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Natural Product Radiance

A Bimonthly Digest on Natural Products






 January February 2004







Commercially adoptable process for manufacturing Natural dyes for cotton,

R Bhuyan, C N Saikia and K K Das




Quantitative distribution of hesperidin in Citrus species, during fruit maturation and optimal harvest time,

R Omidbaigi and M Faghih Nasiri




Health Drinks: Ayurvedic Concept,

Dr. Ritu Sethi    




Green Page


Sweet flag (Acorus calamus) Cultivation and Economics aspects,

G.B. Lokesh




Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. An endangered source of indigenous health drink,

S Vedavathy          






Herbal larvicides to control mosquito larvae ─ A preliminary study,

Sarath Mangalat, Varun Narayanan and Minija Janardhanan  




Dietary Tips


Wonder Vegetables,

Ms Shubi Husain                         




Internet News


Keeping an eye for cure                                                 


Use mosquito coils prudently                                       


Medicinal soil in indigenous practice                           


Remedy for jaundice and night blindness                    


Protect stored beans from bruchid beetle attack           





Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Research Programme


Government of India, Ministry of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Technology   




Exhibition /Conference


Forthcoming Conferences, Seminars, Exhibitions and Trainings




Classified Digests
















Insecticide/ Fungicides    






Tissue Culture              






In Brief                        


Readers write                


New Journal Review  


Subscription form      




Advertisement Tariff    








Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 6- 11


Commercially adoptable process for manufacturing
Natural dyes for cotton

R Bhuyana, C N Saikiaa* and K K Dasb


Dyes were extracted from the stems, roots and leaves of Rubia cordifolia Linn., Morinda angustifolia Roxb. and Tectona grandis Linn. f., respectively and the dyeing behaviours of the colour components on cotton were evaluated. The dyeing was carried out with and without the use of mordants and the fastness properties of the fabrics were determined. The absorbance (%) and colour strengths (K/S) of the dyes were evaluated and the colour changes were recorded in Hunter co-ordinates and converted to CIELab co-ordinates.


Keywords: Colour strength, Cotton fabric, Dyeing, Hunter co-ordinates, Mordants, Morinda angustifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Tectona grandis.




Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 12-15


Quantitative distribution of hesperidin in Citrus species, during fruit maturation and optimal harvest time

 R Omidbaigi and M. Faghih Nasiri


The effect of harvest time and fruit growth on hesperidin content was studied on four Citrus species. The highest hesperidin content in different tested Citrus species was obtained 50 to 60 days after full bloom. Hesperidin content also varied in different species and its level was much higher in local orange, navel orange and clementine.


Keywords: Citrus species; Flavonoids; Hesperidin; Harvest time; Fruit maturation




Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 16-18


Health Drinks: Ayurvedic Concept

Dr. Ritu Sethi


Various hot and cold health drinks are described here. In Ayurveda, different health drinks are recommended according to season13. In very cold and dewy season, warm beverages like warm fragrant milk products, vegetable soups, meat soup, sugarcane products can be taken as a part of food.


In spring season, barley, honey, mango juice as food and beverages such as asava (fermented infusion), arista (fermented decoction), sidhu (fermented sugarcane juice), honey mixed with water and water boiled with extracts of chandan (sandal wood) can be taken. Chilled drinks along with cold water may be taken in summer season according to requirement. Panak Panchsara [syrup prepared with draksha (grapes), iksu (sugarcane), madhuka, date, kashmarya (gumhar) and parushaka (phalsa) fruits with equal quantity of cold water and a pinch of cardamom powder] and Lassi (sweet or salty) may also be taken to get relief from heat of the summer season.


In rainy season, meat or vegetable soups and mastu (thin water of yogurt) are suggested for consumption with food. Take easily digestible food and avoid heavy food, curd, oil, and strong liquors during autumn. To attain the best effects of these health drinks seasonal recommendations should be followed.



