Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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ISSN: 0022-4456

CODEN: JSIRAC (65) (2)  (2006)

VOLUME 65               

    NUMBER 2







Mapping of patents on bioemulsifier and biosurfactant: A review











A M Shete, G Wadhawa, I M Banat &
B A Chopade

Biosurfactant (BS) and bioemulsifier (BE) molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition preferentially at the interface between fluid phases with different degrees of polarity and hydrogen bonding. Such characteristics enable excellent detergency, emulsifying, foaming and dispersing traits. Their low toxicity and environmental friendly nature and range of potential industrial applications in the oil, bioremediation, health care and food processing industries make them a highly sought after group of chemical compounds. Several patents have been issued on BE and BS produced by Acinetobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and sophorolipid producing yeasts like Candida spp. This review presents the result of a scan and mapping effort for 255 patents granted on these compounds worldwide highlighting the types of microorganisms, molecules produced, production process and their potential industrial applications.


Iodine based water disinfection: A review




Supriya Punyani, Priya Narayana,
Harpal Singh & Padma Vasudevan

Often bacteriological quality of ground water or surface water does not meet the prescribed standards. Iodine has been known for its germicidal action and has been used since 1920s for water disinfection. NASA, USA has used iodine-based disinfection in its space flights. In this review, water disinfection by different formulations incorporating iodine and the mechanisms of germicidal action are discussed.

IPC Code: A61L15/18

Management and Information Technology


Measurement of depreciation rate of technological knowledge: Technology cycle time approach




















Gwangman Park, Juneseuk Shin &
Yongtae Park

A new method is proposed for estimating the depreciation rate of technological knowledge based on the analysis of technology cycle time (TCT). Patent citation data are used in an empirical analysis. The following features characterize the proposed TCT-based method: i) Estimation of the depreciation rate is measured by using the entire set of patents; and ii) The current approach generates the sector-specific depreciation rates for individual industrial sectors. The average depreciation rate (13.3 %) is rather higher than other estimates of previous research. At the same time, consistent upward trends are found over time. Regarding the sectoral variation among industries, emerging and high-tech sectors show faster pace of technical progress but at the same time higher rate of technical obsolescence, vis--vis traditional manufacturing sectors or light industries.

Management and Information Technology


Artificial neural network modeling of methane emissions at Istanbul Kemerburgaz-Odayeri landfill site
















H Kurtulus Ozcan, Osman N Ucan,

Ulku Sahin, Mehmet Borat &Cuma Bayat

This study reports on Istanbul Kemerburgaz-Odayeri (Turkey) solid waste landfills, models CH4, CO2, CO, atmospheric temperature parameters of this area, and predicts CH4 using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Here, ANN structure employs 4 input, 10 hidden and 1 output neurons. In order to evaluate performance of ANN model, statistical performance indices between real and estimated data have been measured and the correlation is found as 0.983 and 0.806 for training and testing respectively.

IPC Code: G06N3/02; C02F11/04


Design of fuzzy system for vapour compression refrigeration system









Jagdev Singh, Nirmal Singh & J K Sharma

This paper presents fuzzy modeling of multi-input single output (MISO) control of vapour compression refrigeration cycles. Fuzzy model of two input parameters, mass flow rate, and evaporating temperature was developed to describe the significant dynamic of vapour compression cycles. To develop an effective model, fuzzy rule base was designed for MISO control in vapour compression system. The effect of input parameters on superheat through the developed fuzzy model was studied. Comparison of fuzzy and mathematical modeling showed that the MISO control could significantly improve the performance and energy efficiency of vapor compression refrigeration cycle.

IPC Code: G06N7/02


Implementation of fuzzy temperature control using microprocessor




















M D Hanamane, R R Mudholkar,

B T Jadhav & S R Sawant

Fuzzy Logic has been employed to control temperature by varying ON-time of heater through PPI 8255. Thermister is used as a temperature sensor forming the resistive component of RC-Timer of IC 555 operated in novel Astable mode. The actual temperature is read as a function of frequency and compared with corresponding count of set-point temperature. The error-count is used to trigger the fuzzy Inference process. This develops an overall duty for heater control that maintains the temperature of furnace to the set value. The hardware implementation followed by flow chart depicting the software approach has been given. The results are satisfactory when the duty cycle is around 50%.

IPC Code: G06N7/02; G05D23/00

S & T and Industrial Research


Design and development of indigenous cricket bowling machine





Shibendu Shekhar Roy, Sankar Karmakar, Narayan Prasad Mukherjee,

Udayan Nandy & Uma Datta

This paper presents details of a cricket bowling machine, developed at CMERI, Durgapur, which includes a pair of adjacent ball ejecting wheels, each provided with a groove or concave surface formed in a body of an visco-elastic material. These wheels are mounted on a base for axial rotation in a common plane, the spacing between the wheels being less than the diam of a ball to be thrown and the rotational speed of each wheel being adjustable independently of the other. This machine transfers the kinetic energy to the ball by frictional gripping of the ball between two rotating wheels. The base is supported on a tilting assembly, which is mounted on a bracket in such a way that the required angular adjustment of the rotational plane of the wheel about axis parallel to direction of delivery of ball and its perpendicular axis is possible. Electronic controls are provided for controlling the speed of rotation of the wheel.

