

Division of Biotechnology, Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur 176 061, India

Received 13 June 2006; revised 24 April 2007;
accepted 10 August 2007

Inherent slow growth of alpine plant species as compared to temperate ones has consistently been observed even under in vitro conditions and considered as major bottleneck for rapid mass multiplication. Keeping this in view, different growth parameters including relative growth rate (RGR), specific leaf area (SLA), shoot mass fraction (SMF), leaf mass fraction (LMF), root mass fraction (RMF), respiration rate, carbohydrates, nitrogen content and nitrate reductase (NR) activity of different populations of Picrorhiza kurroa and Rheum emodi were studied under in vitro conditions.  The present study gives an insight that regulation of growth in alpine plant species is genetic and it is strongly related with SLA and leaf thickness.

Keywords: carbohydrates, nitrate reductase activity, Picrorhiza kurroa, Rheum emodi, respiration, RGR, SLA



Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 7, January 2008, pp 141-145

Conference Report


International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology (NHBT-2007)


An international conference and the fourth convention of the Biotech Research Society, India (BRSI) was organized by National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST), Trivandrum (formerly Regional Research Laboratory) in Thiruvananthapuram during 26-29 November 2007. Nearly 600 national and international delegates from various walks of biotechnology attended the conference. The scientific programme of the conference comprised of invited lectures from the internationally eminent experts in the areas of industrial, environmental, food, agricultural and medical biotechnology. During the conference, four mini-symposia were arranged and contributory papers were presented as posters. Altogether 101 invited lectures were presented in 22 sessions and 437 posters were presented in four sessions.


Opening Ceremony

The conference was inaugurated by the chief guest, Prof Javed Iqbal, Director, Institute of Life Sciences, Hyderabad. In his address, he stated that biotechnology will provide an important background for drug discovery. He emphasized that synergistic efforts are requuired between the various fields for the development of research as it can be successful if various disciplines work under one roof.  Dr Chandrasekhar, Director, NIIST and Prof Pandey, Head, Biotechnology Division, NIIST and Convenor of the Conference, extended a hearty welcome to all delegates and offered a wonderful experience to share their thoughts and views to develop possible linkages among them. The function was felicitated by Prof Claude-Gilles Dussap, Director, CUST, University Blaise-Pascal, France. Dr M Radhakrishna Pillai, Director, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, welcomed everyone who attended the conference. NHBT abstract book and BRSI yearbook was released by Prof Iqbal and Prof Dussap, respectively. In the BRSI Award Session, Dr Amit Ghosh, former Director, IMTECH, Chandigarh, was awarded the Honorary Fellow of the Society for his outstanding contributions in the area of Cholera vaccine. Fellow of the society award was given to Prof T P Singh, AIIMS, New Delhi, for his outstanding contributions in the area of medical biotechnology. Prof G Padmanabhan, former Director, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, was honoured by the BRSI with life-time achievement award for his excellent contributions in the area of transcriptional regulation of malarial drug metabolizing genes in liver, mechanism of chloroquine action and its resistance in the parasite. Dr Sujata Sharma from AIIMS, New Delhi, was conferred with the Woman scientist award by BRSI for her work in the area of medical biotechnology (crystal structure of proteins and related molecules).


Scientific Sessions

Three parallel sessions on industrial, environmental & medical and food & agricultural biotechnology were conducted and coordinated by Dr Rajeev K Sukumaran, Dr Sudheer K Singh and Dr K Madhavan Nampoothiri, respectively.


Industrial Biotechnology


(26 November)

In the opening session, Dr P Gunasekaran from Madurai Kamraj University talked about a case study of the different perspectives of Pencillin acylase production. Dr T Satyanarayana from Delhi University South Campus, New Delhi, dealt with cell bound phytase of Pichia anomala. Dr Gustavo Viniegra-Gonzalez from Mexico gave a talk on stability and electrochemistry of laccase. In the post tea session, Dr D Kim from Korea spoke on the potential industrial applications of carbohydrases and glycosyltransferases, Dr M Puri from Patiala spoke on immobilization of bacterial recombinant proteins and Dr M Longo from Spain presented the production and biotechnological potential of enzymes from extremophiles.