Green Page


Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 19-20


Sweet flag (Acorus calamus) Cultivation
and Economics aspects

 G.B. Lokesh


Sweet flag, Acorus calamus Linn. (Hindi Bach) is a popular medicinal plant used in several Ayurvedic formulations in India. Due to its growing medicinal use, it is being rapidly extracted from wild. At present, it is listed as endangered species. Taking cue from physical and economic scarcity farmers in Karnataka have planned for the cultivation of this annual crop in Tumkur district. This plant is available both under wild and under cultivated conditions. It has been estimated that 77 per cent of the sweet flag is cultivated with an area of 80ha and 23 per cent is gathered from the wild in India. About 70 per cent of total cultivated area is in Karnataka. The total production of sweet flag in the country is 5725qt/annum.






Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp.22-23


Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. An endangered source of indigenous health drink

S Vedavathy


Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. (Family Asclepiadaceae) is an endemic and endangered plant of Andhra Pradesh. A herbal health drink from its roots is prepared by Yanadi tribe of the area. The plant is a liane, locally called Maredu kommulu or Barre sugnadhi or Maredugaddalu (Telugu). It grows in between the rocks and places where there is thick vegetation. Milky latex is present in the entire plant. Each root is 5-10 cm in diameter and 4-10 roots arise from the rootstock. A 2-3 year old plant produce 15-20 kg of roots and one year old plant produces 1-2 kg of roots. Roots are harvested during summer months mostly by the Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district and it is the main source of income to them until the agricultural works resumes.




Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 24-26


Herbal larvicides to control mosquito larvae
A preliminary study

Sarath Mangalat, Varun Narayanan and Minija Janardhanan*


Out of 16 plant species tested for mosquito larvicidal activity, the extract of 4 plants could induce 100% mortality of larvae. The results also show that the extract of Lantana camera 1 (pink and yellow coloured flower), L. camera 2 (red flowered), Coriandrum sativum and Eryngium foetidum were the most toxic extracts against the larvae. L. camera 1 and C. sativum showed its pronounced activity after 6 hrs. of treatment where as E. foetidum showed its activity after 24 hrs. and L. camera 2 after 48 hrs of treatment. Though highly aromatic Hyptis suaveolens extract has least activity, which is only 10% after 48hrs. The extract of Triumfetta rhoimboidea has no activity against the larvae (Table 1).




Dietary Tips


Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 41-42


Wonder Vegetables

Ms Shubi Husain,


Vegetables are important protective food and highly beneficial for the maintenance of health and prevention of disease. They contain valuable food ingredients which are essential for the proper functioning of the body. Vegetables contain various medicinal and therapeutic agents and are valued mainly for their high vitamin and mineral content. Faulty cooking and prolonged careless storage can however destroy these valuable elements. To drive maximum benefits of their nutrients, vegetables should be consumed fresh as far as possible. Most vegetables are best consumed in their natural raw state in the form of salads.



Classified Digests



Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 29


Peach leaves dye for cotton


Natural products in general and natural dyes in particular are heading towards a period of renaissance in the area of dyeing. Researchers at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana extracted dye from Peach, Prunus persica Batsch. (Hindi Aaru) leaves and find out the optimum conditions for dyeing of cotton using combination of mordants.


During experiment, dry peach leaves were taken and ground to powder form. Pure cotton in the form of yarn was used after scouring it with a detergent. The mordants used for dyeing were alum, chrome, copper sulphate and ferrous sulphate. The dyeing of cotton at optimized conditions resulted in good to very good colour fastness to light (rating range 5-6), fair to excellent colour fastness to washing (rating range 3-4/5), good to excellent colour fastness to rubbing (rating range 4-5) and poor to fair colour fastness to perspiration (rating range 2-3) as found by evaluation of the colour fastness of the dyed samples by prescribed methods. The shades obtained were khaki, greenish khaki, bamboo light, platinum blonde, beige, sallow to dark sallow, greyish military green, mouse grey and brownish grey to dark brownish grey. Thus for dyeing of cotton to obtain a wide range of soft, pastel and dark colours by using combination of mordants peach dye can be successfully used [Bains et al, Man-Made Text India, 2003, 46 (6), 230-233].




Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 29


New agro-tech protective fabric from betel nut fibre


Researchers are always in the search of new cheaper and sustainable source of fibres that can replace or compete with fibres like cotton, Jute, flax, ramie, polyolefin, polyesters, polyamides and polyacrylics, etc. in terms of economic viability and eco-friendly properties. In recent past agro-based waste products have been utilized as natural sources to get natural fibres suitable for agro-tech protective clothing.


