Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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JUNE 2008


Management & Information Technology


Integrated health, safety, environment and ergonomics management system (HSEE-MS): An efficient substitution for conventional

Ali Azadeh, Iraj Mohammad Fam, Jafar Nouri & Mansoureh Azam Azadeh

This study presents a framework for development of integrated intelligent human engineering environment in complex critical systems. Health, safety, environment and ergonomics (HSEE) is developed by integration of conventional health, safety and environment (HSE) with job systems by re-engineering organizational structures and teamwork through electronic data interchange. HSEE has been found superior over conventional HSE through identification of major problems with ergonomic factors in power plant.


Wavelet-based neural network and statistical approaches applied to automated visual inspection of LED chips











Hong-Dar Lin, Gary C Lin,
Chung-Yu Chung, & Wan-Ting Lin

This research explores automated visual inspection of surface defects in a light-emitting diode (LED) chip. One-level Haar wavelet transform is first used to decompose a chip image and extract four wavelet characteristics. Then, wavelet-based back-propagation network (WBPN) and wavelet-based Hotelling statistic (WHS) approaches are respectively applied to integrate multiple wavelet characteristics. Finally, back-propagation algorithm of WBPN or Hotelling test of WHS judges existence of defects. Two proposed methods achieve detection rates of above 90.8% and 92.4%, and false alarm rates below 4.4% and 6.1%, respectively. A valid computer-aided visual defect inspection system is contributed to help meet quality control needs of LED chip manufacturers.


S & T and Industrial Research


Cutting force prediction model by FEA and RSM when machining Hastelloy C-22HS with 90° holder

K Kadirgama, K A Abou-El-Hossein,
B Mohammad, Habeeb AL-Ani &
M M Noor

Finite element (FEA) method and response surface method (RSM) are used to find the effect of milling parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and axial depth) on cutting force when milling Hastelloy C-22HS. Based on variance analyses of First- and Second-Order RSM models, most influential design variable is feed rate. Optimized cutting force values are subsequently obtained from model equations. FEA model shows distribution of cutting force.


Design and development of Multi Parameter Probe (MPP) to measure temperature and hardness inside snow microstructure

S K Mittal, Manjeet Singh, R K Garg &
B K Sharma

CSIO Chandigarh has developed a portable Multi Parameter Probe (MPP) to measure temperature and hardness in snow pack. MPP has been tested in snow bound areas in and around Manali in association with SASE (DRDO). In this paper, designing of MPP and field test performance results provide valuable assistance in the study of snow and avalanche pattern over a period of time, thus improving research accuracy and validating research findings.


Microbial quality of rainwater from roof surfaces

Padma Vasudevan & Mamta Tandon

Rainwater samples (54) were tested to study efficacy of H2S strip test by comparing with MPN (Most Probable Number) and other tests. Both H2S strip test and MPN agree in approx. 65-75% of cases. Disagreement is more pronounced at low bacterial content. Feasibility of local treatments of rainwater harvested for drinking purpose by exposure to sunlight is also studied.

S & T and Industrial Research


Rapidly disintegrating fast release tablets of diazepam using solid dispersion: development and evaluation

Tapan K Giri, Parimal Jana &
Biswanath Sa

This study presents development of diazepam tablets, which could provide rapid disintegration and immediate release of drug in oral cavity. Tablets were prepared by conventional wet granulation and direct compression methods. Diazepam was formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) as a solid dispersion to increase aqueous solubility and dissolution of drug. Croscarmellose sodium and AerolacR were used in tablet formulation to achieve rapid disintegration of tablets prepared respectively by wet granulation and direct compression methods. Tablets developed in this study disintegrated in 37 seconds (wet granulation) and 31 seconds (direct compression) and released 85% in about 21-22 min, whereas marketed tablet disintegrates in 116 seconds and release same amount of drug in 130 min. This study indicates that rapidly disintegrating fast release tablets can be prepared by the conventional methods utilizing the existing infrastructure of tablet manufacturing.