(27 November)

In this session, Prof S Janecek from Slovakia elaborated the bioinformatics studies on amylolytic enzymes. Dr M Cadene from France gave an insight on the use of proteolysis and mass spectrometry in identifying damaged amino acid residues with a special mention of MALDI-TOF and ESI-Ion Trap mass spectrometry. The therapeutical applications of galactosidases were briefed by Dr P Prema of
NIIST. Dr E M Papamichael from Greece delivered an interesting lecture on the purification and characterization of 2 novel proteases from haloalkalophic bacillus species 17N-1. In the post-tea session, Prof P Adlercreutz of Sweden spoke on the opportunities and bottlenecks concerning biocatalysis in low water medium. Dr P Fontanille from France delivered a lecture on the production on isonovalal. In the post-lunch session, Dr Christian Larroche also from France delivered a talk on fungal spores, their characteristics, production and usage. Dr V C Kalia of IGIB, New Delhi spoke on combining genomic databases for novel bioplastic producers. Dr R K Saxena from Delhi University South Campus, New Delhi gave a very interesting speech on the uses of various industrially important enzymes like lipases, proteases, tannases and asparaginases. An important characteristic of lipases from Aspergillus carneus was that it was found to be stable even after two years. In the post-tea session, Dr D-H Park from Korea briefed on the production of useful secondary metabolites by using transformed hairy roots. Dr V S Bisaria from IIT Delhi was the first to report where arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been successfully cultivated with plant cells in suspension culture to demonstrate their beneficial effect on growth as well as synthesis of commercially important phytochemicals.


(28 November)

In the morning session, Dr C-G Dussap briefed about the MELiSSA project, which dealt with a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space. Dr T Emri from Hungary aimed at regulation of autolysis in Aspergillus niger. Dr Y M Kwon from USA spoke on the application of transposon signature profiling (TSP) to study bacterial virulence. Dr R L McInnes from Australia spoke on the evolution of flexible sensitive microarrays for emerging application.

In the post-tea session, Dr J Gonzalez from Mexico pointed out SSF holds an important potential for the production of secondary metabolites. The next talk was by Dr P Michaud of France on the bioactive anionic oligosacchrides and methods of cracking the glycocode by glycoarrays and HPLC/MS. Dr E Kim from Korea delivered a talk on binding of pigmenting transcription factor with DNA fragment on a protein chip. In the post-lunch session, Dr G Aggelis from Greece spoke on the biochemistry and biotechnology of single cell oil. Dr E Chukwura from Nigeria spoke on the technology of degrading the chicken feathers using bacteria. Dr B S Chadha from GNDU, Amritsar talked on industrially important enzymes like xylanases, phytases and other enzymes from thermophilic fungi.


(29 November)

In this session, G Sandoval from Mexico spoke on the new quantitative high throughput screening for cholorogenate esterases, feruloyl esterases and tannases produced by solid-state fermentation of coffee waste. Dr N Prabhu developed a new technique of estimating biomass in SSF using polyurethane foams as inert materials. Dr E Favela-Torres from Mexico delivered a lecture on the production of lipase by solid-state fermentation. Dr S Furlan from Brazil spoke on the antimicrobial and antineoplastic activity of Pleurotus ostreatus. Dr A K Srivastava from IIT Delhi addressed on the mass cultivation of azadirachtin using stirred tank bioreactor under batch mode cultivation. Dr M Ribeiro from Portugal gave an introductory note on naringinase and its commercial applications. After lunch, Dr G Reddy gave an interesting talk on PLA synthesis. Dr G R Castro from Argentina spoke on the scavenging activities of biopolymers. Dr P Kanekar from Mumbai gave an outline of exopolysaccharides of extremophilic bacteria.


Environmental and Medical Biotechnology


(26 November)

In the session on bioremediation, Dr V Jegatheesan from Australia discussed about water reuse by the application of membrane bioreactors. Dr R Boopathy from USA gave a talk on the biological treatment of shrimp aquaculture wastewater using sequencing batch reactor. Dr S R Dave from Ahmedabad gave the Indian scenario of the bioremediation of acid rock drainage formation. After the tea break, Dr H K Pant from USA gave a talk on the roles of phosphatases and nitrate reductases in cycling of P and N in aquatic systems and proposed the use of these enzymes in removing bio available nitrogen from aquatic system and thus preventing eutrophication. Dr S Khanna from New Delhi explained the isolation of and studies on bacteria capable of degrading chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate insecticide and their application in in situ bioremediation. Dr A Ahmad, from Malaysia gave a lecture on Chromium reduction from Acinetobacter species using liquid pineapple waste.


(27 November)

In the session on treatment of textile dye wastewater, Dr Saroj Mishra from IIT Delhi spoke on laccase mediated detoxification of textile wastewater and suggested several physical, chemical and biological methods for the treatment of dyes. Dr Poonam Singh Nigam from UK discussed the various problems and amount of dyes which can be released into the water bodies and strict legislation involved in the process. Dr L Szyprkowicz from Italy dealt with stable non-biodegradable dyes which mainly contained sodium hyperchlorite resulting in salinity and alkalinity of water, the reactive red dye Prociox X-EXGL adds to the above problem.