Betel nut fruits are covered with a shell and the shell of each betel nut fruit produce nearly 2.50 to 2.75 g of fibres. It is estimated that approximately 1,300,000 Mt/year fibre may be available in India only.


Scientists at College of Textile Technology, West Bengal studied on betel nut fibre to develop an agro-tech protective fabric. During experiment betel nuts were collected from the plant and then kept in a dark room in moist condition for about 15 days. Natural retting took place hence fibres were separated by hand stripping. The retted fibres were exposed thoroughly to sunlight for about 3 days then brushed to open the fibre strands and clean them.


The physical and chemical properties of the betel nut fibre were also evaluated. It was found that the main chemical constituents of the fibre are: alpha cellulose, 53.20; hemi cellulose, 32.98; lignin, 7.20; fat and wax, 0.64; ash, 1.05; and other material, 3.12%.


The results showed that non-woven fabrics manufactured from betel nut fibre possess excellent dyeing behaviour and virtually can be an excellent substitute of conventional synthetic nets. The fabrics have good drape, strength and good air permeability as well as can withstand any kind of weather like strong sunlight, heavy rain, storm and hailstorm for a considerable long period. Additionally, fibre is biodegradable and a zero cost raw material. This fibre also has high potential in the field of home furnishing and decorative product sector [Sengupta et al, Man-Made Text India, 2003, 46(10), 382-387].





Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 34


Anti-implantation effect of garden tree bark


At Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur post-coital anti-fertility activity of stem bark extracts of two garden trees, Plumeria bicolor Ruiz & Pav. and Kigelia pinnata DC. was studied in female rats. The rats received extracts orally at two different doses i.e. 25 and 50 mg/day/rat from day 1 to 5 post-coitum. The quantal pregnancy rate in female rats receiving chloroform extract of Plumeria bicolor (60, 40%) and alcoholic extract of Kigelia pinnata (50, 30%) stem barks were significantly declined. However, complete prevention of pregnancy was not achieved at the doses used in both the plant extracts treated rats. The decline in quantal pregnancy indicates anti-implantation effect of the extracts [Jain et al, J Phytol Res, 2002, 15 (1), 41-44].




Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 35


Effect of herbs essential oils on rat isolated
uterus contractions


A number of medicinal plants exist that are used in traditional and folk medicines of Iran and some other parts of the world, which are known as stimulants of uterus, menstruation inducers or abortive herbs. Some herbs and their fruits are being widely used as food additives or as herbal remedies for various diseases but there is no report on their effect as uterus stimulants. Therefore, Sadraei and others investigated the potential effect of these putative stimulants for induction and/or potentiation of uterus contraction in vitro and to look for a relaxant effect essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Carum carvi Linn. and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linn., Berberis integerrima Bunge and Crocus sativus Linn. on rat isolated uterus contractions in vitro.


            The essential oils and hydro-alcoholic extracts were obtained by hydro-distillation and maceration methods, respectively. A day before the experiment, all rats were treated with oestrogen (100small mu, Greekg/kg, s.c.). The following day their uteri were removed and secured in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution and gassed with O2. Isotonic contractions were induced by potassium chloride (KCl) (10 and 80mM) and acetylcholine (ACh) and recorded on paper. The effects of the plant extracts and essential oils were then studied on uterus contractions.


Both Z. multiflora and C. carvi essential oils inhibited the tonic contraction to KCl (80mM) and the phasic contraction to ACh (320nM) in a concentration-dependent manner, reducing the response to zero at their highest used concentrations. There was no significant change in the contraction of control tissues that were treated with vehicle. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of P. incarnata (4001600small mu, Greekg/ml), B. integerrima (4001600small mu, Greekg/ml) and C. sativus (2001600small mu, Greekg/ml) increased the spontaneous rhythmic contraction due to KCl (10mM) in comparison with the control tissues. However, they did not increase the uterus response to ACh.


The inhibitory effect of Z. multiflora and C. carvi essential oils on uterus contraction indicates that they might be useful for control of uterus spasm. The spasmodic action of P. incarnata and C. sativus hydro-alcoholic extracts support suggestion that some materials in these plants can increase uterus spontaneous contraction. Therefore, these plant materials have the potential to induce early uterus contraction during the pregnancy [Sadraei et al, Int J Arom, 2003, 13(2-3), 121-127].




