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Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research


ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (63) (6)  (2004)



JUNE 2004





Advances in monitoring and state estimation of bioreactors

Ch. Venkateswarlu

The need to operate bioreactors in an efficient manner is becoming more relevant in today’s environment of changing process technology and increasing market competition. On-line estimation of unknown bioprocess variables and incorporation of such variable information in process operation and control strategies can provide improved control performance with enhanced productivity. Bioprocess state estimation is thus an essential component to integrate with the process systems engineering tools such as, advanced process control, fault detection and diagnosis. This paper reviews the developments in state and parameters estimation of bioreactors from on-line monitoring and control perspective.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : B  0 3  C  9/00, F 0 1 D 25/36


Impact of mobile telephony in a wireless information society

K Lal & L P Rai

Competition between mobile and fixed telephony for the market share of the subscriber base as well as revenue earned are discussed. Global trends pertaining to the growth of the WIS are analyzed and presented with the help of mathematical models. Future projections are made for the subscriber base as well as revenue earned from mobiles and fixed telephones. Mobile telephones, equipped with latest communication technology, are likely to be in an advantageous position vis-à-vis fixed telephones. With the technological advances in the field, mobile internet services will further enhance the adoption of mobile telephone services in the society. It is visualized that there would be more economies with mobiles than fixed lines and it will become the trendsetter for the future generations.


VisiDAQ 3.1 based optoelectronic system for the quantitative analysis of inorganic phosphate-phosphorus: Absorption spectroscopy

K Mahapatra, M S Walia, Laxmi Pandey, Mewa Singh, S C Jain & M L Singla

Describes an optoelectronic system using ADAM-4011D data acquisition module and VisiDAQ 3.1 software for measurement of concentration, absorbance, and transmission of various compounds based on Lambert’s-Beer’s Law. VisiDAQ is data acquisition and control application software, which can be used in applications indulging automation and process control which reduces the hardware. ADAM-4011D is a data acquisition module, which converts analog output of 1-V converter to digital output. This digital output is fed to the computer through serial port, which is processed by VisiDAQ software.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : G  0 1  J  3/42


Reliability, availability and maintainability study of high precision special purpose manufacturing machines

Sukhwinder Singh Jolly & S S Wadhwa

Includes a study of repairable systems for computing parameters such as, availability, maintainability, and reliability. The failure data for a period of 3 y is collected from M/s Escorts Limited, Bahadurgarh for machines (4 in number) engaged in the production of various types of pistons for automobiles. The data is analysed for the performance of the machines complied based on the failure data clearly indicates that the machines have high availability and good reliability but poor maintainability. Suggestions are made to improve the maintenance of these machines.



Photo-oxidative degradation of synthetic organic pollutant p-nitrophenol

Chitraleka Datta, Rashmi Naidu & M K N Yenkie

Photo-oxidation of a hazardous and refractory aromatic compound p-nitrophenol in its aqueous solution by strong oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide in the presence of UV radiations emitted from UV source is investigated. The UV+H2O2 combination generates hydroxyl radicals having very high oxidation potential which helps in complete mineralisation of the organic pollutants. The photo-oxidative degradation of p-nitrophenol (PNP) is carried out using two different UV sources, namely an 8 W low pressure mercury vapour lamp and a 125 W medium pressure mercury vapour lamp to evaluate its effect on oxidative degradation. Complete degradation of the substrate and decolourisation are achieved in 5 and 2 h with 8 W and 125 W mercury vapour lamp, respectively. The initial substrate concentrate is kept at 1 ´ 10-4 mol/L. The photo-oxidation process is found to be strongly pH dependent.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : C  12  P  7/00



Effect of chemical charges in cooking and their effectiveness on pulp bleaching


M N Islam

The screened Eucalyptus camendulensis chips are cooked in the laboratory at various alkalinities and sulphidity. Due to the variation in chemical charge, the pulp yield is found to be different. The average pulp yield is 50.6 per cent after washing and the final yield obtained is 40 per cent, which follows the normal kraft yield trend. Bleaching is done with the pulp of maximum final yield obtained. The average brightness and viscosity after final stage are 79.9 per cent ISO and 614 mL/g, respectively. Improvement in brightness is remarkable, but the viscosity decreases.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : D  06  L  1/02


