Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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MARCH 2008




Drug carrier systems for anticancer agents: A review

Renu Chadha, V K Kapoor, Deepika Thakur, Rupinder Kaur, Poonam Arora & D V S Jain

This paper reviews application of various solubilizers and carriers (polymers, cyclodextrins, dendrimers and proteins and amino acids) being used for improving therapeutic efficacy of these agents. Preparation of microspheres, microcapsules and nanospheres to improve aqueous solubility, and potential of liposomes and nanoparticles as effective drug delivery tools have been discussed.

Management & Information Technology


Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) model using an artificial neural network approach

Reşat Acar, Samet Çelik & Serkan Şenocak

Multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network (ANN) model was trained and used to model rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) relationship for short duration rainfall (SDR), in a catchment located in a semiarid climate in Turkey. Trained ANN model has been found more suitable to predict SDR than classical statistical model.


S & T and Industrial Research


An improved optical costas loop PSK receiver: Simulation analysis

G M Helaluddin

Simulation analysis of proposed optical costas loop has been investigated considering strong nonlinearity of loop and finite loop delay through phase subtraction. Prime attention has been given on inherent laser phase noise due to random spontaneous emission and shot noise related to photo detection process. The stringent laser linewidth requirements for promising receiver has been relaxed up to 8.0 MHz for each laser considering 3.3° RMS phase error and power sensitivity improvement is realized introducing an extra optical phase modulator at VCO laser output

S & T and Industrial Research


Numerical simulation of fin and tube condenser in a R22 system charged with R407C

T Usha Rani & P Balachander

Present study simulates condensation heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of R407C, when it is charged in an air-cooled fin and tube condenser designed for R22 utilizing the local method of analysis. The properties of refrigerants viz., liquid as well as vapour phase density, viscosity, specific heat, thermal conductivity and enthalpy are calculated using subroutines from National Institute of Standards and Technology software package REFPROP. Refrigerant side as well as airside heat transfer and pressure drop are computed using reported correlations.

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Dehydration of alcohols by pervaporation using hydrophilic polyether urethane membranes

Swatilekha Das, Suparna Sarkar, Piyali Basak & Basudam Adhikari

This study presents pervaporation separation of methanol-water (MW), ethanol-water (EW) and isopropanol-water (IW) mixtures through a series of polyethylene glycol (PEG) based polyether urethane membranes. Five polyether urethane (PUPEG) membranes were developed by using PEGs of increasing molecular weight (PEG200, PEG400, PEG600, PEG1000 and PEG4000). PUPEG membranes showed selectivity towards water, which increased with increasing molecular weight as well as increasing polymer chain length of the membrane. PUPEG membrane prepared using PEG4000 showed highest separation performance in dehydrating water from three alcohol-water mixtures. A pervaporation flux of 0.48 kg/m2.h was achieved with 94.5% water in permeates from 20% water present in isopropanol-water mixture using PUPEG4000 membrane. All PUPEG membranes showed water separation performances; flux and separation factor for water varied in the order: MW <EW<IW mixtures.


Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Lycopodium clavatum stem

Sharad Kumar Srivastava,
Adarsh Pratap Singh &
Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat

Paper presents pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of L. clavatum. Ferulic acid, a potential antioxidant present in this species, has been studied through HPTLC and may be utilized by industries for quality evaluation, ensuring successful commercial exploitation of this drug.

S & T and Industrial Research


Upgradation of leathers: Masking defects using pigments in pre-finishing processes

R Aravindhan, B Madhan, P Thanikaivelan, Swarna V Kanth, J Raghava Rao,
C S Gnanasekaran & Balachandran Unni Nair

Inferior quality East India (EI) leather was upgraded by using a water-soluble pigment, which provides better coverage of defects during post tanning. Effect of fatliquors and wet as well as dry milling on covering defects on leather was also studied. Leathers have required strength and bulk properties apart from looking natural.


Efficient cogeneration scheme for sugar industry

M Premalatha, S Shanmuga Priya &
V Sivaramakrishnan

Present work is a case study on sugar industry and economics is worked out for advanced cogeneration power system. By replacing low efficiency mill turbines with hydraulic drives and DC motors, cogeneration power increases in sugar mill to operate at high efficiency (65-70%). This replacement can aid increase of power to grid, resulting in additional revenue for sugar plant.

Energy and Environment


Biofiltration of benzene emissions: Biofilter response to variations in the pollutants inlet concentration and gas flow rate

Anil Kumar Mathur & C B Majumder

To examine biofilter response with varying loading rate, a laboratory-based biofilter, packed with mixture of compost, sugar cane bagasse and granulated active carbon (GAC), was used for treating benzene. At influent benzene loadings (< 40 g m-3 h-1), nearly 100% removal could be achieved. Maximum elimination capacity of biofilter was 83.65 g m-3 h-1 at inlet benzene load of 69 g m-3 h-1. Using Wani’s method of macrokinetic determination, maximum removal rate (µmax) was calculated as 0.017 g m-3 s-1, and saturation constant (Ks) of benzene value as 0.0226 g m-3. Increase in CO2 production with elimination capacity suggested that removal of benzene was due to microorganism and good due to the performance of biofilter. The mixture of packing material of bagasse, compost and GAC appears to be an efficient packing material for low to medium loading rate.


Waste Treatment and Utilization


Removal of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecylether sulfate by granular activated carbon

Y Kaya, Z B Gönder, I Vergili & H Barlas

Adsorption isotherms of sodium dodecylether sulfate (SLES) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) onto granular activated carbon (GAC) at 25°C (aqueous solution) were experimentally determined by batch tests with respect to contact time, adsorbent amount and initial surfactant concentration. In Langmuir model, adsorptive capacity of CTAB was higher than that of SLES (Q° = 70.423 and 52.08 mgg-1, respectively). L type isotherms were obtained that showed no strong competition among solvent molecules and surfactant molecules for the adsorption sites.

Waste Treatment and Utilization


Zinc adsorption kinetics by phosphogypsum-a preliminary study

Nilgün Balkaya & Hasan Cesur

This study reports kinetics of zinc adsorption by phosphogypsum, which was conditioned with lime before batch adsorption. Pseudo-second-order equation was found more appropriate for Zn2+ adsorption than pseudo-first-order equation.

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