Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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Hantzsch reaction: Recent advances in Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines

Anil Saini, Sanjay Kumar & Jagir S Sandhu

Hantzsch reaction seems to be one of the earliest procedures for the production of pyridines. Later on, Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, which mimic NADH reduction process in vitro, have shown promising biological activities. This review presents production procedure, major reactions of current interest, oxidation and reduction of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, besides indication of some existing gaps and areas to be developed.

Management & Information Technology


Effect of shortage level constraint on finite production rate model with rework

Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu, Singa Wang Chiu & Huang-Chieh Chao

Long run average costs for finite production rate model with backlogging is less than or equal to that of the same model without backlogging. An equation for calculating intangible backorder cost is proposed for situation when required service level is not attainable. By incorporating this intangible backorder cost in mathematical analysis, one can derive a new optimal lot-size policy that minimizes expected total costs as well as satisfies the shortage level constraint.


Contribution of Human Resource Development Group (CSIR) towards knowledge sharing in India: State-wise performance analysis

S A Hasan, A K Pal, SC Dhawan & R Luthra




Human Resource Development Group (HRDG) of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) provides financial support to organize seminars/symposia/conferences to promote interaction and knowledge sharing among researchers, academicians, students and policy makers. During 2003-04 to 2005-06, HRDG (CSIR) sponsored 1152 (78.4%) national and 317 (21.6%) international conferences. Maximum (31.3%) conferences have been supported in life sciences followed by engineering (22.3%), medical (10.7%), physical (10.6%), chemical (9.6%), earth (8.0%) and mathematical sciences (6.8%). Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra were leading states in terms of number of conferences organized with 203, 172 164, 151, 134, 115, 115 numbers, respectively. There was increase (17.0%) in number of conferences supported by HRDG during 2003-04 to 2005-06.

Management & Information Technology


Neural network embedded multiobjective genetic algorithm to solve non-linear time-cost tradeoff problems of project scheduling

Bhupendra Kumar Pathak, Sanjay Srivastava & Kamal Srivastava


This paper presents a novel method to solve non-linear time-cost tradeoff (TCT) problem of real world engineering projects. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is employed to search for optimal TCT profile. Applicability of ANN based model for rapid estimation of time-cost relationship by invoking its function approximation capability is investigated. ANN models are then integrated with MOGA so as to develop a comprehensive approach to solve non-linear TCT problems of project scheduling. The study has implications in real time monitoring and control of project scheduling process.

S & T and Industrial Research


Microcontroller based portable instrument for determination of nickel in edible oils

Prasant K Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar,
Mewa Singh, Narwant S Grewal,
L Pandey & M L Singla

A microcontroller (μC) 89C51RD2BN based portable instrument has been developed for determination of nickel (Ni) concentration in edible oil using dimethylglyoxime method. An LED has been used as a light source with peak wavelength at 450 nm. Silicon photodiode is used as a detector having peak spectral response at 550 nm.


Permeability and removal rate of compacted clays to organic and inorganic matters

M S Ozcoban


Compacted clays are widely used for lining solid waste landfills containing wide range of organic and inorganic compounds which cause a major threat to groundwater quality. This study analyses change in permeability of compacted clays due to chemical reactions between clay and permeant. In first stage, permeability of compacted clay (uncontaminated and contaminated) samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. In second stage, influent and effluent analyses was performed in order to determine treatment capability of compacted clay.


S & T and Industrial Research


Water-soluble binder system from by product of refining of soyabean oil

S D Toliwal, C J Patel & Kalpen Patel

Oil recovered from spent bleaching earth (ORSBE), which is used for bleaching of soyabean oil, has been malenized at 210°C using three different mole ratios of oil and maleic anhydride till desirable acid value of resultant product is achieved. Malenized products were neutralized with triethylamine to make them water compatible. N, N-Bis (2-hydroxy ethyl) fatty amide (HEFA) was prepared by reacting ORSBE with diethanolamine using zinc oxide as catalyst. Water compatible malenized products were blended with HEFA in different ratios to prepare water based stoving compositions. Certain compositions had comparable performance with water based alkyd-HEFA compositions.


Effect of casting solvent on permeability of antihypertensive drugs through ethyl cellulose films

T E Gopala Krishna Murthy & V Sai Kishore

Ethyl cellulose films were prepared using acetone-methanol (8:2), chloroform-methanol (8:2), dichloromethane-methanol (8:2) and ethyl acetate-methanol (8:2) as solvents and dibutyl phthalate (40% w/w) as a plasticizer. Solvent evaporation technique gave thin uniform films. Water vapour transmission and drug diffusion rate of films followed zero order kinetics. Drug release was governed by peppas model. Diffusion exponent of release profiles (slope) has a value of n>1, which indicates non analmous transport diffusion. Solvents showed significant influence on water vapour transmission, drug diffusion and permeability of films. Ethyl acetate:methanol (8:2) showed highest permeability when compared to other films.

Energy and Environment


Energy efficiency improvement in air heater of a tea unit - A case approach

S Balachandran & R Rudramoorthy


This paper evaluates efficiency of air heater and discusses system modifications carried out in air heater used in one of the tea units. Field trials indicate that these driers are operating at very low efficiency due to age-old design and improper selection of materials. Operational system changes have improved performance of heater and firewood consumption has dropped to about 100 kg/h from 160 kg/h resulting in a saving (38%) with little or no investment.

Waste Treatment and Utilization


Biosorption of copper from wastewater using jatropha seed coat

Niveta Jain, H C Joshi, S C Dutta,
Sanjeev Kumar & H Pathak

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) seed coat was investigated for removal of Cu (II) from aqueous solutions. Impact of pH of the solution, sorption time, and initial metal ion concentration on sorption capacity was investigated. Adsorption equilibrium was reached in 80 min and 82-89% of Cu (II) was removed by jatropha seed coat at initial Cu (II) concentrations (20-50 mg l1). Adsorption data, analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms, showed that adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Kinetics of adsorption followed Elovichian rate equation at 30°C. The most plausible mechanism of adsorption seemed to be electrostatic attraction of Cu (II) towards lignocellulosic polar groups of jatropha seed coat. The study showed that powdered jatropha seed coat can be used as an adsorbent for removal of Cu (II) from wastewater.



Utilization of waste lime sludge as building materials

M Singh & M Garg

Lime sludge (chalk) obtained from fertilizer industry has been tried as the constituent of masonry cement, burning of lime sludge to make building lime, as raw material for making flooring tiles and compounding of burnt lime waste with surkhi/fly ash to make lime-pozzolana mixtures / composite mortars. Characteristics and techno-economics of building products made out of lime sludge have been discussed.




Plant pathology: Rapidly globalizing economics of Asia
Krishna P Singh & Hideo Ishii

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