Characterization of chlorinated organic material in Eucalyptus pulp bleaching effluents

M Roy, S K Chakrabarti, N K Bharadwaj, Sandip Chandra, Sanjay Kumar, Sarabjeet Singh & P K Bajpai

Deals with the bleaching of eucalyptus pulp with chlorine, hypochlorite, and chlorine dioxide and identification of various organochlorine compounds generated in the bleach effluents at different stages. Molecular weight distribution of macromolecules present in bleach effluents at different stages have also been studied.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : C  01  B  21/00



Studies on total chlorine free bleaching to get +90 brightness of mixed kraft pulp of E. tereticornis, B. aurandacea and P. roxumbergi

Dharm Dutt, C H Tyagi & Dinesh Kumar

Mixed kraft pulp of E. tereticornis, B. aurandacea and P. roxumberghi in the ratio of 80:15:05 is bleached by total chlorine free bleaching sequences (TCF). Various bleaching sequences like OZ, OQP, OQPP,, OZQP, OQPZ and OZQPP are used to produce pulp of brightness of +90 per cent. The effect of bleach chemicals on polysaccharide is also studied by determining the viscosity of finally bleached pulp. The bleaching sequences are also interchanged in order to observe the effect of brightness and pulp viscosity.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : C  01  B  21/00


An economical, simple and high yield procedure for the immobilization/stabilization of peroxidases from turnip roots

Syed Musthapa M, Suhail Akhtar, Amjad Ali Khan & Qayyum Husain

Ammonium sulphate fractionated peroxidases from turnip roots (Brassica rapa) are entrapped in calcium alginate gels for high yield immobilization of enzymes. Enzymes are cross-linked with 0.5 per cent glutaraldehyde to increase the molecular dimension of the enzyme; this results in the loss of 8 per cent of enzyme activity. Alginate entrapped soluble and cross-linked peroxidases exhibit high stability against temperature, pH, urea and storage than the soluble preparation and are markedly more stable as compared to directly entrapped soluble enzyme preparation. Entrapped cross-linked peroxidase preparation showed retention of very high enzyme activity after six repeated uses. Alginate entrapped soluble peroxidase preparation rapidly loses its activity after each use. The results suggest that such preparations have great potential in the construction of bioreactors to be used for the removal of aromatic compounds from polluted wastewaters/industrial effluents.

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 : C  12  N  11/16





Second international symposium on polymer nanocomposites science and technology: Polymer nanocomposites 2003

Nirmalya Ballav


Sci-Tech Update


·         e2Lite free expert system shell


·         JESS – a Java expert system shell


·         RDFExpert as a web-powered expert system


·         Twenty first century color organ


·         Artificial synethesia for synthetic vision


·         Motion filed to prevent a corporation from disconnecting intelligent computer under animal cruelty act


·         Yamaha’s disklavier pro 2000 piano


·         The virtual boehm flute



Author Index



Bajpai P K

Khan Amjad Ali

Singh Mewa

Ballav Nirmalaya

Kumar Dinesh

Singh Sarabjeet

Bharadwaj N K

Kumar Sanjay

Singla M L




Chakrabarti S K

Lal K

Tyagi C H

Chandra Sandip




M Musthapa Syed

Venkateshwarlu Ch.

Datta Chitralekha

Mahapatra P K


Dutt Dharm


Wadhwa S S


Naidu Rashmi

Walia M S

Husain Qayyum



Islam M N

Pandey Laxmi

Yenkie M K N


Jain S C

Rai L P

Jolly Sukhwinder Singh

Roy M



Keyword Index


ADAM-4011 D module




High precision machines



Hydroxyl radicals










State estimation


Kappa number







TCF bleaching


Mathematical model

Technology diffusion

Chemical charge

Mobile telephony

Technology forecasting



Technology substitution



Toxic effluent


Organochlorine compounds

Turnip roots




Eucalyptus pulp

PC number

VisiDAQ3.1 software






Wireless information society