In the session on medical biotechnology, Dr A Ghosh gave a talk on multi drug resistant study on cholera. He also discussed about several demographic changes and environmental factors which resulted in the re-emergence of the several epidemics. An important note was given about El Nino that resulted in an algal bloom, which was a contributory factor for the increased outbreak of cholera. In his talk, Dr D V Singh from Bhubaneswar reported that even though V. cholerae belonging to serogroups O1 and O139 have been associated with cholera outbreaks, serogroups of non-O1 and non-O139 also caused cholera due to the acquisition of cholera toxin genes and antibiotic resistance genes. Dr K Sankaran from Anna University stressed the importance to develop inexpensive instrumentation and disease detection prototypes for early and rapid diagnosis to tackle infectious diseases in developing countries. In discussion, Dr S K Saxena from Hyderabad stressed on the importance of formation of a government policy, which can look after the controlling of price-hike of products developed by cost-effective Indian technologies.

In the afternoon session, Dr P Balakrishna Murthy spoke on the risk assessment of transgenic substances in animal toxicity investigations and briefly outlined various animal and in vitro methods available to identify the risk of transgenic plants. Following this was the talk by Dr D Chattopadhyay from Kolkata on the life cycle of Chandipura RNA virus causing child deaths. Prof T P Singh spoke on the structural and functional studies of prominent protein secreted from mammary glands during the different stages of pregnancy, lactation and involution. Dr A Mukherjee from Kolkata presented work on the novel functionalized guar gum plant biopolymers. Dr S P Govindwar from Kolhapur talked on bioremediation of textile dye effluents and suggested the need for an enzyme based consortia for degrading dyes. Dr S R Chakrabarti  of Shantha Biotech, Hyderabad, spoke on the therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and their novel application in the field of diagnostics.

In the mini symposium on Mycobacterium research, Dr J Basu from Kolkata gave a talk on early secreted antigen-6 (ESAT-6) of M. tuberculosis, which attenuates MyD88-dependent TLR signalling by inhibiting the interaction between MyD88 and IRAK-4. Dr P E Kolattukudy from USA spoke on the latent TB and stress response of M. tuberculosis during latency. Following his talk, the topic was well discussed by the experts in the field. Dr J Nigou from France, spoke on Toll-like receptors mediated lipoglycan as modulators of immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Dr K M Nampoothiri talked on methionine aminopeptidase from Mycobacterium. He explained the importance of MetAP in peptide processing and purification and biochemical studies on MetAP from M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis. After tea break, Dr P Agrawal from Chandigarh spoke on the WhiB proteins of M. tuberculosis and its role in redox signaling during oxidative stress. Dr S Mundayoor of NIIST presented the work on genome analysis of field isolates of M. tuberculosis from TB patients in Kerala and its application in comparing the strains with already known virulent and MDR strains. Dr Rakesh Sharma from New Delhi talked on Zn/Cu transporters regulating genes in M. smegmatis and their importance during stress condition.

In the mini symposium on molecular ecology, Dr K S Jorgensen from Finland talked on the usefulness of three functional genes nahAc, alkB, and xylE in assessment of the efficacy of bioremediation. Dr H Purohit of NEERI, Nagpur spoke on the identification of bacterial population involved in the sludge treatment by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Dr Rakesh Sharma delivered a talk on metagenomic analysis of arsenic resistance genes of bacteria from different ecosystem. Following tea break Dr D Madamwar from Vallabh Vidyanagar gave a lecture on comparison of metagenomic studies and culture studies on microbial communities involved in chromium degradation/reduction. Dr A K Tripathi from Varanasi discussed the molecular analysis of nifH gene diversity in the bacterial community isolated by metagenomic approach from Lasiurus sindicus, a desert grass.


(28 November)

In the session, Dr T Nihira from Japan talked on deciphering the On-Off signalling network of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. Dr G Sangiliyandi from Kalasalingam University suggested that pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) inhibits endothelial cell permeability via a src-dependent pathway in part by regulating content and localization of functional proteins. Dr J-K Park from Korea delivered an interesting lecture on the development of bio-artificial liver system and potential of stem cell as hepatocyte source. Dr G Lippe from Italy discussed about the structural proteomic analysis of the supra molecular complexes of F0-F1 ATP synthase in mammalian mitochondria.