In Brief


Natural Product Radiance

Vol.3, January-February 2004, pp. 40


Melanin in the extracellular matrix of
fungus Botrytis cinerea


The composition of the extracellular matrix of germlings of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers. demonstrated the presence of carbohydrate, protein, and simple lipids; which, together, comprised 5060% of the dry weight. The remaining mass of the extracellular matrix consists of a chemically inert dark pigment with the electron paramagnetic resonance characteristics of a melanin. Melanin is an important component of the extracellular matrix of germlings of the fungus. This is the first report of a melanin present in the extracellular matrix of a plant pathogenic fungus (Doss et al, Phytochemistry, 2003, 63, 687-691)






Aamra 17

Aaru 29

Acorus calamus 19

Aedes 24

African palm oil 44

Agave 27

Almond 17

Aloe asava 18

Amaltas 16

Amla 16

Anacardium occidentale 31

Anopheles 24

Anthemis nobilis 38

Arista 16

Arjuna 17

Arjuna ksirapaka 17

Arjunarista 18

Arka 18

Asava 16

Ashwagandha 43

Asvagandha ksirapaka 17

Azadirachta indica 24, 26, 31

Azotobacter chroococcum 40


Bach 21

Bacillus coagulans 40

Bacillus licheniformis 40

Bacillus subtilis 40

Badam 17

Bamboo 40

Bambusa balcooa 40

Banafsha 18

Banafsha squash 18

Banana juice  45

Barley 17, 18

Barre sugnadhi 22

Basil 17

Bean 42, 45

Beet Root 41

Ber 28

Berberis integerrima 35

Betel nut 29

Black cumin 32

Black pepper 44

Bombax ceiba 40

Botrytis cinerea 40

Bruchid beetles 44

Buttermilk 17


Cabbage 42

Cajanus cajan 36

Calamus oil 20

Candida albicans 37

Canthium parviflorum 38

Caralluma attenuata 36

Cardamom 17, 18

Carrot 16, 18, 39, 41

Carum carvi 35

Cashew nut apple 31

Cassia occidentalis 44

Centella asiatica 24, 26

Cercospora beticola 31

Chandana 17

Chandana asava18

Chenopodium ambrosioides 32

Churned drink 17

Citrus reticulata 12

Citrus sinensis 12, 13

Citrus sp.12

Citrus unshiu 12

Clementine 15

Clementine mandarin 12

Cleome viscosa 36

Clove 32

Coco Cola 22

Coconut 31, 40, 44

Coriander hima 17

Coriandrum sativum 24, 25

Corn 44

Cotton 6, 29

Cottonseed oil 44

Cowpeas 44

Creeping Charley 21

Crocus sativus 35

Culex 24

Cumin 17

Curcuma longa 32

Curd 16, 17


Daincha 40

Date 18

Decalepis hamiltonii 22

Dendrocalamus strictus 40

Dhaniya hima 17

Draksarista 18

Dry Ginger 16, 17


Emblic Myrobalan 16

Eremostachys superba 21

Eryngium foetidum 24

Eucalyptus camaldulensis  40

Eucalyptus tereticornis 31

Eupatorium odoratum 24


False Rosewood Tree 34

Fennel 34

Fish 30

 Fish oil 40

Flax 29

Foeniculum vulgare 34

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dalbergiae 31


Gac 39

Garlic 27, 40, 42

Garlic ksirapaka 17

Giloe 16, 33

Giloy hima 17

Ginger 16, 17, 27

Ginger ksirapaka 17

Gliricidia 24

Golden Gram 16

Golden Shower 16

Grape 17, 18, 30, 37

Green Gram 16

Guduchi 33

Gulancha Tinospora 16

Gulancha Tinospora hima 17

Gumhar 18


Hemidesmus indicus 22

Henna 33

Hima kalpana 16, 17

Hippophae rhamnoides subsp.