Energy and Environment


Numerical study of heat loss from boiler using different ratios of fibre-to-shell from palm oil wastes

Mohamed Harimi, S M Sapuan,
M M H Megat Ahmad & Fuad Abas

This study presents effect of excess air and fibre-to-shell (F/S) ratio on heat losses. Five heat losses are computed based on ASME standard (heat loss) and STANJAN code (flue gases). Heat loss due to dry flue gas is major heat loss in boiler and has been found statistically affected by the amount of excess air and F/S ratio, whereas other heat losses are somehow negligible, except heat loss due to moisture and hydrogen in fuel, which is mainly related to variation of F/S ratio. Boiler efficiency may reach 85% practically if global optimisation based on excess air and F/S ratios are considered with respect to combustion efficiency (low CO) and thermal efficiency (less heat losses).

Waste Treatment and Utilization


Value added constructional bricks from overburden of opencast coalmines

A Jamal & S Sidharth

This paper presents utilization of waste rock of surface coalmine in making bricks and blocks in place of clay bricks. These bricks and blocks may be used in building construction and as pavement material in and around coalmine. Acidic and alkaline overburden helps in neutralizing acidity or alkalinity of wastewater by making drain with such bricks.


Removal of nicotine and its pharmaceutical derivatives from aqueous solution by raw bentonite and dodecylammonium-bentonite

Gülten Akçay & Kadir Yurdakoç

Dodecylammonium bentonite (DAB) and bentonite (B) were used as sorbents for nicotine (N), nicotinic acid (NA), iso-nicotinic acid (INA), nicotinic acid hydrazide (NH), and iso-nicotinic acid hydrazide (INH). The obtained data were modeled according to Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherms. Sorption energy (E) and adsorption capacity (qm) for N and its derivatives adsorbing on DAB and raw B were estimated using Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) equation. Sorption energy of N and its pharmaceutical derivatives on DAB and raw B increased in order of NA<INA<N=INH<NH and INH<NH<N<NA<INA, respectively.

Waste Treatment and Utilization


Use of rice husk ash for quartz substitution in stoneware glazes

D Wattanasiriwech, N Polpuak,
P Danthaisong & S Wattanasiriwech

Two types of rice husk ashes (RHAs) with different silica contents were used for quartz substitution in a standard opaque glaze and a crystalline glaze. One RHA (RHA1) was a waste from a brick firing process and was used as received. RHA1 (particle size, 36.55±0.26 mm) contained only 71.41% SiO2. Other RHA (RHA2) was prepared in laboratory under a well controlled process to obtain similar silica content (95.95%) and average particle size (15.83 ±0.18 mm) to quartz. Coefficients of expansion (COE) values of opaque glazes were: RHA1 glaze >RHA2 glaze >quartz glaze. RHA1 glaze, which exhibited highest COE value, crazed with finest craze pattern. All glazes melted at approx. the same temperature and exhibited similar phase changes upon firing. When RHAs were used to replace quartz in a crystalline glaze recipe, RHA1 glaze exhibited a high number of crystals with finer size, while crystals found in the quartz were larger in size with less density.


Environmental life cycle assessment of zero liquid discharge treatment technologies for textile
industries, Tirupur – A case study

S Priscilla Rajakumari & S Kanmani

Inventorisation of inputs (chemicals and energy) for treating textile wastewater using pretreatment, reverse osmosis (RO) and evaporator for two representative textile wastewater treatment plants have been studied. All life cycle inventory data were recalculated per functional unit, which was defined as treatment of 1 m3 of textile wastewater. Evaporator consumes 48 % of electricity, which contributes for more global warming potential (GWP) than other treatment units. Total GWP for plant I and II are 4.49 kg CO2 eq and 5.56 kg CO2 eq respectively. During electricity generation, CO2 emission is comparatively high (98.5 % of total emissions). The results indicate that RO system of plant I and II consumes less energy and GWP are 8.9 x 10-3 kg CO2 eq and 0.011 kg CO2 eq respectively. Human health impact is 7.4 E-05 for CO2 emission, which is less for other emissions. The results can be used for strategic decisions for minimizing environmental impacts of zero liquid treatment technologies.

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