In the mini symposium on nanobiotechnology, Dr Paknikar from Pune delivered a talk on the basics of development of silver nanogels that has already reached clinical trial-3. Dr V Labhasetwar from USA briefed about translational nanomedicine and the application of nanoparticles as an efficient carrier system for intracellular drug delivery. Dr S Nair from Cochin discussed about the role of nanostructure in tissue engineering. Dr A Mulchandani from USA explained the role of conducting polymer nanowire immunosensor array for bioagents. Dr D Muraleedharan from Trivandrum emphasized on arthropod molecular endocrinology at nanoscale using carbon nanotubes and nanowires, specific DNA oligonucleotide sequence and proteins.


Food and Agricultural Biotechnology


(26 November)

In the session, Dr K Yokota from Japan gave a lecture on food processing methodology for chemical conversion of saponins. Dr R S Singh from Patiala delivered a lecture on production of high fructose syrup using inulinase and emphasized its application in food and beverage industry. Dr J-H Kim, from Korea elaborated a new xylitol production process using Candida tropicalis. In the post-tea session, Dr S Ferreira-Dins from Portugal gave an idea about the technique on the production of structured lipids for human milk substitutes. Dr J P Tamang from Gangtok, Sikkim explained functional lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented foods.


(28 November 2007)

The session began with a mini symposium on advances in food safety. Dr S D Pillai from USA presented the need for safety and security in food. Dr Arun Sharma from Mumbai gave an overall picture on the conventional methods of food safety. Dr R Anderson from USA discussed about developing various strategies for reducing the epizootic bacteria for enhancing the efficiency of animal production. Dr M Patterson from UK gave an interesting insight on ultra high-pressure food processing, which is a new technology unknown to most. Even though the session was exclusively based on food safety, Dr Pillai pointed that waterborne diseases and safety measures should also be included since water is also regarded as a food. Dr G D DiGiovanni’s lecture proved the relevance of this statement. He described the common issues and challeges in the detection of waterborne protozoa and diagnostic techniques. After the tea break, Dr D D’Souza from USA gave an effective talk on the detection methodologies of viral pathogens in food. Dr Pillai concluded the session with an inspiring lecture on food safety. The experts in the field as well as the audience discussed on the different aspects of the topic and the conclusion churned out of the discussion was that the wastage of food could be controlled by preventing microbial contaminations.

In the mini symposium on biofuels, Dr E Gnansounou from Switzerland stated the main challenges for the research in biofuels is to reduce the production costs of sustainable biofuels in order to allow a mastered energy transition. Dr C Soccol from Brazil presented about an integrated project, in which the concept of biorefinery was applied, for the integral exploitation of an important residue of the industrialization of soybean, for the production of bioethanol, lactic acid and xanthan gum.


(29 November 2007)

In the mini symposium on biofuels, Dr A Kondo from Japan spoke on the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass by cell surface engineered yeast strains. Dr S-C Park described on the current technological efforts of Korea for the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, their future prospects and the strategies in development. Prof A Pandey, the convener of the conference, delivered a talk on the production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. Dr S Hirata from Japan focused on the interactions between lignocellulosic substrates, enzyme activity for the conversion of wood ethanol and the gasification of biomass. After tea break, Dr Kalia spoke on microbial diversity and genomics for biofuels and bioproducts. Dr J M Park spoke on redesign of Escherichia coli for hydrogen hyperproduction.

In the post-lunch session, Dr C Psarianos from Greece delivered a talk on food bioprocessing, i.e., the recent advanced methods (CFD, process imaging) merged with old tools (theory of similarity) for proper design of food-stuff mixing process. Dr R Thakur from France discussed on the recent advances in foam and emulsion technology for food bioprocessing. Dr Y Kourkoutas from Greece spoke on the potential of kefir starter culture in food production. He mentioned on the immobilization of kefir on casein and the impact of thermal drying of the immobilized catalyst.


Closing Ceremony

The closing ceremony was presided over by Prof Ashok Mulchandani, the Chief Editor of Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. He invited for the papers to be reviewed and published in the journal. Dr K Mohandas, Director of Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology gave the valedictory address. Dr T K Chandrasekhar, Dr C R Soccol and Dr K Mohandas gave awards to the winners of the poster sessions. Dr L V Rao announced that the next BRSI convention as well as the ICBF conference will be held at Osmania University, Hyderabad on 6-8 November 2008. Dr Ashok Pandey thanked and presented mementoes as a token of appreciation to the managing directors of PL Worldways and the Hotel Residency Tower for effective event management. He thanked all the heads and hands behind the NHBT conference. The conference was indeed a grand success by the infallible efforts taken by all.


Dr K Y Kavathekar


Indian J Biotechnology