sinensis 30

Honey 18

Horsegram 40

Hurhuria 36

Hyptis suaveolens 24-26


Iksu 18

Ilaichi 17

Imli 17

Indian Kino Tree hima 17

Indian Long Pepper ksirapaka 17

Indian Sarsaparilla 22

Iron asava 18


Jaggery 18

Jau 17

Jute 29



Kalajira 32

Kalonji 32

Kamila 44

Kanji 18

Karanj oil 40

Kashmarya 18

Kevara 18

Kigelia pinnata 34

Ksirapaka 16

Kumari asava 18

Kutajarista 18

Kutki 37

Kvatha 16


Lactobacillus plantarum 39

Laetisaria arvalis 31

Lantana camera 24

Lassi 17

Lasuna 17

Lawsonia alba 33

Lentil 17

Leucas aspera 24, 26

Lippia alba 32

Loha asava 18

Long pepper 44


Madhuka 18

Mahua oil 40

Maize 44

Malabar Nut 16

Mallotus  philippensis 44

Mango 17, 18

Mango panaka 17

Mantha 16, 17

Maredu kommulu 22

Maredugaddalu 22

Mastu 18

Meat 18

Mehndi 33

Melia azedarach 31

Mentha rotundifolia 24, 26

Mint 16

Momordica cochinchinensis 39

Mondia whitei 22

Morinda angustifolia 6

Munga 16

Murraya koenigii 24, 26

Muscadine grapes 30                                      

Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Myrobalans 16


Nannari 22

Navel orange 13, 15

Neem oil 40

Nigella sativa 32


Ocimum basilicum 24, 26

Ocimum sanctum 24, 26, 31

Onion 27

Orange 16, 17, 39


Palm oil 44

Panaka 16, 17

Paras-pipal 34

Parushaka 18

Passiflora incarnata 35

Peach 29

Peanut 44

Phalsa 18

Phanta kalpana 16, 17

Phaseolus vulgaris 44

Picrorhiza kurrooa 37

Pigeon Pea 36

Pilea nummulariifolia 21

Pineapple 17

Piper longum 44

Piper nigrum 44

Pippali ksirapaka 17

Plum leather 28

Plumeria bicolor 34

Pomegranate 16, 17

Pongamia 40

Pongamia pinnata 19

Portia Tree 34

Potato jam 28

Prosopis juliflora 31

Prunus persica 29

Pythium aphanidermatum 32

Pythium debaryanum 32


Radish 18

Ramie 29

Red palm weevil 31

Rhizoctonia solani 31

Rhynchophorus ferrugineus 31

Rice 18

Rice weevils 44

Roman chamomile 38

Rose 18

Rubia cordifolia 6


Safed Musli 44

Sandal wood 17, 18

Sandal wood asava 18

Sarasaparilla 22

Sarcostemma acidum 33

Sarcostemma brevistigma 33

Sarkara 16, 18

Satsuma 15

Satsuma mandarin 12

Sattu 17

Sattu masur 17

Saunf  34, 18

Seabuckthorn 30

Sharbat 16, 18

Sida acuta 24, 26

Solanum incanum  38

Solanum nigrum 24

Somlata 33

Sorbaria tomentosa 21

Sour vinegar 18

Soybean 44

Spinach 16, 42

Spiraea lindleyana 21

Strobilanthes ixiocephala 36

Sugandhapala 22

Sugar beets 31

Sugarcane 18

Sunthi 16, 17


Sweet flag 19

Syzygium aromaticum 32


Tamarind 17

Tea 17

Tectona grandis 6

Tephrosia purpurea 35

Terminalia chebula

Thelepaepale ixiocephala 36

Thespesia populnea 34

Thomson navel orange 12

Tinospora cordifolia 33

Tomato 16, 37, 42

Triphala 16

Triumfetta rhoimboidea 24- 26

Tulsi 17

Turmeric 32


Unshiu mandarin 12

Urena lobata 24, 26


Vanilla 22

Vanilla planifolia 22

Vasa 16

Vidangarista 18

Vijaysara 17

Vijaysara hima 17

Viola 18

Vitis rotundifolia 30

Vitis vinifera 30, 37


Waiti 36

Welwitschia mirabilis 21

Wrightia tinctoria 40


Yava 17

Yogurt 18


Zabrotes subfasciatus  44

Zataria multiflora 35

Ziziphus mauritiana 2