IPC Code: A63D1/00


Firing temperature and firing time influence on mechanical and physical properties of clay bricks























Sedat Karaman, Sabit Ersahin &
Hikmet Gunal

The effects of firing time and temperature on compressive strength, water absorption, bending strength, weight loss, firing shrinkage and densities of clay bricks were determined. For a given clay and method of manufacture, higher compressive and bending strengths, higher density and lower absorptions are associated with higher firing temperatures. Increasing firing time only slightly altered the mechanical and physical properties of clay bricks. However, firing temperature significantly affected the physical properties. The results suggested that firing temperature was the key factor to modulate the physical properties in clay bricks. However, the effect of firing time was not significant. The results obtained in this study can only be compared to the properties of bricks produced under similar conditions with similar raw materials.

IPC Code: G01N33/38

S & T and Industrial Research


Application of ground penetrating radar for hydro-geological study











K K K Singh

Impact of mining may affect availability of groundwater, and this has become a matter of concern because villages in that region suffer from water scarcity during dry periods. In most places, clay layers exist above groundwater table. Due to presence of impervious clay layers above the groundwater table, extraction of ores will most likely not affect surrounding hydrological regime of those areas. This paper aims to highlight the significance of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey prior to excavation in areas where impervious clay layers occur as underlying strata. GPR will be very helpful to check groundwater depletion in open cast mines indirectly after exploring the subsurface geological scenario. Hydrological regime of the mining areas will be saved with the help of GPR by distinguishing between groundwater and clay.

IPC Code: G01R29/12


Physico-chemical characteristics of extruded snacks prepared from rice (Oryza sativa L), corn (Zea mays L) and taro [Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott] by twin-screw extrusion






P Bhattacharyya, U Ghosh,
H Gangopadhyay & U Raychaudhuri

Rice, corn and taro starch blends were used to prepare snacks by a twin-screw extruder at 141, 150 and 159oC respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and phosphate buffer (pH 6.9) were found to extract more protein than plain buffer solution from extrudates. Loss of carbohydrate (maltose) was documented in extruded snacks. A universal texture analyzer (model-4301 Instron, London, UK) was used in the compression mode to record the required force to break the extruded products. The results showed a trend toward increasing expansion, decreasing density, and decreasing breaking force with barrel temperatures of 141-159C. The surface morphology of the extrudates was examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

IPC Code: A23J1/12

Waste Treatment and Utilization


Settling and filtration characteristics of carbonated black liquor from agro based paper mill






















S A Mandavgane & D Subramanian

The chemical pulping of agricultural residues poses no problem however major difficulty arises in recovery of heat and chemicals from cooking chemical (black liquor) due to presence of silica in it, at every stage of chemical recovery. Desilication of black liquor is achieved by carbonation effecting delignification. Filtration is a key unit operation in successful desilication technology. Low temperature and low flocculent dose is found to favor sedimentation rate. Filtration of carbonated black liquor using leaf filter shows that temperature favors rate of filtration. Co-precipitation of lignin makes filtration difficult.

IPC Code: G21F9/10



International conference on environmental management (ICEM 2005)A report

Sanjay Sengupta

Author-Reader Platform


Instructions to contributors


















































Author Index


Banat I M 91

Bayat C 128

Bhattacharyya P 165

Borat M 128


Chopade B A 91


Datta U 148


Ersahin S 153


Gangopadhyay H 165

Ghosh U 165

Gunal H 153


Hanamane M D 142


Jadhav B T 142


Karaman S 153

Karmakar S 148


Mandavgane S A 169

Mudholkar R R 142

Mukherjee N P 148


Nandy U 148

Narayana P 116

Ozcan H K 128


Park G 121

Park Y 121

Punyani S 116


Raychaudhuri U 165

Roy S S 148


Sahin U 128

Sawant S R 142

Sharma J K 135

Shete A M 91

Shin J 121

Singh H 116

Singh J 135

Singh K K K 160

Singh N 135

Subramanian D 169


Ucan O N 128


Vasudevan P 116


Wadhawa G 91


Keyword Index


Antimicrobial polymers 116

Artificial Neural Network 128

Attenuation 160


Bioemulsifier 91

Biosurfactant 91

Black liquor 169

Bowling machine 148


Carbon dioxide 128

Clay 160

Clay brick 153

Corn 165

Cricket 148


Depreciation rate 121

Desilication 169

Duty cycle 142


Electromagnetic 160

Extruded products 165


Filtration 169

Firing temperature 153

Firing time 153

Flocculent 169

Fuzzy logic 142

Fuzzy modeling 135


GPR 160


Hydrogeology 160

Indigenous 148

Iodine 116

Istanbul 128


Landfill gas 128

Lignin 169


Methane 128

Microprocessor 142


Patent 121

Patent sites 91

Patents 91

Physical and mechanical properties 153

Protein solubility 165


Reflection 160

Rice 165


SDS 165

Sedimentation 169

SEM 165

Sugeno fuzzy inference system 135


Taro 165

TCT (technology cycle time) 121

Temperature control 142

Texture analyzer 165


Vapour compression refrigeration System 135


Water disinfections 116

Water supply 116